Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13




Ex: 5: 1—7: 13; 10: 21-29




WE WILL begin this chapter with a study of Ex. 5. In it Pharaoh's course counteractive of the first works of Moses and Aaron for Israel's deliverance is set forth; and it types Satan's course counteractive of the first works of Jesus and the Church during the Parousia for the deliverance of the Church and the World. Moses' and Aaron's first going in to Pharaoh after their first dealings with Israel types Jesus' and the Church's first public efforts after their first private dealings with Spiritual Israel (v. 1). We are not to understand Moses' and Aaron's speaking with Pharaoh (v. 1) to type Jesus and the Church speaking directly to Satan as the one directly addressed; for the facts of the reaping time show that the Church made no address as Jesus' mouthpiece directly to Satan. How, then, was it done? In circulating the magazine, The Herald Of The Morning, in selling the book, The Three Worlds, in delivering lectures, in giving tracts and in speaking and writing letters to, and conversing with the public as citizens of Satan's empire, the Church as Christ's mouthpiece spoke to Satan, who was a close listener to the message delivered to his subjects; hence in reality he was the person mainly addressed by the message.


(2) In quoting and explaining the pertinent Scriptures in proof of their ambassadorship for the God of the Faithful and in proof of their message, Christ and the Church antityped Moses and Aaron saying, "Thus saith the Lord God of Israeli" (v. 1). In delivering



their message of salvation for the elect and non-elect, with ardent desire that its contents be realized, they antityped Moses and Aaron saying, "Let my people go." In declaring the securing of the blessed enjoyment of the high calling and restitution salvations (the feast of v. 1) as being the design of God in making the request for antitypical Israel's release, Jesus and the Church antityped the declaration that Moses and Aaron made as to the object of their request for Israel's release, "that they may hold a feast." In showing that the high calling and restitution salvations would be glorious, happy experiences, they antityped that part of the explanation of Moses and Aaron on the object of the release asked for—that it was for a festival purpose. In declaring that these salvations would result in glory to God in the highest they antityped Moses' and Aaron's statement that the feast was to be held to (for) the Lord. And in declaring that the antitypical feast was to be held in complete isolation and separation from Satan and his empire, they antityped Moses' and Aaron's saying that the feast was to be held in the wilderness. The fact that the request in the type was made in the name of the Lord God of Israel was to suggest the thought to Pharaoh's mind that whereas he was oppressing an apparently weak and meek nation, he was in reality oppressing the favorites of the Omnipotent, which fact was calculated to arouse a fair-minded person to a favorable response to the request. These same thoughts underlie the form of introducing the antitypical request—the quotation and explanation of pertinent Scriptures proving that Jehovah is antitypical Israel's covenant God.


(3) It will be noted that vs. 1-5 treat of the first appearance of Moses' and Aaron's many appearances before Pharaoh. This fact enables us to locate the time of its antitype. Remembering that Moses' arrival in Egypt types Jesus' Second Advent setting in, and Aaron's arrival there types the Church in the Second Advent time coming into the office of Jesus' mouthpiece,



and that their first work before the elders and the Israelites types Jesus' and the Church's first work in the Second Advent toward the leading and other brethren, we are enabled to see that their first appearance before Satan was in the first public work done in the Parousia—the first cry, "Behold the Bridegroom," from the Spring of 1877 to that of 1878 (Matt. 25: 6). In a literary way this public work was done through (1) the magazine, The Herald Of The Morning, financed and largely directed by Bro. Russell, and edited by Bro. Barbour, assisted by Bros. Russell and Paton, (2) the small book, The Three Worlds, written by Mr. Barbour and financed by Bro. Russell, and (3) Bro. Russell's tract, The Object And Manner Of Our Lord's Return. This public work was further performed by lectures, the main lecturers—pilgrims—being Bros. Russell, Barbour, Paton, Keith, Mann, Rice, Jones and Adams. The book, The Three Worlds, was sold by pilgrims and sharpshooters, and the tract, The Object And Manner, etc., was circulated by pilgrims and volunteers. Thus on a small scale sharpshooter and volunteer work was entered into; and the pilgrim work was going on full fledged in this first public effort of the Harvest. It is this work that is typed by the statements of v. 1.


