Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13


1073 Gregory VII becomes pope and reigns until 1085, greatly advancing papal absolutism against the civil powers and high churchism against the hierarchy and clergy. He starts a new papal policy of rulership.

4/17 F.H. McGee takes another advance step in dominating the Committee and its leading adherents, with marked success until 4/29. He starts during this time the idea of making the Committee a corporation.


1079 The controversy with Berengar ends, with the orthodox tolerating him in his retirement and silence. Peter Abelard, who became a star-member skeptical toward Romanism, is born.

4/23 With J.'s preaching, at Providence, R. I., fruitfully on types, symbols, etc., the controversy on such preaching subsides and peace soon results. From here on J. enters a skeptical opposition to F.H. McGee's evils.


1085 Syracuse, Sicily, falls from the Saracens to the Normans; the Spaniards defeat the Moors at Toledo. Gregory VII, one of the three greatest popes, dies in exile, after setting into operation a new papal theory of autocracy. Victor III, elected pope, begins to reign next year.

4/29 J.F.R. at Louisville attacks the government position on legal lines; he also vindicates the rights of colporteurs against the government's pertinent position. As he is overcome in argument, F.H. McGee presents a resolution at the Committee's meeting to rescind the muzzling resolution, which is passed by a vote of 5 to 2, I.F. Hoskins and J.D. Wright voting negatively. He moved that R.G. Jolly prepare a set of articles, which he, against R.G. Jolly's pertinent convictions, designed should introduce his corporation idea.


1090 The Normans complete the conquest of Sicily from the Moslems. Moslem leaders in North Africa stir up their followers to further attacks on Christians.

5/4 J.F.R. completes the refutation of government charges along legal lines. A U.S. Senate committee receives and files a report that at Society headquarters German spies are harbored, and thereby stirs up more opposition to Truth people.



1094 Reports of contemporaneous persecution of pilgrims in the Holy Land stir up Western Christendom.

5/8 Eight members of Bethel are arrested by the U.S. The report of this and of other persecutions greatly stirs up the Truth people everywhere.


1095 Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, France, enthuses Western Christendom to recover the Holy Land from the Moslems.

5/9 F.H. McGee arouses the Committee adherents to the first miniature crusade to recover the right of propaganda from persecuting civil powers.


1096 Godfrey of Bouillon and other princes start the first crusade, bent on delivering the Holy Land and the holy sepulchre from the Moslems.

5/10 J. and other Committee members, especially R.H. Hirsh and F.H. McGee, begin to study arguments to vindicate the right of the Lord's people on propaganda and their right to be unmolested while using that right. R.H. Hirsh, after consulting F.H. McGee and J. for pertinent arguments, seeks at Washington the quashing of his indictment.


1097 Two views arise on papal and imperial theories and practices, resulting in the rise of the two medieval political parties, Guelphs and Ghibelines.

5/11 R.G. Jolly reports a deed of trusteeship for the Committee; but F.H. McGee wants it changed into incorporation articles, against which R.G. Jolly, R.H. Hirsh and J. register Biblical arguments. Thereupon and henceforth the Committee divides into two groups on incorporation.


1099 The First Crusaders capture Jerusalem and set up a Christian kingdom there.

5/13 Wm. Hollister, I.F. Hoskins, R.H. Hirsh and J. see the U.S. attorney on the conscription case. J. refutes the U.S. attorney and defends the 8 arrested ones.



1101 Peter Abelard founds two schools where he teaches, one at Melun, the other at Corbeil.

5/15 J. more pointedly founds his opposition to the plan to incorporate the P.B.I., on the Levitical wagon type and on the organization of the Church.


1106 Peter of Bruys begins to preach against the hierarchical organization of the Romanist Church, as a corruption of the organization of the Church.

5/20 J. begins a more active opposition to organizing a P.B.I. corporation, as a corruption of the Church's organization.


1107 The Moors annihilate the flower of the Castilian nobility in the bloody battle of Ucles.

5/21 Government opposition gives the colporteurs a severe setback.


1113 Abelard begins as lecturer on theology at the Cathedral School at Paris a course of teaching that tends to undermine subserviency to Romanist principles and practices.

5/27 (evening of 26) J. at Wilmington, Del., preaching on Elijah and Elisha, sets forth certain principles that undermine certain theories and practices of the Committee group.


