Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13


660 Aribertus, Longobard king, dies and is succeeded by Gundibertus.

2/28 J. receives his recall as the Society's special representative, unauthorizedly sent by J.F.R., and temporarily he accepts it as valid.


662 The monk Maximus, the leader of those espousing the doctrine of two wills in Christ (dyothelitism) is by various punishments made incapable of public service. Gundibertus dies; Grimwaldus reigns.

3/2 W. Crawford is refused reinstatement into the office of Treasurer of the London Bethel, is excluded from election as elder and is refused the treasurer's keys by Bro. Housden. J., believing his recall to be valid, declines J. Hemery's invitation to take the head of the dining room table and accepts the place of a subordinate.


664 Oswy sets aside the Old British Church's ways and accepts those of Rome.

3/4 J. gives up entirely his office work to J.F.R.'s usurpations as to his British work.


667 Grimwaldus secures himself against repudiators of his power by appointing trustworthy lieutenants.

3/7 J. reasserts his Board-given powers against J. Hemery's protests and secures them by obtaining the support of the chief ones at the London Bethel.


671 Grimwaldus, Longobard king, dies; Perctarit succeeds, during whose reign the Longobards give up Arianism and become Catholic.

3/11 J. comes to see that J.F.R. and J. Hemery by overthrowing Bro. Russell's arrangements were perverting J.'s supporters in Brooklyn and London.


680 The First Trullan Council is held to overthrow monothelitism.

3/20 J. Hemery, H.J. Shearn and W. Crawford confer to overthrow the policy of J., that the purposes of the I.B.S.A. as a corporation and the London Tabernacle are one.



686 Perctarit, Longobard king, dies and is succeeded by Cuninbert.

3/26 J., on the advice of his solicitor, decides to give up further attempts as to seeking control at the London Bethel and decides to return to America.


692 The second Trullan Council is held; and first steps are taken, resulting in a schism between the Eastern and Western Churches.

4/1 J. Hemery confers with the Tabernacle elders and then denounces J. before the London Tabernacle elders, which starts a rupture between two groups of British Great Company members. J. sails from Liverpool for America.


700 Cuninbert dies.

4/9 J. arrives in New York and is met by W.E. Van Amburgh, who promises him that there will be no rifling of his effects at Bethel, as was done at the London Bethel, when J. refused to go to Bethel, unless he obtained such assurance.


701 Aribertus becomes Longobard king, whose eleven years' upright reign were marked by differences with the dukes of the Longobards, who mutinied against him.

4/10 J. first meets J.F.R. the evening of April 9 and asserts his office as Epiphany messenger, under the mistaken impression that his office was that of the steward of the penny parable, and for eleven days holds to this; the Bethel anti-Rutherford leaders disapprove.


711 The Saracens invade Spain, foreshadowing much trouble for the Spanish and other Christians (?).

4/20 Vol. VII's diatribe against patriotism is approved, foreshadowing much trouble for the colporteurs and other Societyites.



712 Aribertus drowns in the Tiber under the weight of gold that he was carrying. Liutprand, greatest of Longobard kings, ascends the throne, and, though unsuccessful, seeks until 744 to extend his authority over entire Italy.

4/21 J. loses ground with J.F.R. for his views, but holds to his Epiphany office, of which, until May 23, he fruitlessly seeks to obtain recognition.


721 The Saracens first invade France.

4/30 First discussion of Board over draft-talk in Congress.


732 Charles Martel, Commander of the Franks, with the help of Liutprand and others, decisively defeats the Saracens between Tours and Poitiers, which stayed their further advance in France.

5/11 J.F.R. as the Board's mouthpiece reads a statement on conscientious objection to the Bethel family and receives additional suggestions from other Bethelites, J. suggesting the thought that all priestly support be withheld from the fighting forces, all of which refuted the militarists' arguments.


737 Charles Martel with the help of Liutprand completes the defeat of the Saracens in France, driving them back into Spain.

