Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13


340 Ulfilas continues to prepare himself for converting the Visigoths to Arianism.

4/14 J. seeks to enlist Sr. Wilson to do his follow-up work regularly.


341 Ulfilas is consecrated missionary bishop to the Visigoths to convert them to Arianism.

4/15 J. receives the privilege of conforming follow-up colporteurs to Bro. Russell's methods. Sr. Wilson accepts J.'s pertinent offer.


348 Ulfilas begins his work among the Visigoths.

4/22 J. assures Sr. Wilson that Bro. Russell approved her doing J.'s follow-up work.


355 Pagan Visigoths violently persecute Ulfilas and his converts.

4/29 In certain quarters violent objection is raised against J.'s being "followed up" by colporteurs.


359 Ulfilas begins translating the Bible into Gothic, inventing the Gothic alphabet therefore.

5/3 J. gives Sr. Wilson certain pertinent instruction as he for the first time uses her in his follow-up work under Bro. Russell's appointment.


362 Christian theologians debate the views of Julian the Apostate, the former barely defeating the latter in public.

5/6 The Tabernacle elders discuss Bro. Eddington's views on textbookism and Berean studies, and barely defeat them in argument and vote.


378 Emperor Valens is defeated by the Goths after their conversion to Arianism.

5/22 Menta Sturgeon, in charge of the pilgrim department at Brooklyn, receives a defeat on public meetings by J.'s colporteur claims.


379 Theodosius becomes emperor, adopting other tactics with the Goths, who seek to increase their conversionist work, and that against the emperor's wishes.

5/23 Menta Sturgeon changes tactics with colporteurs, whose conversionist activities are sought to be increased by J.'s seeking to secure Sr. C. White as a companion for Sr. Wilson,



against Menta Sturgeon's wishes


381 Council of Constantinople decrees the deity of the Holy Spirit, thus completing the i doctrine of the trinity.

5/25 J.F.R., the three British  managers and others assert the implied coexistence,

consubstantiality and coequality of the W.T.B. & T.S., the I.B.S.A. and the P.P.A.


A few remarks additional to those made before, when introducing the parallel Gospel Ages, will help us better to understand their foregoing features. The parallels so far compared with one another have as the key that unlocks them the thought of the falling away (1) in the form of church organization: bishops as distinct from the presbyters, and the clergy as distinct from the laity, (2) in the form of doctrine, especially as this concerns the trinity, and (3) in the form of practice, especially in executiveness. The chief of these three is the apostacy on trinitarianism. In the Small Miniature the W.T.B.&T.S. corresponds to the Father, the I.B.S.A. to the Son and the P.P.A. to the Holy Spirit. With several exceptions, wherein J.F.R.'s acts parallel those of the Bishop of Rome, the acts that parallel the apostatizing acts involved in the development of trinitarianism were wrought by what we may term the Hemery-Shearno-Crawfordistic movement that increasingly developed the theory of the always implied existence of the I.B.S.A. in the W.T.B.&T.S. (the Son's coeternity with the Father), its essential being (the Father's and the Son's consubstantiality) and its equality (the Father's and the Son's equality) with the W.T.B.&T.S. The Hemery-Shearno-Crawfordistic movement's policies of dealing with the dividing up of the London Tabernacle and the relations of the three churches to the two involved corporations, took such turns as increasingly implied that the I.B.S.A.'s existence was always implied in the existence of the W.T.B.&T.S., the older of the two corporations, that it was substantially



the same corporation as the W.T.B.&T.S. and that it was its equal in position, power and honor. With this view J. Hemery agreed. This view was the basis of their revolutionisms in the London Bethel and Tabernacle matters. Later they accepted the same views as to the relation of the P.P.A. to these two corporations, a view that J.F.R. first developed.