1118 Alfonzo I takes Sargossa from the Moors.

6/1 J.F.R.'s compromises on conscientious objection, published in the Tower of June 1, 1918, give advantages to the colporteurs.


1120-1138 The Saracens agitate throughout the Moslem world to attack and overthrow the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem and its subordinate kingdoms in the East, and declare them guilty of aggression on Islam.

6/3–6/21 The U.S. Court tries the eight Societyites at Brooklyn on four charges and at 10: 30 P.M. of June 20 all eight of them are declared guilty.


1121 Abelard is forced by the Council of Soissons to burn his book on the trinity.

6/4 J. is forced to give ground in a debate on the relations of the Societyites' three corporations.



1125 Lothair II becomes emperor of the Holy Roman German Empire; and Germany is divided by the wars between the dukes Frederick of Swabia and Conrad of Franconia.

6/8 The Committee's corporation group and its non-organization group clash on the corporation question; and F.H. McGee and R.G. Jolly are appointed a committee to draw up articles for a corporation, which the latter disapproves.


1126 Peter of Bruys is burned; Henry of Lausanne becomes his successor. Much discussion prevails on account of the disturbances in the empire, resulting in the pope siding with the emperor, threatening his opponents with defamation and excommunication.

6/9 I.F. Hoskins and I.I. Margeson denounce J., because he warned the first against his course. After the decision to call a convention F.H. McGee and his supporters say they will bring up there the Committee's differences.


1139 Innocent II holds the second (general) Lateran Council to heal the wounds of the Church. He submits to the terms of Roger, king of Sicily, and grants him the desired lands in Italy.

6/22 The Committee meets, and on J.'s motion decides to publish The Bible Standard before the Convention, elects R.H. Hirsh managing editor, fixes his and I.F. Hoskins' salary, and sanctions hiring an office. In all this F.H. McGee submits to J.'s proposals.


1141 The Synod of Lens, France, prejudiced in a secret meeting beforehand by Bernhard of Clairvaux, condemns Abelard unheard as a heretic, sending its condemnation to the pope, who approves it.

6/24 I.F. Hoskins and I.I. Margeson resent J.'s course of 6/22, and write to F.H. McGee, who endorses their general attitude toward J.


1142 Abelard dies. Arnold of Brescia as the newly-appointed star-member takes the lead in opposing hierarchical and clerical abuses.

6/25 J. ceases from his former course doctrinally to fight certain Committee views, and adopts a firmer course of opposition to abuses among P.B.I. leaders and supporters.



1146 Arnold of Brescia seeks the reformation of church and state along democratic lines.

6/29 J. begins an agitation for the ecclesias' control of the Committee's work.


1147 The second crusade is preached and begun.

6/30 The convicted Society leaders appeal for bail.


1148 The crusading armies are defeated and 1149 return home.

7/1 The appeal is studied and 7/2 is denied.


1149 Henry of Lausanne dies, imprisoned in a monastery.

7/2 New York elders boycott J. from preaching to the New York Ecclesia.


1152 Frederick Barbarossa becomes the emperor. The beginning of the fall of the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem sets in.

7/5 The old Board group gets control of the Committee. The convicted Society leaders reach the Atlanta penitentiary.


1153 Jerusalem falls to the Moslems.

7/6 The Society leaders are given prison jobs.


1154 Frederick Barbarossa humbles the Longobards.

7/7 R.H. Hirsch, R.G. Jolly and J. are given no more pilgrim appointments by the P.B.I. Committee, because of the contents of their preaching.


1155 Arnold of Brescia is burned.

7/8 J.'s view of the control of the P.B.I. by the ecclesias is by various Committee members rejected.


1158 The Longobards are defeated by Frederick Barbarossa, who gives them magistrates.

7/11 The old Board group, by the editorial committee's withholding articles, frustrates the decision of the Committee to send The Bible Standard to the printer.


1160 The siege of Milan is begun by Barbarossa.

7/13 The old Board group plans to oust R.H. Hirsh, R.G. Jolly and J. from the Committee.


1162 The Longobards lose Milan, Barbarossa razing it to the ground; his magistrates lose power in Lombardy.

7/15 The old Board group is fixed in its purpose to oust the three. It meets a setback in I.F. Hoskins' agreeing to send The Bible Standard's MS. to the printer, if I.I. Margeson does not return certain articles within 24 hours.