5/16 J.F.R. as the Board's mouthpiece publishes in the Tower the above-mentioned statement, with the suggested additional arguments of J. and others, finally refuting the militarists' arguments against the Board's position on conscientious objection.


738 Gregory III appeals, in vain, to Charles Martel for aid against Liutprand, who nearly took Rome, almost the only non-Longobard part of Italy.

5/17 J.F.R. seeks, in vain, aid from his Board sympathizers against J.'s efforts at reestablishing Bro. Russell's arrangements and his recognition as the Lord's choice as executive in the work.


741 Charles Martel dies and is succeeded by his two sons: (1) Carloman and (2) Pepin the Short, who divide the kingdom of the Franks between them. During the period 741-752 Adalbert, a Frank, Clement, a Scot, and Virgilius, an Icelander, oppose papal corruptions.

5/20 The Board ceases to be a unit, dividing into two parts: (1) A.I. Ritchie, I.F. Hoskins, J.D. Wright and R.H. Hirsh; and (2) J.F.R., W.E. Van Amburgh and A.N. Pierson (the last taking the other side from July 15 to Nov. 6, 1917). During the period 5/20–6/1 J., R.H. Hirsh and I.F. Hoskins oppose Rutherfordism usurpations.



744 Liutprand, Longobard king, dies and is succeeded, first by Hildebrandus, then later in the year by Rachisius.

5/23 J. ends a series of failures to arouse the Board's majority to press the questions of enforcing Bro. Russell's policies and his being recognized as the leader in the work, and works to have the Board put into control.


747 Carloman gives up his kingdom and leaves it in the hands of Pepin the Short.

5/26 A.I. Ritchie, I.F. Hoskins and R.H. Hirsh, deserted by J.D. Wright, give up activities to enforce Bro. Russell's policies, which gives the other Board party its will. Thereupon J. seeks to arouse J.D. Wright to proper action in this matter.


749 Rachisius dies. Astolphus succeeds as king of the Longobards.

5/28 J. sets forth to J.D. Wright that his credentials were genuine and his English work good, and appeals to him to help secure the operation of Bro. Russell's policies.


751 Astolphus captures Ravenna.

5/30 J. wins over J.D. Wright to his view of the situation.


753 Astolphus asks the pope to submit to him in their controversy. The pope refuses.

6/1 J. asks J.F.R. for his return to Britain, to finish his work there. J.F.R. refuses.



754 The pope asks the Frank king, Pepin, for help against Astolphus

6/2 J.F.R. seeks to get help from the Board members against J.'s return to Britain.


755 Pepin, at the pope's instigation, against Carloman's request, wars on and defeats Astolphus. He refuses to give up the exarchate of Ravenna to the Eastern Emperor, who had lost it to Astolphus.

6/3 Some of the Board, against the stand of others, frustrate J.'s efforts to have it return him to Britain, and refuse to yield their power to a deputy


756 Pepin gives the pope the exarchate of Ravenna, which thus becomes the Papal States; Desiderius becomes the Longobard king, and reigns until 774.

6/4 The Board's foregoing course gives J.F.R. control as against J.'s deputyship for British matters. Henceforth J. seeks to get his British activities investigated by the Board.


766 Desiderius, Longobard king, presses the pope, and Pepin acts conciliatorily between them, by advising a compromise.

6/14 J. hands J.F.R. the petition that he had persuaded the four friendly Board members to sign and that asked for an investigation of his British work by the Board, which compromises by ordering the investigation by the four signers.


768 Pepin dies; his sons Charlemagne and Carloman succeed him.

6/16 The cleavage of the Board sets in again, four as against three.


770 Charlemagne marries Desiderius' daughter.

6/18 The Board's four investigators, on reading the report of the British investigation commission, accept the thought of the genuineness and fruitfulness of J.'s authority in British matters.


771 Charlemagne divorces Desiderius' daughter and becomes sole king of the Franks at the death of Carloman.

6/19 After hearing J., the Board's committee decides to give up espousing his full at the death of Carloman. British authority and adopts a compromising report for the purpose of securing unanimity in the Board thereon.