When the source of their revolutionary acts is recognized to be their false theories as to the relations of these three corporations, the development of these false theories will readily be seen to parallel exactly in act and time the development of trinitarianism; for the varied development of these false theories on the relation of these corporations proved to be the bases of the varied steps taken in breaking up the London Tabernacle members into three actual ecclesias. Had J. Hemery, H.J. Shearn and W. Crawford remained loyal to the priority, essential separateness and superiority of the W.T.B.&T.S. to the I.B.S.A., they would have accepted the former's policy (Bro. Russell's policy) to keep the London Tabernacle intact as the one Truth Church in London as dominating the situation, and would not have acted out theories that contradicted the former's priority, essential separateness and superiority over the latter, just as trinitarianism would not have been developed had the Father's sole eternity, sole substantial deity and sole supremacy been maintained. Their false theories on the relations of these two (and the later three) corporations are the point of contact that shows the parallels as to trinitarianism in the Gospel Age and in its Small Miniature, from 205 to 381 A.D. in the former, and from Dec. 1, 1915, to May 25, 1916, in the latter, clericalism marking the time from 95 to 202 A.D. in the former, and from Aug. 13 to Nov. 28, 1915 in the latter. The unfaithfulness of the involved managers, etc., made them amenable to uses parallel to those that Satan made of the apostates of the first four centuries of the Gospel Age. My soul, walk carefully!



381 Ulfilas, Arian missionary and converter of the Visigoths, sickens and dies at Constantinople.

5/25 J.'s relation to the colporteurs changes, in his being appointed to the general introduction of the Pastoral work.


382 Theodosius conciliates the Goths, enrolls many of them in his army and advances their leaders.

5/26 Menta Sturgeon slackens the zeal of the follow-up colporteurs, directing them to ends that he desired.


385 Visigoths exercise more or less wavering in their loyalty to Theodosius.

5/29 Srs. Wilson and White, more or less wavering in loyalty to Menta Sturgeon, join J. for the Baltimore follow-up work.


386 The Ostrogoths attempt to invade Theodosius' territory and meet a repulse.

5/30 J.'s first Pastoral work lecture (at Baltimore) is unsuccessful in results.


388 The Vandals, certain Visigoths and Alani begin their relations, which in time grew into a plan to invade Gaul. Jovinian preaches and writes against the Church's rising formalism, asceticism and reliance on external good works.

6/1 With his sending word to Philadelphia of its follow-up workers' and Sr. Sanford's coming, the last for the Pastoral work, J. henceforth devotes his extra time to the Pastoral work. Bro. Russell speaks and writes against formalism, self-torture and external good works as meritorious.


395 Arcadius, Eastern Emperor, lowers the wages of the Goths; the Visigoths rebel thereat.

6/8 Menta Sturgeon makes conditions harder for J.'s follow-up colporteurs, after their ill success at Philadelphia, which dissatisfies them.


400 Visigoths under Aleric invade Italy.

6/13 Follow-up colporteurs write to headquarters on unsatisfactoriness of their work, in view of the harder conditions imposed upon them.



400-415 Tichonius in the controversy between the Catholics (led by Augustine) and the Donatists (led by Petilian) on the nature of the true Church, sets forth the truth that lies in the middle of these two extremes, i.e., the distinction between the Real and the Nominal Church.

6/13–6/28 Bro. Russell writes much on the distinction between the Little Flock and Great Company, as can be seen in the July and August Towers, and in sermons indicated the same as against those who took opposite extremes on the nature of the true Church.


402 Visigoths defeated in Italy by Stilicho.

6/15 Headquarters turn down the suggestions of the follow-up colporteurs.


406 Vandals (this word means travelers, pilgrims) invade Gaul with allies from three Germanic tribes, the Alani, Suevi and Burgundians.

6/19 From Brooklyn J. starts a New England pilgrim trip, with regular and special Pastoral workers and prospective Pastoral workers.


