Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; Titus 2:13
ISRAEL'S ENSLAVEMENT AND PREPARATION
Ex. 1: 6–4: 31
GENERAL REMARKS. PHARAOH'S DESIGNS. MOSES' FIRST AND SECOND FORTY YEARS. TWO PHARAOHS. GOD'S COMMISSIONING MOSES. GOD'S NAME. THE MESSAGES TO ISRAEL AND PHARAOH. MOSES' HESITATION. A MOUTH PIECE. RETURN TO EGYPT.
BEFORE expounding Ex. 1: 6–15: 21, verse by verse, we desire to give a few explanations on the general typical and antitypical setting of the involved Scriptures, as a foundation on which to erect the details as these appear in the verses of the Bible's section under consideration. The time involved in the antitype is from the end of the flood until the Age following the little season at the Millennium's end. The bulk of the story (Ex. 1: 6–13: 22) is typical of conditions during the second evil world, i.e., from the end of the flood until the establishment of the earthly phase of the Kingdom. Ex. 14 to 15: 21 is typical of Millennial and post-Millennial conditions. Egypt, as a land, is typical of the second evil world—the order of affairs from the flood to the Millennium (Is. 10: 24-27; 19: 1-25; 27: 12, 13; 30: 2, 3, 31; Rev. 11: 8). Pharaoh, king of Egypt, types Satan as the god or prince of this world (Is. 19: 11; 30: 2, 3; John 12: 31; 14: 30; 15: 1; Eph. 2: 2). The Israelites represent those who were in the Patriarchal and Jewish Ages, or who have been in this Age, or who will in the next dispensation become God's people (Is. 8: 14; Gal. 6: 16; Jer. 31: 31-33; Hosea 11: 1; Matt. 19: 28). Israel's oppression represents the oppression of the race under the curse; their groans and cries represent those of the race under its rigors (Matt. 11: 28; Rom. 8: 20-22). The Egyptians represent Satan's servants, their nobles his fallen angels and his leaders among men, while the rest of the
Egyptians represent the generality of Satan's servants (Is. 19: 2, 4, 11-18; 20: 4; 30: 4-7; 31: 3). The taskmasters set over Israel by Pharaoh type sin, error and death, which have maltreated the race under the curse (1 Cor. 15: 24-26; Rev. 21: 4). These general considerations help us better to understand the setting of the whole antitype. We are now ready to study the details. To save space we will not quote the verses in full, but will give their number and make such allusions to them as will enable one who has his Bible open before him to connect our comments with their pertinent verses. We begin with Ex. 1: 6.
(2) The mention of Joseph's death and that of his generation (v. 6) is an indication of a change in the antitype of the following account from that connected with Joseph and his brethren. The great increase of the Israelites (v. 7) types the great increase of God's people in numbers, knowledge, grace and service, during the second evil world. During the Patriarchal Age God's people were few. Their increase antitypically began at the time of the typical increase of the Israelites in Egypt (v. 7), and has continued throughout the Jewish and Gospel Ages. It is especially during the latter Age that they filled the antitypical land (Christendom). Egypt's new Pharaoh (v. 8) not knowing Joseph types Satan in his capacity of not exercising affection for, and benefaction toward God's servants, not even for their most eminent ones. His rise represents Satan beginning a more oppressive policy toward God's people than that previously exercised; and this new policy in the antitype began with the oppression of fleshly Israel in Egypt and ended just before the serpent started to cast the flood out of his mouth to overwhelm the protesting Church, especially in France during the 18th century, by the so-called illumination. With the beginning of this so-called illumination Satan ceased (typed by the death of the Pharaoh of the oppression, Ex. 2: 23) using the hitherto accustomed gross oppressive methods and
changed his methods of gross superstition and violence into such as resembled more strongly those of angels of light, which has been his course increasingly since 1748 (P '30, 121, pars. 5, 6). For be it noted that the Pharaoh of the oppression was a different Pharaoh from the one of the Exodus. The italicized word are of v. 9 should be displaced by the words, are becoming. Pharaoh's telling the Egyptians of Israel's dangerous increase represents Satan's rousing the fears of the Egyptians, of the inhabitants of Canaan, of the nations surrounding Israel in Palestine, against true Israelites and their sympathizers, of the heathen nations against the early Christians and their sympathizers, of the sectarian papists against the saints and their sympathizers in the Dark Ages, of the sectarian Catholics against the reformation movements by individuals and their sympathizers and by sects and their sympathizers, and of the sectarian Protestants against God's servants in their midst. As Pharaoh sought to increase the jealous fears of the Egyptians against the Israelites by exaggeration of their relative numbers and power, so has Satan done in all the illustrations of the antitype given in the preceding sentence; though as to spiritual might the statement is true, which, however, was not Satan's thought.