772 Charlemagne debates unfavorably the course of Desiderius in siding with his daughter and Carloman's two sons, whom Charlemagne would not allow to reign in their father's stead. Charlemagne debates the question of making the pope subject to him.

6/20 The full Board discusses its four members' compromising report on J.'s British activity, and accepts a less favorable resolution presented by J.F.R., alleging as his reason J.'s claims as to his British authority and his wanting to promote a Board division. The four introduce a resolution to abrogate J.F.R.'s powers as executive and manager.


773 Charlemagne begins his war on Desiderius and his supporters.

6/21 On the basis of the Board's compromise resolution efforts are made to send J. and I.F. Hoskins away from Bethel on pilgrim trips, as a means of overcoming him and the Board's majority's favoring him.


774 Charlemagne conquers the Longobards, takes Desiderius as prisoner to France, confirms the pope as his vassal over the exarchate of Ravenna. Desiderius' son Adelgis spends the rest of his life seeking to gain the kingdom of the Longobards, but is driven out of Italy permanently.

6/22 The Board's compromise prevails against J., who, ordered by J.F.R. to leave Bethel, appeals against it to the Board. J.F.R., fearing to bring the matter to the Board, leaves it in abeyance. J. seeks, without success, until July 15, to regain his executive position, in interviews with J.F.R., the four Board members and, finally, A.N. Pierson, whom he wins over to view matters favorably as to J.'s British activities.



799 Claudius of Turin comes to Charlemagne's court. Some Roman nobles nearly kill Pope Leo III because of his usurpations, in a riot at Rome, but he escapes to the court of Charlemagne, who takes his side. The Papal Millennium begins.

7/17 J., after returning to Bethel from his visits in New England with I.I. Margeson and A.N. Pierson, meets the four Board members. J.F.R. raises a great disturbance by his reading the four opposing Board members out and four subservient pseudo-Board members into the Board, for which he is severely denounced by the four ousted ones, F.H. McGee and J. J.F.R. takes refuge with his new Board; and the Little Papal Millennium begins.


800 Pope Leo III submits as a vassal to Charlemagne, crowning him emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, and thus retains rulership of the Papal States under Charlemagne.

7/18 J.F.R. submits to the Board's controllership and acknowledges it as supreme in Society matters, and thereby gains its recognition as the Society's executive and manager.


It should be here remarked that sometimes the old Board and sometimes the new Board acts as the controller in the Small Miniature from July 17, 1917 to about Dec. 1, 1917, corresponding to the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.


802 The decretals of Pope Hadrian I (previously sent to and sanctioned by Charlemagne) receive public sanction at the diet of Aix-la-Chapelle for the whole empire.

7/19 J.F.R.'s circular letter (the insert of his Harvest Siftings), after having been sanctioned by his bogus Board, is sent to all the classes.


809 The Council of Aix-la-Chapelle inserts into the creed the filioque clause ("and from the Son"), teaching that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son equally as from the Father, as the equal of Them. Claudius, afterwards of Turin, receives his first persecutions for zeal against image worship.

7/27 The course of J.F.R., acting as President of the P.P.A., to control the W.T.B. & T.S. and I.B.S.A. in the P.P.A. meeting, by requiring the four directors to accept his Board or face war, is pivoted upon the P.P.A. as implied in the existence of the other two and acting as their plenipotentiary. J.F.R. attacks J. physically and ousts him from Bethel for the latter's attacks on the former's pseudo-saintliness.



811 The so-called Isidorian decretals (not the pseudo Isidorian decretals) are first circulated.

7/29 Harvest Siftings is first circulated, by being taken to Boston by W.F. Hudgings, at J.F.R.'s beck.


813 Claudius, principal man of the Sardis Church, who the next year was sent to Turin by Emperor Louis, begins his fight on image worship and works of merit as taught by the pope. Claudius continues this work in his expositions of numerous Scriptural books and in his controversies until 839, when he dies.