A few remarks on the relations of the Germanic nations and the Roman world will clarify some of the above, as well as some of the following points. The Germanic nations before invading the Roman Empire were in almost all cases Arian Christians, the heathen Franks at the time of their invading Gaul being the most notable exception to this rule. These Arian nations parallel various harvest branch workers loyal to the Lord's arrangements, while the various Roman nations represent various harvest branch workers more or less disloyal to the harvest arrangements. The conversion of such Arian Christian nations to Catholicism parallels the transition of those who stood for the Lord's arrangements to espousing or submitting to revolutionistic arrangements. E.g., the Visigoths parallel the colporteurs, especially the follow-up colporteurs; the Ostrogoths those in executive ways loyal to the Lord's arrangements; the Franks the Society Board; the emperors at Constantinople and their special representatives in state or army those in an executive deputyship who were more or less disloyal to the



Lord's arrangements; the Vandals the faithful pilgrims; and the Longobards the supporters of Bro. Russell's arrangements, the real opponents of J.F.R.'s usurpations in Society matters. The kings of these Arian nations, except those of the Visigoths, parallel Bro. Russell, until his death. Accordingly, the territories of these Arian nations parallel the sphere of the pertinent branch workers; and their invasions of the Roman Empire parallel the various branch workers' opposing the movements away from the Lord's arrangements. Greece parallels the sphere of more or less deputy executive unfaithfulness; Italy the sphere of executiveness proper; France the sphere of the Board; Spain, after its invasion by the Visigoths, the sphere of the colporteurs; and North Africa the sphere of conventions; Britain later became the sphere of the pilgrims' activities. These and other features will come out as we go on. If the friends had a good Church History, e.g., Kurtz' three-volume Church History, which can frequently be bought in second-hand book stores for $1.50, they will be able better to profit from these parallels. With these few clarifying remarks we proceed with the parallels:


408 The second Visigothic invasion of Italy.

6/21 Follow-up colporteurs report unfavorably to headquarters on the work while at Cromwell, Conn.


409 The Vandals invade Spain.

6/22 Bro. Russell at St. Louis criticizes colporteur zeallessness, which arouses them to greater zeal.


410 Alaric, Visigothic king, dies; Atawolf becomes his successor.

6/23 Sr. White becomes discouraged at small success from cards left at J.'s meetings, and at Brockton takes up Photo-Drama inquiry cards also.


411-421 In the controversy on sin and grace between Augustine and Pelagius, in which the former defends total depravity and the latter man's present natural sinlessness, Tichonius sets forth the Truth that none are totally depraved and that the race naturally consists of two depraved classes (none totally depraved), the faith and unbelief classes, the former class coming into relation with the Lord by a cooperation of their wills and Divine grace.

6/24–7/4 Bro. Russell condemns total depravity in all except Second Deathers, and sets forth the Truth on the two naturally depraved classes, the faith and unbelief classes, as against the two extremes' views that J.F.R. and H.C. Rockwell held.



415 Atawolf, king of the Visigoths, is murdered; Wallia succeeds him; and the Visigoths become dissatisfied in Spain.

6/28 Sr. Wilson gets word not to go to Portland, Me., for follow-up work; she and Sr. White become dissatisfied with follow-up work.


418 The Vandals in Spain and Gaul become subordinate to Wallia, king of the Visigoths, who accepts subjection to the Western Empire.

7/1 Sr. White falls in with a plan to do J.F.R.'s follow-up work in the West, J. acquiescing therein.


426 The Nestorian controversy begins. Arians support Nestorius against the trinitarians.

7/9 J. gives the first talk at the Newport Convention, defending the unity of God and attacking the Godmanists.


427 The Nestorian controversy continues and increases.

7/10 H.C. Rockwell, C.J. Woodworth and R.H. Barber speak severally on Christ's three natures, and F.C. Detweiler on the relation of the human and Divine natures in Christ, the latter darkening the subject.


428 Boniface, Roman Governor of Africa, calls on the Vandals to help him.

7/11 F.C. Detweiler, convention chairman, asks J. to preach in the absence of



R. J. Martin, on the Spirit of a Sound Mind.


429 Genseric, king of the Vandals, goes to Africa with his army.

7/12 Bro. Russell comes to the Newport Convention and in his address refutes God-manism.


431 At the Council of Ephesus some of the leading Arians consult on the busybodying of the monks in general Church works

7/14 While at the Newport Convention R. E. Streeter and H.C. Rockwell speak on the Call and R.G. Jolly and C.J. Woodworth on Justification, Bro. Russell and J. discuss the busybodying of the St. Paul Enterprise in the general work.