(3) Pharaoh's counseling the Egyptians (v. 10) to adopt methods of decreasing the numbers and power of Israel types Satan's suggesting methods to his servants whereby the numbers and influence of God's people might be decreased. This began antitypically by Satan's suggesting the death of the Israelitish male children, continued by his suggesting the seduction of Israel from loyalty to God in the wilderness, under the judges, kings, elders, scribes, Pharisees, Sadducees, etc., especially aiming at the leaders in Israel by these seductions. He used this same principle on our Lord, the Twelve, the Seventy and subsequent leaders among God's people, as well as upon the rank and file of Christians. As in the type the intention of these suggestions
was to make Israel few, weak, subservient and enslaved in Egypt, and thus keep them from aiding and abetting the enemy, so in the antitype the intention of Satan's pertinent suggestions was to diminish, weaken, subject and enslave God's people of both Ages, so that they could not be of assistance to God in His assaults on Satan's empire, and thus be delivered from that empire.
(4) Pharaoh's first step in the oppression, involving the appointment of taskmasters over them to afflict them with hard labor, types Satan's increasing the power of sin, error and death, as the dying process, in their oppressive effects on God's people. There can be no doubt that the increase of the power of death as the dying process, in its effects on God's people was started by Satan through the Pharaoh of the oppression. The plagues of the wilderness experiences and the spread of disease, famine, calamities and wars as the Jewish Age went on, increased the rigors of the dying process. The greatly multiplied wars, revolutions, famines, pests, calamities, etc., of the Gospel Age, evidence the oppressive character of the taskmaster, death, on God's people. Sin began to oppress God's people especially during the wilderness journey and continued on this course all through the Jewish Age, their own and others' sins afflicting them. The multiplied sins of the Gospel Age, embracing the whole category of moral and religious evils, certainly increased the oppression of God's people by the taskmaster, sin. Again, error as a taskmaster oppressed them physically, mentally, artistically, morally and religiously. Satan already in the wilderness succeeded in infecting Israel with errors of the heathen, as the golden calf and the Baal Peor episodes prove. This increased during the period of the judges and during the reigns of certain kings of Israel and Judah. While with the exile idolatry ended in Israel, except during certain phases of the Syrian oppression under Antiochus Epiphanes, the errors of formalism, Pharisaism and
Sadducaism sprang up. The errors of the ever increasing apostacy oppressed God's people during the Gospel Age, reinforced by errors of Protestant sectarianism. How greatly have they been oppressed by the errors of the six Harvest siftings! It is almost impossible to overestimate the oppression of heart and mind among God's people by the three great errors of creedal trinity, human immortality and eternal torment, not to mention the mass and its appurtenances, penance, celibacy of priests, monks and nuns, and the Divine right of clergy, kings and aristocrats, with Calvinistic predestinationism thrown in for good measure. Certainly the above proves by facts that the race's taskmasters have been sin, error and death.
(5) The Israelites' building Pithom (city or house of the setting sun) and Raamses (sun born) represent respectively God's people of the Jewish Age building the Nominal Jewish Church, which was supposed to put Baal, the sun god (Satan), into decline, and God's people of the Gospel Age building the Nominal Christian Church, which is really of Satanic origin, the sun god. The typical cities' being called treasure or store cities represents the facts that the Nominal Jewish Church was the store or treasure city of Jewish creedal teachings, and that the Nominal Christian Church was the store or treasure city of Christian creedal teachings. As Israel increased (v. 12) as the oppression increased, so Satan's continual efforts to overthrow God's people of both Ages resulted in their increased growth in numbers, knowledge, grace and service, as is witnessed by the reformations strengthening both Israels after severe experiences or lapses, and e.g., the fact expressed by the words, "The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church" (Rom. 8: 28; 2 Cor. 4: 16-18). As such typical increase grieved the Egyptians, especially Pharaoh, so the antitypical growth has grieved Satan and his servants. As the Israelites' increase influenced the Egyptians to increase the Israelites' burdens, (v. 13), so in both Ages the growth
of God's people as above indicated incited Satan and his servants to greater oppression and persecution, as is seen by the ever increasing burdens of the curse in the progress of the two involved Ages. Certainly God's people had very hard experiences in both Ages (v. 14) with the antitypical mortar (sin), brick (error), and field work (death). These hard experiences tested them to the utmost at times.