1165 Great confusion exists among the papal party, the imperial party, the Italian party and the Longobards, each aiming at conflicting purposes.

7/18 At the last Fort Pitt Committee meeting utmost confusion prevails, as the old Board party, F.H. McGee, some of the editors and the three non-corporation brothers disagree.


1170 Peter Waldo begins to study the Scriptures.

7/23 At R.H. Hirsh's suggestion J. seeks certain Scriptures for the first page of The Bible Standard.


1173 Waldo distributes his possessions to the poor.

7/26 J. suggests the free distribution of The Bible Standard at the Asbury Park Convention.


1174 The Longobards, supported by the pope, are warred upon by Barbarossa, who severely defeats them.

7/27 The evening of 7/26 the three non-corporation brothers, assisted by F.H. McGee, pass out The Bible Standard, against which I.F. Hoskins and I.I. Margeson vehemently protest. The old Board group arrays the pilgrims, elders and deacons against the three and forces the dissolution of the Committee.


1175 The Longobard cities renew their league and assemble a large army against Barbarossa.

7/28 J., supported by R.H. Hirsh and R.G. Jolly, rallies the opponents of corporationism by his Sunday A.M. discourse, exposing Committee conditions.


1176 The league of Longobard cities attacks the forces of Barbarossa, utterly defeating them and making him sue for peace with the pope.

7/29 J. debates (evening of 7/28) the corporation question with I.F. Hoskins, so completely worsting him that almost the whole convention was turned against the new Committee. In the morning business session their program was defeated almost unanimously and they had to sue for peace with F.H. McGee.



1177 Waldo and others form a company to teach Bible Truth.

7/30 The three non-corporationists agree to a publication of the Committee troubles.


1179 The third Lateran Council refuses the Waldensians the privilege of preaching.

8/1 The editorial committee through I.F. Hoskins refuses R.H. Hirsh the plates of The Bible Standard, which prevents the three from using it to publish the conditions in the Committee in the proposed publication.


1183 Barbarossa is compelled to accede to the independence of Lombardy from the empire.

8/5 (evening of 8/4) The P.B.I. Committee's resolution condemning the activities of the three non-corporationist brothers in effect severs relations with them, making them independent of it.


1184 The pope puts the Waldensians under the ban for their non-papally-authorized preaching.

8/6 The Committee's letter to the Philadelphia Ecclesia in effect bans the three brothers.


1187 Saladin, Moslem ruler, captures Jerusalem.

8/9 Imprisoned Society leaders suffer restrictions, through their adherents' meddling with the prison authorities.


1189 The third crusade sets in. Barbarossa defeats Saladin.

8–11 The P.B.I. Committee frustrates the Government's effort to involve it with W.F. Hudgings.



1190 The Order of the Teutonic Knights is founded.

8/12 Bros. Hirsh, Jolly and J. agree to work together against the P.B.I.'s efforts to corrupt the organization of the Church.


1191 Acre in Palestine is taken from the Saracens under Saladin by the Crusaders, especially under Richard the Lion-heart.

8/13 W.F. Hudgings overmatches the Government in his trial.


1192 Saladin under stress makes a truce with Richard the Lion-heart, advantageous to the latter.

8/14 The Government under stress gains a postponement of W.F. Hudgings' trial, advantageous to him. .


1198 Innocent III, the most powerful of all popes, becomes pope and immediately sends missionaries to convert the Albigensians, Waldensians and other antipapists.

8/20 F.H. McGee sets out on a course to win back those who had withdrawn from the P.B.I. and arouses his party in the Philadelphia Church to seek to win them back to the P.B.I.


1203 Innocent III starts Peter of Castlenau out to exterminate the Albigensians. He is checked.

8/25 At F.H. McGee's instigation I.F. Hoskins appears before the Philadelphia Ecclesia to prove Bros. Hirsh, Jolly and J. to be misrepresenters of P.B.I. conditions, and makes a complete failure of his attempt, in his debate with J.


1204 Peter of Castlenau and his main supporters receive another check from the Albigensians. The Inquisition is started by Innocent III.