432 Patrick begins the conversion of Ireland and works with great success there until his death, about 465.

7/15 J. preaches the Baptismal sermon at Newport Convention, thereby beginning a fruitful season in his pilgrim work until about 8/17.


451 The antipapal party at the Chalcedon Council decrees the pope and the patriarch of Constantinople chief and equal patriarchs. The Council declares the human and the Divine natures in Christ unmixed and inseparable.

8/3 Bro. Russell's offer to make A.H. MacMillan his special representative, puts him on an equality with J.F.R. and with the latter chief above all other deputies of Bro. Russell at the Bible House. The I.B.S.A. as a corporation and as a religious body in England is declared to be unmixed and inseparable.


455 Genseric, king of the Vandals, captures Rome and, despite the objections of Pope Leo I, plunders it.

8/7 Bro. Russell, as leader of the pilgrims, lays hold on J.F.R.'s pilgrim powers and privileges and, despite the latter's objections, curtails them.


462 The Ostrogoths resume friendly relations with the emperor.

8/14 Bro. Russell, as executive, and his lieutenants become more friendly with A.H. MacMillan, after a slight strain on their relations.



465 The Suevi become Arians. St. Patrick's death.

8/17 J. at Mattoon, Ill., decides to introduce the Pastoral work along more conservative and helpful lines at conventions and thus ends a phase of his pilgrim work.


474 Theodoric becomes the king of the Ostrogoths. Zeno becomes Eastern Emperor.

8/26 Bro. Russell enters into the final stages of his work as executive. H.J. Shearn comes forward as advocate of changes in the London Tabernacle arrangements.


475 The Visigoths conquer the most of Spain. Longobards seek new territories for their activities.

8/27 Sr. White completes her Western follow-up work. Bro. J. at Nashville Convention applies for the British trip.


476 Odoacer overthrows the Western Empire and subjects the pope to himself.

8/28 Bro. Russell as finance planner causes Menta Sturgeon to suffer eclipse on policies affecting the Soda mine venture, and J.F.R. becomes subject to Bro. Russell in his returning to the East.


477 Genseric, king of the Vandals, dies.

8/29 Bro. Russell returns to Bethel from his pilgrim trip at Nashville.


481 Clericalism and the two natures in Christ are widely discussed.

9/2 At H.J. Shearn's suggestion Bro. Thackaway introduces a resolution to discuss the London Tabernacle arrangements and its relation to the I.B.S.A.


482 Emperor Zeno compromises on the matter of the two natures as these were in controversy by the sees of Constantinople and Alexandria.

9/3 H. J Shearn compromises on the positions of J. Hemery and W. Crawford as to the Tabernacle's relations to the I.B.S.A.



484 The pope sets forth principles opposed to those of Zeno and of the patriarchs of Constantinople and Alexandria on the relation of the two natures.

9/5 J.F.R. sets forth principles in opposition to those of the three British managers on the relation of the Tabernacle and the I.B.S.A.


487 The Rugians, Germanic Arians, are defeated and denationalized by the Herulian Odoacer.

9/8 The Kuehn supporters, as opponents of finances as to the Soda mine, are set aside by Bro. Russell.


487-493 The Longobards settle in the Rugians' territory.

9/8–9/14 Real supporters of Bro. Russell's ways take the position held by the Kuehn supporters as against the Soda mine venture.


491 Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, defeats Odoacer, king of the Heruli.

9/12 During his trip with Menta Sturgeon and J.F.R. to the Soda mine, Bro. Russell begins to doubt his recently accepted view of the anti-Kuehnite theory as to the Soda mine.


493 Theodoric completely defeats the Heruli, kills Odoacer and measurably frees the pope

9/14 Bro. Russell sets aside the view of the anti-Kuehn group, reverses himself on his rejecting that of the Kuehn group and thereby frees J.F.R. measurably from the influence of the anti-Kuehn group.