(6) Shiphrah (beauty; v. 15) types the Nominal Jewish Church and Puah (splendor) types the Nominal Christian Church. As midwives assist mothers in labor and after the birth of a child, so the antitypical Shiphrah as an antitypical midwife assisted the Old Testament Truth and its servants, the antitypical mother among God's Jewish-Age people, to develop fleshly Israel's leaders (sons) and non-leaders (daughters); and so antitypical Puah as an antitypical midwife assisted the Gospel-Age Truth and its servants, the antitypical mother of God's Gospel-Age people, to develop spiritual Israel's leaders (sons) and non-leaders (daughters). As Pharaoh spoke to Shiphrah and Puah to enlist them in the furtherance of his wicked designs, so Satan has done to the Nominal Jewish and Christian Churches. Pharaoh's charge to them (v. 16) to kill the male babes when performing their mid-wifely duties, types Satan's charge to the Nominal Jewish and Christian Churches to cut off from fellowship and service the newly developed leaders at the outstart of their activities. To the credit of both Nominal Churches (v. 17) this was not done, though they often did this with well developed leaders among God's two Israels, e.g., Saul with David, Jehoiakin and Zedekiah with Jeremiah, the papacy with Berengar of Tours, Peter Abelard. etc., Their saving such alive is beautifully illustrated, e.g., in Eli's care for the boy Samuel, in the support of many Israelites given to David in his troubles with Saul, etc., and in the encouragement that leaders like Luther, Cranmer, Wesley, etc., found in the nominal church at the
time of their budding into leadership. Pharaoh's calling the midwives to task (v. 18) for sparing the Israelite male babes types Satan's upbraiding through his servants the members of both Israels who helped the budding leaders. Satan's stirring up Saul's displeasure at the women acclaiming David above him, at Jonathan, at the priests of Nob and at David's soldiers for supporting him, are examples of the antitype of Pharaoh's upbraiding Shiphrah. The papacy's anger at, and reprisals against Christian rulers and subjects for "sheltering heretics," e.g., against Frederick the Wise and the Saxons at their beginnings of protecting Luther, against the council and citizens of Zurich at their beginnings of sheltering Zwingli, etc., are antitypical of Pharaoh's upbraiding Puah. And many of us more or less know from experience how we were encouraged to go onward in Christian service by nominal-church people, as we were showing the first signs of special activity.
(7) The midwives' answer (v. 19) was no false evasion. Even to this day ease and rapidity in delivery mark Jewish mothers at the time of their travail. Antitypically this shows how suddenly the Old Testament Truth and servants brought leaders into prominence, as can be seen in the suddenness with which the prophets were inducted into the prophet office. Samuel, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Elijah, John the Baptist, etc., are good examples of this from fleshly Israel. Jesus, the Apostles, the members of the six stars after the Apostles, are further examples. We might instance Luther as a splendid illustration, suddenly arising as a full-fledged reformer. Our Pastor is another example to the point, suddenly becoming as a young man, without high school, college or seminary training, a full-fledged leader. The creed theories and practices and the servants of these are the antitypical Egyptian mothers. The Egyptian mothers having long and hard labor in delivery type how it takes years to train the leaders, among Satan's servants. They must have long training in higher institutions of
learning, then serve a long apprenticeship as subordinates, before they become leaders. On the contrary, before the Nominal Jewish and Christian Churches became aware of the budding of a leader in both real Israels, they sprang forth from the Truth and its servants full-fledged, as was typed by the Israelitish mothers' bearing without the assistance or knowledge of Shiphrah and Puah. God's dealing well (v. 20) with these two midwives types God's prospering and blessing the nominal fleshly and spiritual Israels as Churches for such antitypical care of the budding leaders of both Israels (Ps. 45: 9). This good dealing on God's part with the midwives, resulting in Israel's greater increase, types how his dealing in blessing with the two antitypical nominal Churches resulted in increased growth for God's people in both Ages. This piety toward God manifested by the two nominal Churches, resulting in their coming under God's protection, and other blessings, is the antitype of the reverence of the two midwives receiving houses from God.