8/26 (evening of 25) I.F. Hoskins and five other P.B.I. leaders receive another disastrous defeat before the Philadelphia Church, in debate with R.H. Hirsh, R.G. Jolly and J.F.H. McGee leaves, determined on a fixed repression of the Epiphany movement.


1209-1229 Innocent III starts a 20 years' long crusade against the Albigensians, in which great battles are fought, with heavy losses on both sides, the Albigensians being ultimately overthrown.

8/31–9/20 F.H. McGee incites a 20 days' conflict between P.B.I. and J.'s supporters, at Philadelphia and elsewhere. In parts of this conflict he writes his Brief Review, inserted into the Committee's August, A Letter of Importance, inserted into its September Bulletin, and many controversial letters are written. J.'s Another Harvest Sifting Reviewed is increasingly circulated, the Philadelphia Convention is held, the Investigative and Remedial Committee is appointed and begins its work. The Philadelphia Ecclesia withdraws its support from the P.B.I., asking for a refund of a part of its contribution, and discontinues to receive its pilgrims. No new methods of conflict are started after 9/20, when the Brief Review was written.



1212 Christians decisively defeat the Moors at Tolosa, Spain. The Crusade of Children sets in.

9/3 The Society's five conventions, ending the evening of the 2nd, arouse the colporteurs to sell the Six Volumes as against the militarists. Sharpshooters join in this crusade.


1215 At the Fourth Lateran Council Innocent III renews the excommunication of the Waldensians.

9/6 F.H. McGee restirs the P.B.I.'s boycotting of J.'s supporters and the Philadelphia Convention.


1217 The Fourth Crusade begins and lasts until the year 1221; Peter Waldo dies.

9/8 Under stimulation of F.H. McGee the so-called "Opposition" opposes registration under the draft until the enrolment of Sept. 12. The P.B.I.'s boycotting of the Philadelphia Convention changes J. from a milder to a severer course toward them.



1221 The Fourth Crusade ends.

9/12 J. is included in the draft ordered for this date.


1228 The Fifth Crusade sets in, under Emperor Frederick II, lasting until 1240. It is successful in  1228 and 1229, but in 1239 Theobald of Navarre and in 1240 Richard, Earl of Cornwall, fail in their parts of this crusade.

9/19, 9/20 The P.B.I. succeeds in overcoming govern-mental suspicions against it as to its Society relations, but J. as director of the Epiphany Movement, 9/30, and as pilgrim, 10/1 makes no headway against such suspicions.


1231 The Waldensians examine and criticize the empire and the papacy and seek a cure for these. Robert Grossetete, of Lincoln, England, rids himself of pluralities.

9/22 The Investigative and Remedial Committee begins its work with the Philadelphia Class partisans of the P.B.I. J. gives up advantages as a pilgrim in the interests of his work.


1232 The Inquisition, which Innocent III started in 1204, is given a more developed form by Gregory IX.

9/23 F.H. McGee develops the spy and intimidation system of the P.B.I., especially in its adherents in the Philadelphia Church.


1235 Grossetete becomes Bishop of Lincoln, England, and reforms the clergy.

9/26 J. enters into a course of reformation of pilgrims, dealing especially with Dr. S. N. Wiley.


1245 The General Council at Lyons rejects the excommunicated Frederick II.

10/6 F.H. McGee and supporters oppose the efforts of a faction in the committee to control him, and hold it at arm's length.


1248 St. Louis IX of France starts the Sixth Crusade.

10/9 J. decides to fight his drafting into the army.


1249 St. Louis IX after some successes meets reverses, is, captured and made to pay a heavy ransom for release.

10/10 After some success J. meets rebuffs and defeat in discussion with the draft officers.



1250 St. Louis sails to Acre, Palestine. Grossetete angers Innocent IV by demands of clerical reform

10/11 J. gives attention to Society matters as to W.F. Hudgings, and angers F.H. McGee by demands of reform in pilgrims and elders.


1252 Grossetete protests against papal encroachments in England.

10/13 At Alliance, O., J. protests against F.H. McGee's and the P.B.I.'s encroaching on pilgrim work.


1253 Grossetete makes his final, most stringent and successful protest against Innocent IV's foisting his absentee grandson upon a canonry in Grossetete's own cathedral.