493-508 The Longboards in Germany war on the Heruli and in the end completely defeat them.

9/14–9/29 The real supporters of Bro. Russell's ways oppose and defeat the Soda-financiers group.


496 The heathen Clovis, king of the Franks, on the verge of defeat, prays to the Christians' God for victory, and defeats and completely overthrows the Alemanni, a Germanic tribe.

9/17 A.H. MacMillan, on the verge of defeat, asks the Lord for help, which He uses J. to give him at the Milwaukee Convention, and wins out in his debate with Bros. Bradford and Abbott on the St. Paul Enterprise publishing Truth matters.



505 Theodoric, Ostrogothic king, defeats Emperor Anastasius; Belisarius, famous general of Justinian, is born.

9/26 Bro. Russell gives H.J. Shearn a rebuff in his managerial ambitions; Menta Sturgeon comes to the fore as a warrior against some of Bro. Russell's executive arrangements.


507 Visigoths are defeated by Clovis, who in turn is checked by Theodoric.

9/28 Sr. White is set aside as follow-up colporteur by A.H. MacMillan, who is checked by Bro. Russell.


512 Waccho becomes king of the Longobards

10/3 Bro. Russell takes steps toward sending J. to Europe.


525 Efforts are made to reconcile the pope with the emperor and the patriarch of Constantinople.

10/11 Efforts are made to reconcile J.F.R. with A.H. MacMillan and H.C. Rockwell.


526 Theodoric dies and Athalaric becomes king of the Ostrogoths.

10/17 Bro. Russell's leaving Bethel for the last time (night of Oct. 16) occasions his entering a diminished executive functioning of his office.


527 Justinian becomes emperor.

10/18 A.H. MacMillan comes more prominently to the fore in deputyship for Bro. Russell at Bethel.


533 Belisarius begins war on the African Vandals, defeating them in two battles.

10/24 Menta Sturgeon triumphs over Bro. Russell in taking two pilgrim services from him before the San Antonio Church.


534 Belisarius completes the conquest of the Vandals by taking Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands, and receives a triumph at Constantinople. Burgundian empire ceases.

10/25 Menta Sturgeon triumphs over Bro. Russell in taking his place three times during the San Antonio public lecture (night of 24th) and receives quite an ovation at the end of the lecture. Bro. J. ceases introducing the Pastoral work.



535 Belisarius returns to Italy to conquer the Ostrogoths and takes the Island of Sicily.

10/26 Menta Sturgeon starts his ascendancy over dying Bro. Russell as executive, and increases it as to his pilgrim office.


536 Belisarius conquers lower Italy. Vitiges becomes the king of the Ostrogoths.

10/27 Menta Sturgeon increases his ascendancy over Bro. Russell as executive, who prepares himself for the conference on the Soda mine affairs.


537 Belisarius is besieged in Rome for a year by the Ostrogoths.

10/28 Bro. Russell thwarts M. Sturgeon's ascendancy over him in executive matters.


538 The Ostrogoths raise the siege of Rome against Belisarius.

10/29 Bro. Russell's weakness occasions his giving way to M. Sturgeon's executive acts.


539 Belisarius captures Vitiges and overthrows the Ostrogoths. This allows the pope a free hand at Rome.

10/30 M. Sturgeon gets complete control executively by Bro. Russell's resigning his office in the toga scene, which also givesJ.F.R. a free hand.


540 Vitiges is taken to Constantinople as the captive of Belisarius and given to Justinian.

10/31 Bro. Russell's death makes his power go over to a deputy, M. Sturgeon, who delivers it to A.H. MacMillan.


542 The pope seeks the power from the Ostrogoths; and the boy Walthari becomes Longobardic king.

11/2 J.F.R. asks J. whether Bro. Russell was to have a successor. The Society Board appoints a committee to arrange with J. matters affecting his European trip. J.'s letter of appointment is dictated.



543 The pope increases his aspirations to become a civil ruler.

11/3 J.'s telling J.F.R. that Bro. Russell was to have a successor moves J.F.R. to seek his executive powers.