(8) Pharaoh's charge (v. 22) that the Hebrew baby boys be cast into the river types Satan's charge to drown the budding leaders in fleshly and spiritual Israel in heathenism and worldliness. The river here is the Nile and in this place types the peoples in harmony with the present evil world. Satan's first effort, of having the Nominal Jewish and Christian Churches cut off from fellowship and service the budding leaders of God's people in both Ages, failing, he resorted to another subtle method of destroying them, i.e., he sought to drown them in secular and false religious pursuits. During the Jewish Age he sought to do this by introducing heathen secularism and religions into Israel. Hence the efforts during the period of the judges and the kings to introduce the worship of Baal, Asteroth, Moloch, etc., into Israel; hence the efforts to conquer and overrun Israel by nations near and far during these periods; hence the efforts to introduce the manners, systems and customs
of the surrounding nations, with all their degrading and debasing superstitions and immoralities. Failing after many centuries in this effort, he changed his tactics; and during the Greek and Roman ascendancies he sought to Grecianize and Romanize them. One of the most pointed of these efforts occurred under Antiochus Epiphanes, who by torture and death sought forcibly to pervert the Jews, to destroy the Jewish temple service and turn it into an idolatrous one, even offering swine's blood on the brazen altar and erecting Zeus' image in the holy of holies, which provoked the Maccabean revolt, whereby the Greeks were driven out, after many Jews, including a high priest, had become Greek in belief and manners. But in this Satan was foiled. The newly budding leaders were not drowned in worldliness; for whatever was the character of Jewish formality, it successfully beat down the effort to heathenize Israel.
(9) But Satan's master effort along this line was reserved for the Gospel Age. Soon, through the falling away already working in St. Paul's day (2 Thes. 2: 7), Satan sought to make the Church worldly and gradually introduced such changed teachings, practices and sentiments that by about 315 A. D. it was considered the proper thing to unite the Roman Empire and the church, which union was followed by the debasing and secularizing spirit, teachings and practices implied in such a union. In Rev. 17, 18 and 19 this union of church and state—symbolic fornication—is blamed for all the false doctrines, worldly practices and secular spirit that, like a foul flood, overflowed the church nominal. This made it possible to introduce all the essential theoretical and practical elements of heathen religions under Christian names into the church nominal and enthrone the papacy, the man of sin in the Church. And without any doubt this did result in making the nominal church Babylon. But it failed of Satan's purpose to drown in worldliness the newly budding leaders of God's people. The pagan
persecutions of the first four centuries of our era had the same purpose in view. Yea, in spite of these, and just on account of them, faithful leaders were raised up and led such movements as God designed. As Pharaoh charged his people, not any more the Hebrew midwives, to carry out the cruel edict in the type, so Satan by the spirit that he aroused in the persecuting pagan Roman empire and in the church nominal by the evils attendant on, and resulting from, the union of church and state, called on all his servants to drown the oncoming leaders of the people of God among the peoples, in the sense of making them worldly, and thus a part of the people in harmony with the present evil world. All through the Gospel Age this has been done, not only in the Greek and Roman churches, but also in the Protestant churches. And even in our day this same spirit is manifest in the combinationism and reformism sifting, the charge being made to all Pharaoh's people, and not to Shiphrah and Puah, typing the fact that not by the Jewish and Christian churches nominal, as such, did Satan seek to drown the budding servants of God among the peoples in secularism, but by all individuals who were his servants, through their examples, teachings and influence. He did not care so much what became of the non-leaders, female babes, since he knew that if the budding leaders were drowned in worldliness, he had nothing to fear for his empire from the non-leaders, even as in the type Pharaoh was concerned, not for the baby daughters of Israel, but for the baby sons. This concludes our study of Ex. 1: 6-22.
(10) We now take up our study of Ex. 2, which will bring some more interesting things to view. As the key to the chapter lies in the typical significance of Moses, we give this matter our first attention. Generally Moses is a type of our Lord. This is entirely the case in the Exodus history, as the following consideration will prove: As Israel was baptized into Moses, so are we into Christ (1 Cor. 10: 1, 2; Rom.