10/14 (evening of 13) At Alliance, O., J. makes a final protest and denunciation against F.H. McGee's and the P.B.I.'s favoritism in support of their pilgrims' encroaching on the Epiphany Bible House pilgrims. This protest and denunciation receive the approval and support of the brethren at Alliance.


1254 St. Louis returns to France.

10/15 J. gives up attention to W.F. Hudgings.


1261 Supplementary Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals are handed to Pope Urban IV, who immediately guarantees them as genuine.

10/22 F.H. McGee works on the charter for the P.B.I., accepting revolutionistic views thereon from P.B.I. leaders, as proper.


1268 The papacy emerges victorious in its over 150 years' fight with the Hohenstaufen emperors.

10/29 F.H. McGee is victorious in his over five months' struggle with the controlling P.B.I. group.


1269 St. Louis starts the Gallican liberties of the French church.

10/30 J. vindicates and makes prevail the liberty of the ecclesias.


1270 Marsiglio is born. St. Louis begins the Seventh (last) Crusade, but dies at Tunis on his way to Palestine.

10/31 J. decides to refute in writing F.H. McGee's Brief Review and Letter of Importance and the whole wrong stand of the P.B.I. J. makes a final effort to oppose his drafting.



1274 The Fourteenth General Council (at Lyons, France) at the pope's direction lays down terms of peace between the pope and the emperor.

11/4 F.H. McGee and supporters lay down terms of peace between them and the opposing, controlling section of the Committee.


1278 A Concordat is made between Nicholas III and Rudolph, king of Germany, making legal the pope's victory over the empire and the Hohenstaufens in a conflict of over 150 years.

11/8 At the P.B.I. Providence Convention (11/6-11/10) final agreement is reached between F.H. McGee and supporters and the opposing controlling Committee faction on corporation organization, sealing the end of the over 150 days' conflict.


1285 Philip IV, the Fair, becomes king of France. Marsiglio begins his study of the relation of the pope to the civil power.

11/15 J. decides to publish a magazine as an occasional publication. He begins to write the first number of The Present Truth and gives special attention to the relation of F.H. McGee to the P.B.I.


1290 The supplementary Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals receive general acceptance in the Western Church.

11/20 The P.B.I. directors sign in duplicate the charter for their corporation.


1291 Acre, last crusaders' stronghold in Palestine, falls to the Saracens.

11/21 W.F. Hudgings' points against the Government's charge are refuted.


1294 Boniface VIII becomes pope.

11/24 F.H. McGee enters into a more tyrannous course than formerly.


1295 Boniface VIII and Philip IV, the Fair, of France, quarrel. The latter withholds all Church dues.

11/25 J. writes in The Present Truth, No. 1, on F.H. McGee's justifying the P.B.I.'s refusal to return the demanded proportion of the Philadelphia Church's contributions and advises discontinuance of contributions to the P.B.I., which many withhold.



1297 Boniface VIII is forced to make concessions to Philip, on examining his arguments and the reaction of France to them.

11/27 F.H. McGee is forced to make concessions through J.'s arguments and their influence on his supporters.


1301 Boniface sends by a messenger his bull Ausculta fili (Hear, O son), denouncing Philip for busybodying in general Church matters. Philip seizes the bull from the messenger's hand and publicly burns it.

12/1 B.A. Parkes, as F.H. McGee's messenger to J., denounces J. as busybodying in general Church matters. J. refutes his points in Present Truth, No. 1.


1302 Philip assembles the three estates of France, which, supported by the whole nation, approve Philip's rejecting the bull and his calling for a general council to hear charges against Boniface.

12/2 (evening of 1st) The Philadelphia Church, in elders, deacons and other members, almost unanimously approves J.'s opposition to F.H. McGee, etc., and passes a resolution to call a convention for Dec. 20-22 to take up charges against his papistical course.


1303 Boniface, bitterly protesting the king's stand and demand for a council, dies, insane. With him the papacy begins to wane. He writes the infamous bull, Unam Sanctam, claiming universal civil and ecclesiastical authority and the subjection of the state to the church (the pope). To him a contemporary said "Thou ascendedst [the papal throne] as a wolf, thou reignest as a lion, thou shalt die as a dog"—a correct description of him.