7/31 At the meeting of the P.P.A., wherein I.F. Hoskins and R.H. Hirsh were ousted as directors and members of it, J. soundly upbraids J.F.R. for the numerous falsehoods and other evils of his Harvest Siftings, all of which were a service of alleged images of saints and meritorious works. J. continues this work until Aug. 26, when he finishes writing Harvest Siftings Reviewed.


814 Claudius fights image worship at Turin, when he arrives there.

8/1 J. attacks J.F.R.'s Harvest Siftings, in defense of his supporters and himself.


816 Agobard, archbishop of Lyons, France, begins his work against image worship as Claudius' assistant.

8/3 R.H. Hirsh writes for the five anti-Rutherford directors, The Open Letter to The Boston Convention, which was distributed to the conventioners, Aug. 5.


821 Bernard, nephew of Emperor Louis, is blinded by the latter.

8/8 A.N. Pierson, at the Board's instigation, is deceived and taken advantage of by J.F.R. and other Board members.



823 Claudius of Turin begins his commentary on Leviticus.

8/10 J. begins to write that part of Harvest Siftings Reviewed that treats of his British pilgrim work.


825 Claudius defends himself against the charges of false teaching and of forming an anti-Catholic sect.

8/12 J. writes that part of Harvest Siftings Reviewed that refutes Clayton Woodworth's false view of the Steward and vindicates his own, which was endorsed by that Servant.


829 The controversies that the sons of Emperor Louis started in 829 increased over a long period and resulted in the division of the empire into three parts: France, Germany and Italy.

8/16 The controversy in the Society's Board begins, which increased over a long period and resulted in the formation of three groups in the Board: (1) A.N. Pierson; (2) W.E. Spill, J. A. Bohnet and Geo. H. Fisher; (3) J.F.R., W.E. VanAmburgh and A.H. MacMillan.


831 Claudius attacks the pope, denying that he is Peter's successor, and declaring that if he does not act apostolically, but as an evil-doer, Matt. 23 applies to him. Paschasius Radbertus invents and begins to spread the doctrine of transubstantiation, which teaches a counterfeit body of Christ.

8/18 J. begins to write the part of Harvest Siftings Reviewed that exposes J.F.R.'s many acts of power-grasping, denying that he is that Servant's successor. Society supporters first claim that they are antitypical Elijah, i.e., that the Great Company is the Little Flock, the counterpart in Little Babylon of transubstantiation in Great Babylon, a counterfeit body of Christ.


839 Claudius of Turin dies.

8/26 J. finishes writing Harvest Siftings Reviewed in its first draft, up to his answer to the second part.


842 Image worship is completely victorious in Great Babylon.

8/29 Throughout Little Babylon the fictitious representations [their alleged good characters] of Little Babylon's saints are worshipped by their partisans.



843 The Longobard kingdom is revived with an independent line of kings, though divided into various duchies, and it remains such until dissolved in 961.

8/30 Light After Darkness sidestepping the British situation, J. enters into an independent course with his sympathizers against J.F.R. and his Board; and in this hey hold quite well together until Dec. 26, when J. and Menta Sturgeon enter on divergent courses, tending toward divisions.


844 Paschasius Radbertus, after considerable polishing of his views on transubstantiation, publishes them in a book, presenting it to Charles the Bald, who asks Ratramnus (the star-member succeeding Claudius of Turin) his opinion thereon. Ratramnus writes a powerful refutation of transubstantiation.

8/31 J.F.R., after considerable polishing, sets forth the view that his supporters are antitypical Elijah and presents it to R.H. Hirsh, who asks J. for his opinion. The latter refutes the view. J.F.R. begins to use his thought to arouse his followers to the alleged first smiting of Jordan.


850 Ratramnus writes on a double predestination.

9/6 J. first sees the division in the Church as the separation of antitypical Elijah and Elisha.


857 Bardus, regent at Constantinople, is refused communion by the patriarch Ignatius, for which the former displaces the latter with Photius.

9/13 A.H. MacMillan is held at arm's length by W.E. VanAmburgh, who is by the former displaced with M. Sturgeon in privileged service.