6: 3, 5). As Moses led Israel to Canaan, so Christ leads us to the heavenly Canaan (Heb. 3: 1—4: 3). As Moses was tried by fleshly Israel, so Christ has been tried by spiritual Israel (1 Cor. 10: 9). Moses' rejecting Egyptianism and espousing Israelism types Christ's rejecting worldliness and espousing spiritual Israelism. Moses' instituting the typical Passover types our Lord's instituting the antitypical Passover (Heb. 11: 24-28). Accordingly, Moses in the Exodus history types our Lord. This fact is the key to the antitype of the history given in Ex. 1 to 15; and by this key we can by God's grace unlock the whole section; type and antitype, and thus gain access to a most beautifully built and furnished antitypical house. If Moses (drawn, i.e., from the waters), types Christ, then his father Amram (high people; v. 1, compare with Ex. 6: 20) represents God as our Lord's Father in His humanity, so far as this type is concerned. Jochebed (glorified), Moses' mother (Ex. 6: 20), for the purposes of Moses' begettal and birth, types (1) the promises of Jesus' being made a full-fledged member of Israel, and (2) the servants who ministered them. These promises would include those of the seed of the woman (Gen. 3: 15), of Abraham (Gen. 22: 16-18), of Isaac (Gen. 21: 12), of Jacob (Gen. 28: 14), of Judah (Gen. 49: 10), of David (Acts 2: 30), etc., as well as those that spoke of His birth (Is. 7: 14-16; 9: 6; Mic. 5: 2; etc.,). The servants who ministered these promises would include the persons named in the foregoing sentence, also Moses and the prophets who spoke of Jesus' introduction into Israel as a member of that nation, as well as Mary, Joseph, the shepherds, the wise men, Simeon and Anna. One may wonder why we include in the mother Joseph, the shepherds, the wise men, Simeon and Anna. We reply, One was not considered a full member of Israel at his birth, nor even at his circumcision, but only onward from his presentation on the 40th day to the
Lord in the temple, and all of these ministered in connection with the involved acts and events.
(11) From this it will be seen that we do not consider Moses' (v. 2) birth to be fully antityped by Jesus' birth; rather we consider Moses' birth to type the following acts: Jesus' conception, development as an embryo, birth, circumcision and presentation in the temple. Joseph, etc., ministering in these connections, would thus be a part of the antitypical mother. Accordingly, Amram's begetting Moses types God's giving the promises as to Jesus' becoming a full member of Israel. Jochebed's (glorified, i.e., honored by such uses) conceiving and developing Moses types the servants of the promises receiving them and developing them to a completion for the introduction of Jesus as a full member of Israel. Moses' fine features and exceptional precociousness from his birth on until he was three months old, type our Lord's splendid qualities of body, heart and mind from His temple presentation until His twelfth year. As a perfect babe, child and boy, our Lord, of course, manifested altogether exceptionally fine physical, mental, artistic, moral and religious qualities increasingly during these twelve years, the antitype of the three months of Moses' hiding. The hiding of Moses types the protection that Joseph, Mary and the wise men afforded the babe Jesus against Herod's and his son's wrath, which included the wise men's departing for their home by another way than by way of Jerusalem, the flight of Joseph and Mary to Egypt with the Babe, their abiding there until Herod's death, their turning away from Bethlehem of Judea to Nazareth of Galilee for an abiding place, to be out of the near jurisdiction of Archelaus, Herod's son, and their keeping Him close to Nazareth until his 12th year. Jochebed's inability (v. 3) to hide Moses longer than three months, probably due to his precocity in beginning to walk and talk, types the fact that, as at the twelfth year an Israelitish boy was expected, while approaching his
confirmation age (13 years), to show his interest in, and zeal for God and God's religion, Jesus at twelve should appear before the Lord at the three great Jewish festivals, Passover, Pentecost and the Feast of Tabernacles, where His religious walking and talking should begin. The ark of bulrushes, made waterproof, types the careful religious teaching and character training that Mary, Joseph, the Nazareth rabbi, Levites, etc., bestowed upon the boy Jesus, especially as he was approaching his twelfth year, preparing Him to mingle among the people (waters of the Nile) without contamination or danger to His character and knowledge. The putting of Moses into the ark types Jesus' being put into such training and teaching. Jochebed's putting the child among the flags by the river's brink types Joseph's, Mary's and their other relatives' bringing Jesus to the temple among the more religious, and hence to Jesus the less dangerous of the peoples. Miriam's watching the outcome (v. 4) types the interest of Mary and Joseph in the outcome of Jesus' first visit to the temple and of His mingling among the Jews there gathered.