(4) Pharaoh's defiant answer (v. 2) was (1) a denial of God's attributes as sufficient to warrant His request of Pharaoh for Israel's release; (2) a refusal to recognize Him as God; and (3) a refusal to obey Him in His request. In this he types (1) Satan's denial of God's attributes as sufficient to warrant God's request of him to release God's people from his empire and slavery; (2) his refusal to recognize Him as God; and (3) his refusal to obey Him in His request. We are not to understand that Satan gave these answers to Jesus and the Church in so many words orally. Rather he did this by his acts, i.e., by using his human mouthpieces, especially the clergy, but also politicians and aristocrats, to speak these thoughts



in contradiction to the public message of God's mouthpieces from 1877 to 1878. The Faithful in their public work were proclaiming the ransom, the object, manner and time of our Lord's return, the election of the Church, restitution for the world, future probation, the overthrow of Satan's empire—and all as an outflow of God's perfect wisdom, power, justice and love; and incidentally they refuted the opposing errors, like self-atonement, Christ's return in the flesh to destroy the universe, to save the saintly only, to damn the wicked, body and soul, at some unknown date far in the future, Calvinistic predestinarianism, eternal torment, the consciousness of the dead, saints' entering into their reward immediately at death, judgment day as doomsday, the Divine right of the clergy, kings and aristocrats, etc. It was such preaching with an ardent desire for its fulfilment that constituted the request, "Let my people go." The clergy, the politicians and aristocrats and their partisan supporters by contradicting these truths and presenting their pertinent errors contradictory of these truths (1) denied that God's attributes were such as to warrant a change of view and resultant acts, such as were proclaimed and desired by the Faithful. Their contradictory course was (2) a refusal to recognize Jehovah as a God of perfect wisdom, justice, love and power. Their contradictory course was (3) a refusal to liberate God's people from the errors, oppression and violence in which they were held. To such a course of contradiction they added such obstructive acts as they could to hinder the freedom of God's people. But in all this they did not act independently as of their own initiative. Satan inspired their thoughts, egged them on to their contradictions and made it profitable for, and defensive against loss to, them to pursue the thwarting course that they took. Hence it was really Satan (1) who denied God's attributes as sufficient to warrant His request of him for antitypical Israel's release; (2) who refused to recognize Him as God,



and (3) who refused to obey Him in His request. And in so doing Satan antityped Pharaoh's answer.


(5) These Satanic contradictions and obstructions set in immediately after Satan's mouthpieces caught the drift of the first public message of the Parousia; and Satan was a Johnny-on-the-spot to give them a quick understanding of the message's import; for it was not a new thing to him, since he first heard it at the mouth of Jesus, the Apostles and the Apostolic Church; and though he had suppressed and misrepresented it for centuries in the meantime, he was compelled between 1872 and 1877 to hear it again unfolding as it was given privately to the Lord's people, first as a new work from 1872 to 1874, and then as a developed work from Oct., 1874, to April, 1877. But such contradictory and obstructive tactics did not stop the messengers. Rather it stimulated them to renewed efforts; and these renewed efforts are typed by the repeated and elaborated request of v. 3. The word to meet (v. 3) in such connections carries the force of revealing oneself (Ex. 4: 24; Num. 23: 3, 4, 15, 16). These words, "the God of the Hebrews hath met with us," antitypically do not imply that the Church was inspired by Jehovah, but that they were illuminated as to His mind expressed in the Bible and explained to them. They antityped this statement by proving their views to be Scriptural, reasonable and factual. The politeness with which the request was made in the type antitypes the graciousness of the spirit of the Church in proclaiming publicly the glad tidings of the true gospel. Moses' and Aaron's statement of the request in v. 3 is the fulfilment of the Lord's pertinent charge (Ex. 3: 18); and as the antitypes were given under that verse we need not repeat them here. The reason given by Moses and Aaron for the request, "lest He fall upon us with pestilence, or with the sword," is a new item. The thought of the type is clear. It types how graciously and apologetically self-preservation was given as a reason for the antitypical request; for if antitypical