858 Nicholas I, most powerful pope between Gregory I (pope, 590-604) and Gregory VII (pope, 1073-1085), is proclaimed another Elijah. He uses the pseudo Isidorian Decretals in proof of the supremacy of the pope.

9/14 J.F.R. makes strenuous efforts to prove himself right in the Board controversy, and is proclaimed by Clayton Woodworth as another Bro. Russell, whose penny parable view he uses to prove J.F.R.'s supremacy.



867 Photius, patriarch of Constantinople, accuses the pope of heresy at a Constantinopolitan council.

9/23 M. Sturgeon accuses J.F.R. of introducing arrangements contrary to those of Bro. Russell.


869 Ignatius, deposed patriarch, is restored and Photius is excommunicated.

9/25 A.H. MacMillan restores W.E. VanAmburgh to his favor and abandons M. Sturgeon.


871 Alfred the Great from 871 to 901 fosters a true religious spirit in Britain.

9/27 J. from 9/27 to 10/27 fosters a holy spirit among the opposition pilgrims.


872 John VIII becomes pope and reigns until 882 and enters into a course of greatest hypocrisy and unconscionableness.

9/28 J.F.R. begins a course of hypocrisy and unconscionableness, culminating in his writing Harvest Siftings, Part II, and circulating it Oct. 7, at the Brooklyn Tabernacle, and worldwide, Oct. 8.


877 The emperor restores Photius to the patriarchate of Constantinople.

10/3 A.H. MacMillan forgives and restores M. Sturgeon as his chief helper.


878 Photius confutes and subsequently defies the pope, who orders him to vacate the patriarchate of Constantinople.

10/4 M. Sturgeon at the Brooklyn Ecclesia's business meeting exposes J.F.R.'s hypocritical trick to control its election and after the meeting defies J.F.R., when the latter reproves him for his involved course.


879 Pope John VIII excommunicates Photius.

10/5 J.F.R. withdraws confidence and fellowship from M. Sturgeon.


885 Hadrian III is made pope through a subterfuge election by lawless Romans, in disregard of the law on papal elections.

10/11 J.F.R., seeing that he could not secure his election as Tabernacle elder by the required 75% of the votes, retains his eldership by a tricky resolution, which required only a majority vote, postponing the election of elders of the Brooklyn ecclesia until after the election of the Society's officers in Jan., 1918.



886 Emperor Leo, the Philosopher, deposes Photius.

10/12 A.H. MacMillan turns against M. Sturgeon.


890 Photius dies.

10/17 M. Sturgeon gives up all sympathetic cooperation with the Society.


904 Pope Sergius III, 904-911, first of the infamous pornocratic popes, misbehaves with Theodora, the mother, and Marozia and Theodora, the daughters, the three who made and unmade popes of their illegitimate children, grandchildren and paramours. From 904 to 1003 there are almost incessant conflicts between the popes, on the one hand, and the Italian nobles and German emperors, on the other. The tenth century is rightly called the dark century, because evil was then preponderantly triumphant; and, in the large application of the antitype of the tenth plague, in it came the midnight of antitypical Nisan 14, the midnight of the Gospel Age, when the slaying of the antitypical firstborn began.

10/30 J.F.R. begins a course of symbolic pornocracy with false principles which influenced J.F.R. into many wrong changes of policy. From this date onward until Feb. 6, 1918, many conflicts occur between J.F.R. and Board members and other Society leaders.


911 The Carolingian family (descendent from Charlemagne) becomes extinct in Germany.

11/6 A.N. Pierson, last Board member who sympathized with the old Board, gives it up.



936 Otto I becomes the emperor of the Holy German Roman Empire; and as a result of the opposition of the German Church the pornocratic popes receive a blow from which they are gradually undermined and by 963 they are made subject to the emperor, their own theologians at their charge presenting the teaching that the pope is subject to the emperor, and rightly so.

12/1 Here sets in the beginning of the transition from J.F.R.'s primary little papacy to that of F.H. McGee under the control of "the Opposition" leaders, who later develop into the Fort Pitt Committee; both features of this gradual transition, which becomes complete Dec. 28, are effected by the letter to the Bible Students worldwide and the petition to J.F.R. and the Board emanating from 156 signatories, namely members of the Brooklyn Tabernacle.