544 The Ostrogoths under Totila reconquer parts of Italy from the Romans. Belisarius is  sent by the emperor against them.

11/4 A.I. Ritchie opposes J.F.R.'s efforts at taking over executive power; and A.H. MacMillan uses M. Sturgeon to oppose him.


545 Totila is only partially successful because of differences among the Ostrogoths, some wanting others as king instead of Totila, which plan is rejected

11/5 A.I. Ritchie is only partially successful for lack of support. H.C. Rockwell approaches J. with a proposition to become the Society's President; he refuses to enter into the plan.


548 Belisarius returns to Constantinople from Italy, only partially successful against Totila.

11/8 M. Sturgeon gives up trying to set A.I. Ritchie aside in A.H. MacMillan's favor.


549 Audoin becomes king of the Longobards; and Totila besieges Rome.

11/9 J. on studying the correspondence of the two sides on the London Tabernacle controversy takes a stand against the Shearno-Crawford side. A.I. Ritchie's course on this correspondence circumscribes J.F.R.


550 Efforts are made to overthrow Totila. Audoin supports the Romans against Totila. Both sides seek Audoin's support by favoring him.

11/10 J.F.R. and W.E. VanAmburgh seek to nullify A.I. Ritchie in the executive committee. J. favors the former ones. All three committee members validate J.'s letter of appointment; and credentials are dictated as genuine.



551 Narses becomes Belisarius' successor in Italy against Totila. Audoin with sanction of the Empire leaves his country to assume rule and home in Noricum and Panonia.

11/11 J.F.R. displaces M. Sturgeon as A.I. Ritchie's opponent. J.'s credentials are signed by A.I. Ritchie and W.E. VanAmburgh as genuine; and he sails for Britain with powers of attorney.


552 Narses badly defeats Totila in Italy.

11/12 J.F.R. cripples A.I. Ritchie in executive respects and as to candidacy for Society's President.


553 Narses, assisted by Audoin, again badly defeats Totila.

11/13 J.F.R., by assistance of J.'s influence as represented in his voting shares proxied for J.F.R., again badly cripples A.I. Ritchie as executive and as candidate for the Society's President.


554 Narses completely defeats Totila and the Ostrogoths leave Italy and become extinct as a nation.

11/14 J.F.R. relegates A.I. Ritchie to impotency in executive matters; and the latter ceases to act effectively as executive in Society matters.


561 Audoin and his son Alboin war on the Gepidae.

11/21 J., following the reading of his authorization papers to the three British managers, takes a course on the pilgrim work resented by H.J. Shearn and W. Crawford.


562 Audoin and his son Alboin continue to war on the Gepidae.

11/22 J. hears from W. Crawford of the Tabernacle's correspondence and tactfully draws him out thereon, a thing antagonistic to the latter.



563 Alboin defeats the Gepidae. Columba comes to Britain (Scotland) from Ireland and begins the conversion of the land and dies in 597.

11/23 J. is given the managers' copies of the Tabernacle's correspondence, a defeat of H.J. Shearn and W. Crawford. J. prepares his first sermon for the comfort of the British brethren, the lecture at Liverpool (11/19) and the morning one at London (11/26) being a report on Bro. Russell's last days, death and burial.


565 Justinian dies; Alboin succeeds Audoin as king of the Longobards.

11/25 A.H. MacMillan ceases further opposition to J.F.R.'s claims to deputyship for the Board. J. questions the three managers on the Tabernacle situation and sympathizes with J. Hemery, as the other two managers disparage him.


567 Remembering Narses' former invitation, the Longobards invade the Alpine regions to the northeast of Italy, planning to invade Italy proper shortly.

11/27 On the basis of his authorization papers, particularly J.F.R.'s telling him to act executively in Britain, J. plans executive acts in British matters.


568 Longobards, Arians, invade Italy and in 21 years conquer almost all of it, Rome always, and Ravenna almost to the end, holding out against them.