12/3 F.H. McGee and his supporters greatly resent J.'s criticism of him and them and his call for an investigative convention. F.H. McGee's course toward these two things betrayed the spirit of an unsound mind. From this time forward he and his supporters enter into a waning experience. He sets forth the thought that only the P.B.I. has the right to appoint pilgrims and manage the general Church's work, i.e., he is its actual controller.



1305 Clement V is forced by Philip's position to remain in France.

12/5 F.H. McGee is forced by J.'s course to occupy himself with J.'s positions.


1309 Marsiglio, the principal man and a member of the Sardis star, steps forth as reformer against papal control over the State. The papacy moves to Avignon, France, subject more or less to the influence of French kings.

12/9 Present Truth, No. 1, is mailed (evening of 12/8). It, among other things, repudiates the P.B.I.'s claim of exclusive control of the general Church's work. Its positions force F.H. McGee to move into J.'s sphere of influence.


1311 Augustinus Triumphus writes in defense of the pope, against Philip IV.

12/11 H.C. Rockwell writes sharply against J. to the Philadelphia Church, in defense of F.H. McGee.


1312 Marsiglio is rector of the Paris University.

12/12 J. takes Present Truth, No. 2, to the printer.


1314 Philip IV, the Fair, dies.

12/14 J. consents to the elders' meeting at which the P.B.I. sympathizing Philadelphia elders are to prefer charges against him, to take place Sunday,



1324-1328 Marsiglio's Defensor Pacis (Defender of Peace) appears and defends Louis, the Bavarian, as emperor against the pope in a controversy that involves Italy, France and Germany and greatly compromises the papacy.

12/15. 12/24–12/28 Present Truth, No. 2, appears and in its first article, The Church Completely Organized, and in its second article, In Defense of Peace Among God's People, defends the P.B.I. rights as against F.H. McGee's theories on its powers, thus arousing a controversy involving the P.B.I. and its supporters and F.H. McGee and his supporters within the Committee and J. and his supporters, much to the detriment of F.H. McGee, as the first article sets forth the Truth on the functions of the Church.



1342 Marsiglio vindicates the right of the civil power to dissolve marriages by absolute divorce and its right of sanctioning a remarriage in certain cases.

1/11, 1919 In the beginning of the article on the Youthful Worthies started on this day there is directly implied the right of the Lord Jesus to divorce the Great Company members and of the Lord's servants to announce such divorce.


1347-1350 John Tauler, a Sardis star-member, writes and preaches and does other ministerial works at Strasbourg, despite the pope's interdict then resting on the city. He opposes the pope's theories on the interdict.

1/16–1/19 Despite F.H. McGee's and his supporters' disapproval, J. writes the article on The Purposes of the P.B.I. Examined, in The Present Truth, No. 3, in which J. opposes F.H. McGee's theories on such disapproval.


1365 Pope Urban V demands 1,000 marks ($3,230.) as quit rent from England.

2/3 Instigated thereto by F.H. McGee, the Philadelphia P.B.I. class, claiming to be the original Philadelphia class, demands by letter a part of the Epiphany Ecclesia's property.


1366 Wyclif, a Sardis star-member, comes out against the payment of this quit rent.

2/4 J. comes out against granting the demand of the P.B.I. class, on the ground that every sifting movement that might leave the Philadelphia Epiphany class could make a like claim.


1367-1369 Wyclif attacks the begging friars with ever increasing vigor and telling effects.

2/5–2/7 J. writes for The Present Truth, No. 6, the article on J.F.R.'s second new view, which was agreed in by his fellows in bonds and which was first suggested by R.H. Barber.


1369-1377 Wyclif during these years increases his opposition to the pope, the papal curia and the monks, writing with increasing vigor and popular and royal approval against them.

2/7–2/15 J. begins and about ¾ completes writing the article on Revolutionism against God's arrangements for The Present Truth, No. 4, which is a devastating attack on the P.B.I.



1378-1384 The great papal schism sets in. Wyclif makes it the occasion of a great attack on the papacy and transubstantiation. He translates the Bible into English, attacks the mendicant orders and dies Dec. 31, 1384.

 2/16–2/22 Great division sets in, in the P.B.I. Committee. J. writes the later parts of the article on Revolutionism, etc., for Present Truth, No. 4, publishes the W.T.B.&T.S. Charter, attacks the P.B.I. as a counterfeit Christ and its partisan agents as spies in the Philadelphia Ecclesia.