Israel would not undertake and persevere in the involved spiritual journey, consecration made and carried out, it is certain that the Lord would send to them a strong delusion—a symbolic pestilence (2 Thes. 2: 9-12)—as He has done and is doing to the unfaithful from 1878 onward in the six harvest siftings. The antitypical sword of v. 3 represents controversial Truth refuting the errors of the unfaithful. This, too, has been enacted since 1878 toward the unfaithful antitypical Israelites. These are not noted in the type, which treats of the real Israelites only.


(6) Pharaoh's rebuking Moses and Aaron for arousing the desire of liberty in the Israelites' hearts (v. 4) types Satan's rebuking Jesus and the Church for arousing in antitypical Israel's hearts the desire of freedom from sin, error, selfishness, worldliness and death. Such desire in Israel, making them labor less, types the desire of antitypical Israel freeing it measurably from the oppression of sin, error, selfishness, worldliness and death. In the antitype this is wrought through repentance, faith, justification, consecration and their faithful performance. This, of course, hindered the progress of the curse in them, just as Israel's being partly relieved of their work freed them from oppressive labor. And as these effects were the respective fruits of the labors of the two Moseses and Aarons, so Pharaoh and Satan were angry at, and rebuked the respective Moseses and Aarons. Pharaoh's charging Moses and Aaron to perform slaves' work (v. 4) types Satan's efforts to subject Jesus and the Church to sin, error, selfishness; worldliness and death, which he attempted throughout the Harvest, especially in the six siftings. As Pharaoh blamed Moses and Aaron (v. 5) with the responsibility of deterring many from labor, some of whom were oppressed Egyptians and others of whom were oppressed members of other nations, who caught the spirit of liberty proclaimed by Moses and Aaron, and who later actually left Egypt with the Israelites (Ex. 12: 38; Num. 11: 4); so Satan blamed



Jesus and the Church with the responsibility of relieving from many effects of the curse antitypical Israelites and some who were not antitypical Israelites, but who longed for liberty from its oppression, they mingling among God's people. This rebuke came from Satan through his special servants in church, state and capital, who, apprehensively observing the spirit of liberty from the curse proclaimed worldwide and being received by many, rebuked by their contradictory teachings and obstructive tactics the Church, and thereby Jesus, for fostering such a spirit by their public message of "liberty to the land and to the inhabitants thereof," as well as to the Church before the world of mankind.


(7) Vs. 6-9 show the counteractive measures that Pharaoh took to hinder Israel's obtaining their freedom. He would remedy the situation from his standpoint by increasing the burdens of the people and thus make them work more, that by harder labor he might drive out of them the alleged folly of aspiring to liberty, when they would be made to feel that such aspirations only increased their burdens. So Satan, while protesting through his clerical, political and aristocratical mouthpieces against the message of Christ and the Church given from April, 1877, to April, 1878, on liberty from the curse through the two salvations, also set into operation counteractive measures calculated to wear out the desire for freedom from the curse in those who were more or less animated by selfishness, by which Satan supposed all to be animated, and thus to withhold them from seeking release from the oppression of sin, error, selfishness, worldliness and death, in the desire for a mere amelioration of their increased burdens. It is written, "Jordan overfloweth all his banks all the time of harvest" (Josh. 3: 15), i.e., during the entire time of the Jewish, Gospel and Millennial Harvests, the curse of sin, error and death overflows in great increase above other times. The history of the Jewish Harvest proves this. We are eye



witnesses of this fact as taking place since 1874, and Scripturally, know that we will continue to witness it until 1954-1956. More particularly and aboundingly is this true during the present Harvest, with which the type under study is concerned. Shortly we will give some particulars thereon.