11/28 J. exercises executive acts in British affairs, e.g., puts J. Hemery in charge of the Pastoral work, makes all three managers the V.D.M. committee, continues Bro. Russell's sermons in the newspapers, revises the Manchester Convention program and begins to warn against the eleven elders' stand on the Tabernacle arrangements—all executive acts, the Brooklyn office, now under J.F.R.'s influence, never coming under J.'s executive powers, and the London office by the managers for a long time resisting it, but finally submitting thereto.



570 Alboin defeats disastrously the opposing Romans.

11/30 J. defeats the eleven elders' position on the Tabernacle arrangements.


573 Alboin is killed.

12/3 H.J. Shearn, W. Crawford and F. G. Guard take sides against J., slightly showing it at his Forest Gate visit.


574 Authari (long-haired), Alboin's minor grandson, succeeds Clepho, Alboin's successor, under a regent.

12/4 A letter arrives from Brooklyn corroborating J.'s stand that the Tabernacle arrangements be congregational in kind.


584 Authari attains his majority and becomes full king of the Longobards.

12/14 J. begins to resent H.J. Shearn's and W. Crawford's opposition, expressed in the former's letter mailed 12/12 and received 12/13 or 14, declining to change the convention program as he had suggested.


589 Arianism of the Visigoths is overthrown in Spain through the pope's manipulations. The Longobards under Authari decide to increase their Italian dominion.

12/19 Colporteurs are induced to give up Bro. Russell's methods, and to accept those of J.F.R. J. decides to enforce his control in executive matters in Britain, particularly as to the Manchester Convention program, on which the managers sought to override him.


590 Authari continues to increase his Italian dominion. Gregory the Great becomes pope.12/20 J. rebukes the managers for declining to accept his convention program revisions, and insists on their printing the program as he revised it, appointing J. Hemery in charge of the program. J.F.R. more and more takes over the work of the executive committee.



591 Authari, still opposing the Catholics, seeks to take Ravenna. He dies.

12/21 J. seeks to draw J. Hemery to his support.


592 Agilulf succeeds Authari and, while maintaining his Arianism, seeks to conciliate the Catholics.

12/22 J., declining the ShearnoCrawford-inspired F. G. Guard, Jr.'s advice to keep his hand off British executive matters, and to restrict his activities to pilgrim work in Britain, continues to insist on observance of Bro. Russell's arrangements, but adopts a more conciliatory course toward H.J. Shearn and W. Crawford.


593 Gregory the Great seeks through the Longobards' queen to Romanize them.

12/23 J.F.R. sends a letter to the managers approving of J.'s British office, and appointing J. Hemery as J.F.R.'s special representative in Britain and Ireland, both things calculated to Rutherfordize J.'s work and supporters.


597 Gregory I sends Augustine to England to convert the Anglo- Saxons; and as a result of the work begun that year increasingly large numbers of Anglo-Saxons were won to Romanism. Columba dies after fruitful missionary work in Britain.

12/26 J.F.R. arouses A.H. MacMillan to the public work and as a result of steps taken that day many new ones from the public were increasingly won for Rutherfordism. J. ends first phase of his pilgrim work toward the British brethren, and begins its second phase.



601 Augustine unsuccessfully attempts to subject the Welsh bishops to Romanism.

12/31 A.H. MacMillan unsuccessfully seeks to subject the pilgrims to Rutherfordism.


606 Emperor Phocas and his supporters acknowledge the pope's primacy.


1/5 H.J.S. and W.C. write a submissive letter to J.F.R. A.H.M. and W.E.V. arrive at the Pittsburgh voting shareholders' meeting, determined, at J.F.R.'s suggestion, to have him voted sole executive and managerial powers.


615 Agilulf dies and is succeeded by Adalwaldus as Longobard king.

1/14 J., ceasing conciliatory tactics, takes a decidedly oppositional stand toward H.J. S. and W. C. as Tabernacle elders, actually, though not consciously, withdrawing priestly fellowship from them.


625 Adalwaldus dies; Ariowaldus becomes the Longobard king.

1/24 E. Housden at J.'s invitation joins the latter at Leeds, where J. decides to give him W.C.'s place as assistant manager.