1391 John Hus, a Sardis star-member, begins his reform work, stimulated thereto by Wyclif's writings.

3/1 J. answers letters of the Pittsburgh P.B.I. Class attacking him, and begins a reformation work toward it along the lines of the revolutionism article of Present Truth, No. 4.


1400-1412 Hus works progressively by preaching, lecturing, debating and writing against Romanist errors and practices, until in 1411 he is excommunicated, but nevertheless defends his position and orthodoxy until he is in 1412 driven into exile from Prague, where he had been a professor in the University, preacher and priest.

3/10–3/22 During this period J. writes the article on Salient Points in P.B.I. History, goes on a pilgrim trip to Harrisburg, Duquesne and Johnstown, carries on a controversial correspondence with the Pittsburgh P.B.I. Class, and is cut off from service in certain P.B.I. classes, e.g., Pittsburgh.


1411 Ferdinand of Castile, Spain, takes the fortress of Antequera and its surrounding country from the Moors.

3/21 U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, New York, yields to the Society lawyer's arguments to grant bail to the eight imprisoned Societyites.



1414-1418 The Council of Constance convenes to reform the church, head [pope] and members, and does away with three antipopes.

3/24–3/28 Great efforts in P.B.I. circles are made to change the evils in their midst, especially in F.H. McGee, the Committee and editorial staff.


1415 Hus is martyred by the Council of Constance; and Wyclif is condemned.

3/25 J. is "roasted" by the P.B.I. reformers for his attacks on the P.B.I.


1428 Wyclif's remains are dug up by Romanists and burned, and their ashes thrown into the River Swift.

4/7 P.B.I. pilgrims denounce J.'s strictures against P.B.I. revolutionism as exposed in Present Truth, No. 4.


1431-1449 The Council of Basel, continuing the efforts of the Council of Constance, seeks for 18 years to reform the church in head [pope] and members and cure the Bohemian revolt due to Hus' martyrdom. These are varyingly circumvented by the crafty popes, Eugene IV, 14311447, and Nicholas V, 1447-1455.

4/10–4/28 Great efforts in continuance of former ineffectual ones are made to reform the P.B.I. adherents, especially F.H. McGee, the P.B.I. directors and the editorial staff, and to win back J.'s supporters, his exposures causing the P.B.I. much trouble. These reform efforts are variously circumvented by F.H. McGee's tactics.


1438 Roman and Greek Catholics discuss reunion at the Ferrara Council.

4/17 The P.B.I. discusses with representatives of the B.S.C. a working union.


1439 A paper agreement for reunion is made between the Council of Florence and Greek delegates.

4/18 A working agreement is made by the P.B.I. for it and the B.S.C.


1440 The Greeks reject the plan of reunion with the Romanists.

4/19 At the first meeting of the B.S.C. it fails to agree to a working alliance with the P.B.I., but desires fraternal relations with it.


1452 Savonarola, a star-member of the Philadelphia Church, is born.

5/1 On this, the 16th anniversary of J.'s renouncing the Lutheran Church and the 15th of his entering the



pilgrim work, he resolves on more effective service.


Here the picture, beginning in 1459, changes in the Little Roman Catholic Church from the P.B.I. and F.H. McGee to the Society and its leader, J.F. Rutherford, and continues in this changed form until the end of the Small Miniature.


1466 The wars between the Christians and the Moors in Spain enter their decisive stage.

5/15 The eight convicted Societyites are freed from their 20-year sentence through the decision of the U.S. Court of Appeals.


1479 John Wessel, the principal man in the Philadelphia Church, lays down the four cardinal principles of the Philadelphia or Reformation Church: (1) the Bible the sole source and rule of faith and practice; (2) justification through faith alone in Christ's merit; (3) Christ the sole Head of the Church; (4) only the truly consecrated are Priests. The announcement of these truths arouses the Cologne Inquisition to seek to apprehend him, but he escapes to Holland.

5/28 J. writes the Questions of General Interest for Present Truth, No. 8, in which he sets forth the four cardinal principles of the Reformation of the Small Miniature Gospel Age, which are similar to those that were used in the Gospel-Age Reformation. These principles struck mainly at Rutherfordism. The Societyites seek to restrain J. in argument on these subjects; but he successfully escapes their arguments.