946-972 Dunstan's reformatory work proceeds during this period with great blessing, not only to the Church but also to the state and civil society in England.

12/14–1/6, 1918 J. by his lectures on Elijah and Elisha, Calls-Siftings-Slaughter Weapons, etc., works reformatively and successfully for "the Opposition" against J.F.R.'s influence as executive and teacher.


961 The Longobard kingdom ends.

12/26 By J.'s continued advocacy of the separation of Elijah and Elisha as antityped by the separation in the Society and by M. Sturgeon's advocating that J.F.R. and his leading supporters were Second Deathers, "the Opposition" as a unit breaks up.


962 Otto I is crowned emperor by the pope in St. Peters, by which is founded the new phase of the empire—the Holy Roman German Empire.

12/27 "The Opposition" leaders are advanced by F.H. McGee as the executive leaders of the Lord's work, and from here on the Small Miniature Gospel Age enlarges its viewpoint into a double papacy and empire, F.H. McGee taking the place of the pope and the Fort Pitt Committee the place of the empire, the older picture of the Board as emperor, and J.F.R. as pope taking a secondary place as antipope.



963 The papal pornocracy is by the German Church and Empire completely overthrown and the pope's theologians invent a teaching that the pope of right is subject to the emperor.

12/28 The letter to the Bible Students and the petition of 156 brethren, mainly members of the Brooklyn ecclesia, offering a fair way of solving the trouble in the Board and Society finally effects the overthrow of J.F.R.'s absolutism, A.H. MacMillan at J.F.R.'s charge teaching J.F.R. to be subject to the Board.


973 Otto II becomes emperor of the Holy Roman German Empire, Hugh Capet supporting him.

1/7, 1918 At the first meeting of the Fort Pitt Committee its officers are elected, J. nominating all of them.


974 Rotherius of Verona dies, after a life of many vicissitudes.

1/8 Hearing J. at Avalon, Pa. on Calls-Sifting-Slaughter Weapons, M. Sturgeon becomes his opponent.


986 Efforts are made by the regents of the child emperor, Otto III, to strengthen the  empire.

1/20 First Fort Pitt Committee meeting in Brooklyn, after its organization. J. is commissioned to prepare a draft of a letter to rally the Committee supporters to a concerted and strong movement in the Lord's work.


987 Louis V, last king of the Carolingian line in France, dies and Hugh Capet becomes king of France, whose rule as Duke of France from 956 onward and as king of France is one of great blessing in reforms for church, state and empire until his death.

1/21 M. Sturgeon's attack on J. in a sermon at Brooklyn, in the latter's presence, the afternoon of 1/20 and the latter's exposition of Zech. 11 that night break the former's influence in that Church and increases that of J. there and results in various blessings.



989 The influence of the French king, Hugh Capet, prevails above that of Arnulf, archbishop of Rheims, in the Church.

1/23 J.'s draft of a circular letter to the churches is preferred to that of A.I. Ritchie, which results in giving the former more influence in the Church than the latter.


991 A council at Rheims deposes Arnulf.

1/25 The Fort Pitt Committee accepts A.I. Ritchie's resignation from membership therein.


999 Pope Sylvester II adopts high church (ascetic) views and trickily starts the exclusive papal appointment of bishops and archbishops by sending the ring and staff to his former opponent Arnulf, a step against the French king's and the emperor's powers in this matter in their respective domains.

2/2 F.H. McGee subtly favors A.I. Ritchie's restrictive views, as against those of J. and the Fort Pitt Committee on general elders.


1000 Emperor Otto III decides to release from vassalage Duke Bolislaw Chrobry, a treacherous and powerful enemy of the empire, and seeks to win him as a friend.

2/3 Committee members by now decide to favor accepting M. Sturgeon's resignation, but to seek to gain his friendly cooperation with the Committee.