(12) Jewish sectarianism, like all sectarianism among God's two Israels, is of Satanic origin, and as such is the antitype of Pharaoh's daughter (v. 5). Her maidens type the servants of Jewish sectarianism: the Pharisees as a body, the Scribes as a body, the Sadducees as a body, the Essenes as a body, the Herodians as a body, etc., Her coming to wash herself at the river types Jewish sectarianism seeking to cleanse itself before and among the peoples, especially at Jerusalem, its capital, and a place of concourse of many peoples; for Jewish sectarianism sought to justify—wash— itself before and among the peoples at the time when Jesus was twelve years old. The above-mentioned servants of Jewish sectarianism co-operated in this work, typed by the princess being accompanied by her maidens along the river side. Jewish sectarianism caught sight of the characteristics of mind and
heart in the boy Jesus in the temple, mingling with other Jews at Jerusalem, by certain of its representatives, typed by the princess seeing the ark floating in the river among the flags, whose being in the shallow water types the Jews as being on the fringe of the peoples of the present evil world at that time. The maid that the princess sent to get the ark types the elders as a body, in those of their number with whom Jesus communed the three days in the temple. The sectarianism of Israel's elders then as a body is well known; and their sectarian principles, the pertinent teachings of Jewish sectarianism, put them on the watch for just such promising boys as Jesus was; and it took but a little time for their sectarian desires to be inflamed to seek to secure him for their school of thought and practice. The princess opening the ark types Jewish sectarianism in those scribes questioning Jesus as to His beliefs and life, which gave them some insight into His development in these two particulars ("say the child"). As 95 percent of a babe's cries are for food, so the weeping of the babe Moses types our Lord's great hunger for Truth, the food for His holy heart and mind, evidenced by His eager listening to the elders and asking them questions, as well as answering them. As Moses' weeping touched the heart of the princess, so Jesus' hunger for Truth displayed in His questions, answers and attention, touched the hearts of sectarianism, as represented in the scribes with whom Jesus studied those three days. The princess' recognizing Moses as a Hebrew boy types the fact that Jewish sectarianism, as represented in those scribes, recognized Jesus as a fine example of a boy who was as such an Israelite indeed.
(13) As Miriam (v. 7) then appeared on the scene with the offer of securing a Hebrew nurse for Moses for the princess, so at the end of Jesus' three days' study Mary and Joseph appeared on the scene on the lookout for Jesus. The scribes, who doubtless arranged for Jesus' meals and lodging during those three
days, would have been glad to continue this indefinitely. But, corresponding to Miriam's suggestion of securing a Hebrew nurse for Moses, it was Mary's and Joseph's suggestion that Jesus' further training be continued as it was before, and that, henceforth for Jewish sectarianism, in its scribe representatives. The scribes' consenting to this antitypes the consent of the princess to Miriam's suggestion (v. 8). Jochebed being asked to be the nurse types the foregoing persons being called providentially further to train Jesus. The princess' giving the charge to Moses' mother (v. 9) to nurse the child for her, types Jewish sectarianism giving up Jesus to the above-described antitypical mother for nurturing in the reverence and admonition of the Lord in its interests. The wages offered Moses' mother represents the benefits that Jewish sectarianism conferred upon the antitypical mother; for doubtless frequently the princess in her interest in the child visited Moses during his nursing time and bestowed wages on his mother, as doubtless at later (unrecorded) visits of Mary, Joseph and Jesus to the temple, where in fulfilment of the law they were to appear three times a year (Passover, Pentecost and the Feast of Tabernacles), Jewish sectarianism showed its interest in the developing of Jesus and bestowed honors (wages) on the trainers of such a fine boy and youth. Mary, Joseph and others taking Jesus to Nazareth where He could be nurtured further as an Israelite indeed by the antitypical mother (Mary, Joseph, His teachers, rabbi, etc.,) and where, as elsewhere in Galilee, the sectarianism of Judea and Jerusalem was in a measure absent, antitypes Moses' mother consenting to become the proposed nurse. Moses' growing (v. 10) types our Lord's youthful development in wisdom and favor with God and man (Luke 2: 52).