(8) The antitypical taskmasters of v. 6 are sin, error, selfishness, worldliness and death; and the officers of the people are the reformer class among God's nominal people, who, while seeking to stay some features of the curse, more or less enforce others (see vs. 10-21). As examples of such reformers we might mention in the political world: Gladstone, Liebknecht, Mussolini, Tolstoy, Lenine, Debs, Bryan, (Ramsey) MacDonald; in the moral world: Comstock, (Francis) Murphy, (Frances) Willard; in the religious world: Doellinger, Moody, Sunday, (Gypsy) Smith, (Sam) Jones, Farrar, (Arthur) Pearson; in the capitalistic world: (Ida) Tarbell, (Thomas) Lawson and other muckrakers. While all of these sought in their various fields to stay certain effects of the curse, they undoubtedly led the people into other features of it and thus were used by Satan to oppress the people. Satan's counteractive measures began in 1877, as the statement of the type (v. 6—"the same day") and the facts of the antitype prove; but we are not to understand that such oppression ceased when the next public work set in. Rather throughout the harvest such a policy is followed by Satan. This feature as peculiar in successive antitypes and symbols, as running on to a completion, we can see well illustrated in Elijah's smiting Jordan, his and Elisha's crossing it, their walking and talking on the other side, in the pouring out of the seven vials, etc., etc. We are not to understand that each vial ceased to be poured out any longer after the next one was begun to be poured out; for the facts show that each volume continued by its refutations to plague those whom it refuted, despite new ones joining the refutative work. This peculiarity,



of course, does not show in the typical plagues, nor in the symbolization of their antitypes in Rev. 16, nor in types in general. Yet this is the way the fulfillments of practically all successive types and symbols occur. Hence we will not need in our study to mention this fact every time it occurs, which is frequent.


(9) Pharaoh's (vs. 7-9) charging the taskmasters and officers to make the people deliver the same number of bricks and provide their own straw for them, which previously they did not have to do, and thus greatly to increase their burdens, types Satan's manipulating the forms of the curse and the reformers in such ways so as to increase the curse. In the political, industrial and financial world he began this by making the gold standard oppress the peoples, especially in America, and increased this oppression by tinkering with reform measures, like the Bland-Allison Act of 1878 and the Sherman Purchasing Act of 1890, and by securely fastening the gold standard on the nations indebted to Britain and the silver standard on some non-debtor nations purchasing from England. The resultant oppression on the farmers of the world and on the silver standard countries of the world is known to everybody. The farmers in India and China are now among other causes groaning under this condition. Retributively Britain is now suffering as a result. The Russo-Turkey war of 1877 and 1878, the European alliances, the tariff walls of Europe and America, are other exhibitions of this increased oppression in the political world at that time, the reformers as a sum total of their efforts only making the situation worse, as America's experience with prohibition and as Europe's experience with republicanism, socialism, communism, totalitarianism, anarchism and syndicalism prove. In the religious world this oppression has been working especially since 1878 in the six great siftings among the consecrated, the justified and the mere professors, the reformers' creed-revising efforts resulting in adding more fuel to the religious fires.



(10) Certainly the facts prove that "Jordan overfloweth all his banks all the time of harvest," so far as the present Harvest is concerned. Never was vice in the form of white slavery, adultery, fornication, unnatural sins, drunkenness, gluttony, bootlegging and gang lawlessness so rampant as since 1877. Never did poverty pinch so many as since 1877, especially since 1914. Never has education been more abused, depraved and emasculated than since 1877. In statecraft the following are some of the increases of the curse since 1877: land and market hunger, protecting the rich as against the poor, judicial, executive and legislative corruption in office and elections, the spoils system, boss rule, graft, land frauds, squandering public funds, using office for personal gain, militarism, crooked diplomacy, reducing solemn treaties to scraps of paper, the rule of might as against right, oppressing weak nations, unjust wars, imposing ruinous reparations on the defeated, land and people grabbing, debt repudiations, fomenting wars and revolutions, disregard of law and order, class legislation, heavy taxation, etc., etc., etc. In the financial and industrial world the following evils have either come into existence or greatly increased since 1877: stock gambling, watering, manipulating and defrauding, legal technicalities, miscarriages and delays, price manipulating, profiteering, monopolizing natural products by the few to the exploitation of the many, destroying competition and competitors, substituting inferior materials, using false weights and measures, adulterating foods, materials, etc., controlling and subsidizing the press, landlordism, so-called efficiency methods, dishonesty in bank and trust officials, dishonest book-keeping, bribery for special privileges, tax dodging, escape from punishment or from large punishment by rich and great, and unmerciful sentences on poor and small criminals, unauthorized use and peculation of trust funds, insurance company frauds, railroad crookedness, trust abuses, luxurious living in the face of