1001 Otto III dies and is succeeded by Henry II.

2/4 The Fort Pitt Committee, accepting M. Sturgeon's resignation, undergoes a change by inviting R.G. Jolly and I.I. Margeson to fill its two vacancies.



1003-1046 The emperors, generally with papal cooperation, according to their perverted notions, seek to reform the Church after their ideals of reformation, which, of course, is along lines of Romanist religiosity.

2/6–3/21 The Fort Pitt Committee, generally with F.H. McGee's support, according to its perverted notions, seeks to reform matters among its supporters along the lines of Society ideals as laid down in the Society's charter and Bro. Russell's will.


1009 After three campaigns Henry II obtains the subjection of Lombardy and the rest of Italy.

2/12 The Fort Pitt Committee elects R.G. Jolly and I.I. Margeson to its membership; the latter before being willing to accept expressed his doubts as to J.'s usefulness on the Committee, and thrice exacted from him the statement that he did not believe that he controlled the Committee.


1014 The anti-Pope Gregory is severely denounced and disgraced in favor of Henry II and Pope Benedict VIII. Canute becomes England's king and opposes clericalism.

2/17 J.'s Evil Servant discourse at Philadelphia denounces J.F.R. and puts him to disgrace in favor of the Fort Pitt Committee and F.H. McGee. J. opposes clericalism.


1017 The Moslem invasions of Italy from Sicily begin to be repelled by the Romanists, led by Benedict VIII.

2/20 Governmental attacks on the Truth people executively begin to be repelled on patriotic grounds by the adherents of the Fort Pitt Committee, led by F.H. McGee legally, etc.


1018 Benedict VIII and Henry II decree at the Pavian Synod the excommunication of married priests and the enslavement of their children.

2/21 F.H. McGee, through the letter of I.F. Hoskins, the Committee's secretary, to Sr. Jordan of Philadelphia on J.'s Evil Servant lecture, in effect disfellowships pilgrims who hold preaching relations with ecclesias without Committee appointment and in effect enslaves such ecclesia members to the Committee.



1020 Robert, king of France, is denounced by Benedict VIII and Henry II for not siding with the high-church (very ascetic) monks of Cluny, France, whose alleged rights were claimed to be infringed upon by the more liberal party.

2/23 J., for his Evil Servant lecture at Philadelphia, is severely criticized at a special Committee meeting, as infringing upon the rights and views of the "conservative party," consisting of a number of the Committee members and of their supporters, while his theory and practice were denounced as radical.


1021 Benedict VIII writes a letter to the archbishops and bishops of France, ordering them, on pain of excommunication, to disfellowship those of the liberal party who hold views and engage in practices contrary to the high-church monks of Cluny.

2/24 (night of 2/23) F.H. McGee presents to the Committee a resolution against its liberal party, declaring that those who offer interpretations of new Biblical types, symbols and prophecies not unanimously approved by the Committee shall be considered out of harmony with the Committee. The New York elders endorse this view in reference to M. Sturgeon's Revelation study at Hattie O. Henderson's home.


1024 Henry II, the Bavarian, dies and Conrad II of France, the first of the Salic Emperors, becomes king of Germany.

2/27 The Fort Pitt Committee's open letter to Bible Students is ready for distribution, which makes the Committee ready to appear in another aspect.


1026 Conrad II invades Italy, warring on, and conquering several cities there.

3/1 The Fort Pitt Committee's open letter first appears, warring on those opposed to its senders' executive authority.



1027 Conrad II is received joyfully at Rome by pope and people and is by the former crowned emperor.

3/2 The open letter effects a joyful reception of the Fort Pitt Committee by F.H. McGee and its supporters, who hail it as the rightful executive.


1028 The Slavs rebel against the empire.

3/3 Hattie O. Henderson circulates in the Brooklyn Fort Pitt Committee Ecclesia an open letter, which she called a love letter, against J. as a Committee member, and thus against the Committee.


1037 Conrad II wars against the rebellious archbishop of Milan, against whom he prevails on the pope to issue an excommunication.