(14) As we pointed out in Isaac's case (P '24, 142, par. 4), who was nursed until he was five years old, doubtless the oriental custom of nursing the only or the youngest son for five years was carried out
in Moses' case; for Moses' religious training by his mother and father, which kept him, amid Egypt's idolatry, in the faith of Israel, could hardly have ceased much earlier than that, to implant Israel's religion in his heart and mind with such strength as made him during his stay at Pharaoh's court, until his 40th year, imperviable to the influences of the idolatry universally practiced about him. Doubtless during these 35 years his mother from time to time visited him and reminded him of the ancestral faith. The nursing time of Jesus, antitypical of Moses' nursing time for Pharaoh's daughter, was from His 12th to His 20th year, when entering manhood's age from the standpoint of His being of Judah, i.e., a member of a non-sacred (non-Levite) tribe. His attaining the age of 20 made Him a full-voting member of the synagogue, with all the responsibilities of such membership. At that time, as the antitype of Moses' being brought to the princess after his nursing was over, Jesus was brought to Jewish sectarianism; and His being accepted as a son of it, corresponds to Moses' being adopted by the princess. The meaning of the name Moses (drawn) not only fits the typical owner of that name, as drawn by the princess out of the water, but types our Lord's being drawn by Jewish sectarianism away from the peoples; for Jewish sectarianism sought to keep Israelites away from the heathen peoples.
(15) Moses at 40 visited his people (v. 11), and defended one of them from oppression. St. Paul (Heb. 11: 24-26) refers to this as a renunciation of the princess as his mother and his preferring Christ's (typical) reproaches and affliction with God's people rather than Egypt's pleasures, sins and riches. This, then, connects typically Moses' involved experiences with our Lord's ministry, throughout which Jesus declined to obey Jewish sectarianism, renounced it as His symbolic mother. Moses' being fully developed at that time types our Lord's full manhood's perfection when He began His ministry. As Moses came to his brethren in
their affliction, so Jesus by His ministry visited mankind with help in its affliction. As Moses compassionately watched the burdens of Israel, so Jesus compassionately viewed the heavy burdens under which Satan made mankind labor under the curse in physical, mental, artistic, moral and religious respects. Moses' seeing an Egyptian taskmaster smite an Israelite types our Lord's recognizing sin, the worst of antitypical Egypt's taskmasters, afflicting mankind. Moses' slaying (v. 12) the taskmaster types our Lord's slaying sin in His own life and sacrificially slaying it for mankind. Moses' doing this secretly, so far as the Egyptians were concerned, types our Lord's doing the involved two things without Satan's servants' knowing of it at the time. Moses' hiding the taskmaster's body in the sand types our Lord's putting sin away by obliterating its power to condemn us before God. Thus in vs. 11, 12 those aspects of Jesus' ministry are brought typically to our attention which relate to His compassion for mankind because of the burdens of the curse and the active measures He took for mankind against sin as man's chief despoiler.
(16) Another aspect of His ministry is typically set forth in vs. 13 and 14, indicated by the words, "when he went out the second day." The two Hebrew men of v. 13 represent two classes in Israel during our Lord's ministry: on the one hand, the clergy party—the Sadducees, the Pharisees and Scribes, and on the other hand, the laity, especially the publicans and sinners, these two classes being respectively represented by the elder son and the younger son of the Prodigal Son Parable. Their striving together represents the contention of these two classes with each other. The Hebrew that wronged his brother types the clergy party, which very unjustly wronged the laity, especially the publicans and sinners in Israel. Moses' reproving the wronging Hebrew types our Lord's reproving the Sadducees, Scribes and Pharisees for their wronging the laity, especially the publicans
and sinners in Israel. Such reproofs of Jesus against the Sadducees, Scribes and Pharisees can be found in the parables of the Prodigal Son and of the Pharisee and the publican praying in the temple, in Jesus' faulting Simon for faulting the sinner who washed His feet with her tears and wiped them with her hair, and especially in His denunciation of them in Matt. 23. The wronging Hebrew's rejection of Moses types the clergy party's rejection of our Lord even unto death, as Steven suggests (Acts 7: 35); for these considered Jesus to be seeking their destruction as a class ("Wilt thou kill me, etc.,?"), which they construed from the large following that He gained to their loss, as well as from His opposition to their course. Moses' fearing that his killing of the Egyptian had become public types our Lord's fear amid His temptations (the wilderness, Gethsemane) that Satan's and his servants' opposition to His sin-obliterating activity was making public (contrary to His efforts at concealment) His Messianic work as sin's killer, to His so great disadvantage that He trembled at the thought of the consequent increased opposition as being too much for Him to bear, as e.g., His Gethsemane experience shows. Pharaoh's hearing of the killing (v. 15) types Satan's learning through his failure to induce Jesus to sin and to dissuade Him from sacrifice, that Jesus was slaying sin in His personal contact with, and in His sacrifice for it. Pharaoh's seeking to slay Moses for this deed types Satan's efforts, culminating in the crucifixion, against our Lord to make Him sin and thus die as a sinner. Moses' escape types our Lord as a new creature triumphing unto the death of His humanity and unto the resurrection of His divinity. Moses' going to Midian represents our Lord's ascent to heaven. The well at which Moses sat represents the Old Testament as the then depository of the Truth—water of life. His sitting down there represents our Lord's occupying Himself with the Old Testament teachings through the ministry of the Apostles and
other Truth servants from Pentecost on to the end of the Jewish Harvest—33 to 69 A. D.