1480 Mulei Hassan, Moorish king of Granada, Spain, attacks and takes Zahara.

5/29 Societyites are given a setback in seeking to get the ban removed from Vol. VII and other literature.


1489 John Wessel dies.

 6/7 The Post Office requires J. to print a smaller edition of No. 8.


1490-1498 Savonarola does reformation work at Florence, Italy.

6/8–6/16 J. works on the distribution of No. 6, which was printed in Feb., but withheld from mailing until J.F.R. would return to his work, beginning this distribution work with addressing the wrappers.



1492 The kingdom of the Moors in Spain is finally overthrown, after an existence of 781 years (711-1492).

6/10 Societyites finally gain liberty as to colporteuring with Vol. VII, especially in its vest-pocket edition, after over two years' hindrances thereon.


1498 Savonarola is martyred at Florence, at the instigation of Alexander VI, one of the most wicked of all popes, through the magistracy of Florence.

6/16 J. (and other opposition leaders), at J.F.R.'s instigation, is by Geo. H. Fisher at the New Haven Society Class (evening of 6/15) accused of "betraying" the Society leaders to the Government.


1511-1512 After discussing matters with Staupitz, his superior, Luther goes to Rome, where he witnesses the unholy doings of the Curia and the lower clergy and becomes clear on justification by faith alone.

6/29–6/30 R.H. Hirsh and J. discuss Society conditions and Geo. H. Fisher's charge of J.'s alleged betraying the Society leaders, etc., and J. attains clearness on the Society works matters through seeing faith as the justifying element in his anti-Society work.


1517 Luther, a star-member, nails the 95 theses on the door of the Castle Church at Wittenberg, attacking Tetzel's indulgence traffic.

7/5 J. at the Philadelphia General Convention denounces the Society leaders' course of indulging its adherents' loose conduct to gain their support.


1518 Multitudes give Luther their confidence and support against the pope and his supporters.

7/6 The Philadelphia General Convention gives J. a vote of confidence and support against J.F.R., etc.


1520 Luther burns the pope's bull of excommunication and a copy of the canon law.

7/8 J. defies J.F.R.'s denouncing him as a member of the Judas class, and repudiates his regulations.


1521 Luther at Worms refuses to submit to the pope's and demand that he submit to the Society's teachings and practices

7/9 J. refuses to submit to J.F.R.'s and his Board's emperor's demands to recant and submit to papal teachings and practices.



1522 Luther's New Testament, the main foundation of his teachings, is published.

7/10 The first copies of Present Truth, No. 6, which in its article on The Last Related Acts of Elijah and Elisha furnishes the main foundation truths of the Epiphany, is circulated.


1521-1522 Zwingli, a star-member, studies from John Wessel's view the matter of the symbolic meaning of the words of the Lord's Supper: "This is My body; … this is My blood," and endorses this view in 1522, as against transubstantiation and instrumentalization.

7/9–7/10 J. studies the view that the Society is the business channel of the Mahlite Merarites and recognizes that it is not the channel of the Priests, either as mouthpiece or as controller, and as such merely represents and helps Levites and counterfeit priests and their sacrifices.


1523 Hubmaier, a star-member, rejects and preaches against infant baptism, and preaches the baptism of consecrated adults as the sign or symbol of their consecration.

7/11 J. denounces the Societyites' swallowing without proof the "channel's" teachings, and holds that only such teachings as are understood and proven be accepted.


1528 Hubmaier is burned by Romanists at Vienna for Truth preaching.

7/16 J. is "roasted" by Societyites for circulating No. 6.


1531 Servetus, a star-member, writes and publishes his book, On The Errors Of The Trinity.

7/19 J. collects data proving that the Society as a corporation is controller and the I.B.S.A. and P.P.A. are subordinate to it.


1532 Servetus writes and publishes his book on Dialogues On The Trinity.

7/20 J. continues to collect material on the supremacy of the Society over the I.B.S.A. and the P.P.A.


1533 Cranmer, a star-member, issues the teaching that the Church is subject to the civil powers, and not vice versa, as Rome teaches.

7/21 J. sets forth the thought of the Board's controllership in Society affairs and business, as against that of its president.