3/12 Various members of the Committee resist M. Sturgeon's (Hattie O. Henderson being his mouthpiece therein) rebellion and attack on J., at a business meeting of the Brooklyn Church. F.H. McGee disapproves of his attack through her on J.


1039 The Italian Church disapproves of the attitude of Milan's archbishop, who though excommunicated, continues in his office.

3/14 The Brooklyn Church censures M. Sturgeon speaking through Hattie O. Henderson for his attacks on J. and incidentally on the Committee.


1039 The Moslem world unites, forbidding Christian propaganda in its territories. The Italian churches censure the Milan archbishop, who, though excommunicated, still officiates. Henry III becomes emperor.

3/14 The U.S. Department of Justice forbids further distribution of Vol. VII in America. The Brooklyn Church censures M. Sturgeon speaking through Hattie O. Henderson for his attack through her on J. and the Committee. Thereby the Committee solidifies.



1042 Edward the Confessor becomes king of England, and stands for freedom of preaching.

3/17 J. declines the request of the Philadelphia Church to preach to it until it repudiates the criticisms against the Evil Servant sermons made by some of its members. This repudiation the Church then made by resolution.


1046 Henry III through the Synod of Sutri deposes three popes (Benedict IX, Sylvester III and Gregory VI) for wrong-doing. The Christians encourage the Christian leaders of Spain to attack the Moors of Spain. From this time onward the popes wage an ever increasingly successful fight against the emperors.

3/21 The Committee repudiates J.F.R. in his three presidencies, i.e., of the W.T.B.&T.S., the I.B.S.A. and the P.P.A. The Society issues orders that the colporteurs work with the Six Volumes. From this time onward F.H. McGee increases his influence in and over the Committee.


1048 Bishop Wazo of Liege, Belgium, the sole protester against torture conversion, dies.

3/23 No longer are protests made against winning opposition converts by J.F.R.'s denouncing J. (at the Society's Convention, 3/23-3/26, at Brooklyn).


1049 Berengar of Tours, France, a star-member of the Thyatira Church, first attacks transubstantiation. Leo IV confirms the psuedo-Isidorian decretals.

3/24 J. in his lecture on Elijah and Elisha at Jersey City attacks the Societyites' claim to be antitypical Elijah. J.F.R. at the Brooklyn Convention, as the alleged steward, sanctions by inference Clayton Woodworth's interpretation of the Penny Parable.


1050 Berengar of Tours is condemned by Lanfranc, etc., for preaching and writing against transubstantiation.

3/25 Various Committee members, learning that J. against the Committee's resolution of Feb. 24 (night of Feb. 23) had preached on Elijah and Elisha at Jersey City, criticize, but R.H. Hirsh defends him.



1053 Final controversy between the Roman and Greek Churches breaks out.

3/28 Final controversy between the Committee adherents and M. Sturgeon's adherents breaks out.


1054 Final separation of the Roman and Greek Churches takes place. Berengar of Tours is tried by Hildebrand at the Synod of Tours; and a compromise decision results.

3/29 Final rupture between the Committee's and M. Sturgeon's adherents sets in. A compromise on J.'s preaching on Elijah and Elisha becomes understood, in view of the effects of J.'s preaching with good results at Jersey City and in view of his refusal to be bound by the resolution, as unscriptural.


1060 Normans under Roger I begin to conquer Sicily from the Saracens.

4/4 J.F.R. begins on legal lines to flay government officials in The Kingdom News, No. 2.


1063 Berengar renews the controversy against transubstantiation in France.

4/7 J. renews the attack on the Societyites as antitypical Elijah in a discourse on Elijah and Elisha at Newark, N.J.


1066 William the Conqueror invades and conquers England.

4/10 Arbitrary methods are applied in pilgrim work in the Committee.


1070 Berengar protests against muzzling him on transubstantiation.

4/15 At a Committee meeting J. protests against the resolution forbidding teaching new types, symbols, etc.


1072 Palermo, Sicily, falls from the Moslems to the Normans.

4/16 The third number of The Kingdom News further flays the government officials on conscription.