(17) The priest (v. 16) of Midian, Reuel (friend of God), and Jethro (excellency), types God: Jethro, as the God of wisdom and justice, and Reuel, as the God of love and power. His seven (number of Divine completeness) daughters, as shepherdesses, represent the totality of God's real servants in Israel, while not yet converted to Christianity. Their shepherdizing Reuel's flocks types how such real servants of God in a non-Christian state sought to give whatever of Truth they could get from the Old Testament to such Israelites as were amenable to their ministry. Their drawing the water from the wells types such Israelitish Truth servants studying and learning Old Testament matters, and making them their own. Their filling the trough represents such completely preparing their lessons on Old Testament teachings, that they might give them to those whom they were shepherdizing. The shepherds (v. 17) that drove them away were the Scribes, Pharisees and Sadducees—the Jewish clergy—who sectarianly opposed the real Israelitish servants of the Old Testament Truth then due to the unconverted Israelites indeed. One of the ways these evil shepherds used thereto was inculcation of error; another was inculcation of human traditions; another was slander; another was oppositional propaganda. Moses' resisting the shepherds types our Lord through the Apostles and other Truth servants' refuting and reproving the tyrannous clergy in Israel. Moses' helping Reuel's daughters types Jesus' giving the elements of Christianity through the Apostles, etc., to such Israelitish Truth servants in opposition to the Jewish clergy. Moses' watering their flocks types Jesus' through the Apostles, etc., giving elementary Christian teachings to the followers of such Israelitish Old Testament Truth servants. This antitype worked as the first stage of Christian propaganda activity toward Israelites indeed from Pentecost to the end of
the Jewish Harvest and at this stage of affairs it left the recipients of such ministries unconverted. Their conversion and consecration are typed in vs. 18-20.
(18) Reuel's question (v. 18) suggests that his daughters usually were slow in accomplishing their shepherdizing work, typical of the fact that the Jewish servants of the Old Testament made very slow progress with their following. Their finishing quickly that day types the fact that under Christian Truth help they made rapid progress in their work. Reuel's asking the question types God's raising in the minds of true Israelites the question as to the reason of their gaining rapid and fruitful results in their work. The answer (v. 19) of Reuel's daughters types the fact that such Israelites recognized before God the help they got from Jesus through the Apostles, etc., Reuel's putting the questions of v. 20 to his daughters types God's rousing in the minds of the Israelites indeed, as Old Testament Truth servants, thoughts tending to the conversion and consecration of such. The first question (Where is he?) suggested to such Israelites the consideration of Christ's office. The second question (Why have ye left the man [without inviting him in])? typically suggests to such Israelites the impropriety of not accepting Christ and consecrating themselves to Him. This becomes apparent from the statement, "Behold, I stand at the door and knock; if any man hear My voice and open the door, I will come in to him and will sup with him and he with Me" (Rev. 3: 20). The charge (Call him, that he may eat bread) types God's exhortation to such Israelites to be converted and to consecrate (Acts 3: 17; Rom. 12: 1). Their calling, inviting, him in types the conversion and their receiving him types the consecration of such Israelites. His supping with them types Jesus' fellowshipping with such consecrated ones in the Spirit, Word and providences of God. Moses' being pleased to dwell with Reuel (v. 21) types our Lord's satisfaction at His union in heaven with the