This is a place to make a few remarks on the Gospel-Age Moslems' and Christians' (?) conflicts, as related to our subject. In the parallels the Moslems correspond to the civil powers in the Small Miniature; the Christians (?) correspond to Truth people in the Small Miniature. Their conflicts correspond to the controversies between the civil powers and Truth people on militarism and conscientious objection. The earlier conflicts between them correspond to the phases of these controversies between the British civil powers and the British brethren. With the Moslem invasion of France the pertinent conflicts begin to parallel those between the American civil powers and the American brethren. Their subsequent conflicts in France parallel



those that involved the Society Board; in Spain those that involved the colporteurs; in Italy those that involved the executive departments of the Society; in Palestine (the crusades) those that involved the brethren in court controversies; the phases of the conflict involving the Turks and Christians (?), those that accompanied the gradual victory, with incidental repulses, of the Societyites against the American civil powers in their court battles. The parallel events are so very numerous that our space will allow us to give only a few, i.e., the most important parallels.


630 First battle between Moslems and Christians (?), at Muta, Syria,  ends indecisively with victory inclining more to the Moslems  than to the Christians (?).

1/29 First argument is held between the British Government  and Society barristers in the High Court on elders' exemption from the draft, the Government barristers gaining a slight advantage in the debate.


633 The monothelite controversy begins, with Pope Honorius and the patriarchs of Constantinople and Alexandria endorsing monothelitism and the monk Sophronius, later the patriarch of Jerusalem, rejecting it.

2/1 The controversy over the  oneness of the I.B.S.A., as a  corporation, and of the Tabernacle  in their purposes begins. J.F.R., J.  Hemery and E. Housden agree to this oneness, but H.J.S. and W.C. oppose it.


635 Oswald, a non-Romanist, becomes the Christian king of Northumbria and chief king of Anglo-Saxons.

2/3 J. dismisses H.J. Shearn and   W. Crawford as Bethel managers  the after they attempted to use Matt.  18: 15-18 on him for official acts, they arranging for the second

before taking the first step.


636 Rothari, an Arian, becomes Longobards' king, reigning until 652.

2/4 J. first sees himself typed as the  the little Nehemiah, John Hus  having been the large Nehemiah.


637 Saracens capture Jerusalem and frustrate the opposition of Sophronius, patriarch of Jerusalem, and of his clergy to monothelitism.

2/5 The British High Court rules  that elders are subject to conscription in Britain, which temporarily shuts off H.J.S.'s and his supporters' objection to the oneness of the I.B.S.A. and Tabernacle in their purposes.



638 Emperor Heraclius issues the Ecthesis, sanctioning monothelitism.

2/6 J. Hemery, as the representative of the Society's President, stands for the oneness of purpose of the Tabernacle and the I.B.S.A. as the Society's British representative.


642 Oswald dies. Oswy succeeds him.

2/10 J. meditates drawing up charges against H.J. Shearn and W. Crawford.


643 Rothari, Longobard king, begins to codify the Longobards' laws in Latin.

2/11 J. begins to draw up charges against H.J.S. and W.C. at Edinburgh, on the basis of Truth principles.


648 Emperor Constans II publishes the Typus, whereby he calls upon all to come back to the status before the monothelite controversy started, i.e., that neither two nor one will in Christ be taught, thus seeking to have the question ignored altogether.

2/16 J. Hemery counsels the dropping of the controversy of the oneness or separateness of the I.B.S.A. and the Tabernacle, seeking to have the question ignored altogether.


652 Rothari dies and is succeeded by Rodoaldus.

2/20 J. sees himself pictured by Mordecai; he starts from London on what proves to be his last pilgrim trip in England in 1917.


653 Rodoaldus dies and his successors until Liutprand (712-744) seek to act peaceably with the pope, with occasional fallings out between them.

2/21 J. begins to preach against textbookism and clericalism and until April 21 seeks to act peaceably with J.F.R., with occasional fallings out between them.


655 Pope Martin dies in exile.

2/23 Bro. McCloy receives word of appointment of investigation commission, which began a defeat of J.F.R. in Britain.