widespread want, wars of financiers, dissipation of wealth, buying elections, manufacturing panics and wars for financial gain, etc., etc., etc. In the world of labor the following occur: class hatred, labor union dictation to capitalists and laborers, unjustifiable strikes and lockouts, unjust boycotts, riots, pitched battles between capital's hirelings, strike breakers, and strikers, terrorism, incendiarism, sabotage, etc. The following from the pen of Mr. F. Simonds, the historian, describes certain present evil conditions:


"Seventeen years [since 1914] of almost continuous conflict, interrupted only by incomplete truce, have reduced the whole (European) continent to a state of economic and social disorder unparalleled since the Thirty Years' War. Nations are bankrupt, trade is reduced to barter, money has lost its value, even the pound sterling has faltered. The unemployed millions are meagerly fed by public treasuries, themselves inadequately filled by taxation which is extortionate. The miseries of the so-called peace of today, miseries reaching to every human being within national limits, defy exaggeration. It is clear that what has been going on since 1914 cannot continue."


Surely these facts show the increase of the curse in the political, business and labor world since 1877.


(11) The same is true in family life, as the following facts show: marital thoughtlessness, selfishness, oppression, disobedience, disrespect, unhappiness, infidelity, contentiousness, hatred, etc., the divorce evil, parental irresponsibility for, neglect of, indifference to, non-support of, and non-or mistraining of children, filial disrespect, lovelessness, disobedience, breaking up of the home life of families, casting old parents adrift unprovided for, etc. In the religious world the curse of erroneous doctrines and practices has greatly increased since 1877, as the following facts will prove: the spread of no-ransomism in the forms of direct ransom denials, self-atonement, works justification, Christian Science, Spiritism, evolutionism, the spread



of infidelism in the forms of universalistic self-atonement, rationalism, higher criticism, materialism, atheism, agnosticism, pantheism, deism, polytheism, increased fanatical sectism, the spread of combinationism, in sectarianism, in Protestantism, in Catholicism and Protestantism, in Churchianity with heathenism and Reformed Judaism, materialism, fadism, faith cureism, occultism, pseudo-science, secularism, the increase of thwarted reformism in the forms of prohibition of liquors, tobacco and narcotics, in the family relations, politics, industry, capital, social conditions, etc., the spread of contradictionism against the teachings of God's priesthood, especially in almost all matters connected with the two salvations, and finally the spread of revolutionism against the teachings and arrangements of God among the consecrated, the justified and the mere professors. In what is called "society" the caste feeling, the ostentatiousness, the luxury, the pride, the formality, the rivalry, the envy, the spite, the indifference to the needy, the emptiness, the aimlessness, the vanity, the selfishness and the laziness of it all, ever increasing, manifest Satan's oppression. All these facts prove that Satan has greatly increased the oppression of the curse since 1877 to counteract the Second Advent work of Jesus and the Church in its relation to the deliverance of the world from Satan's clutches. These he began according to the type (vs. 6-12) in 1877 and intensified increasingly ever since. He has been accomplishing this oppression by appealing to the selfishness of certain persons whose self interests make it profitable to them to do these evil things. Thus he makes it profitable to some—antitypical Egyptians, his servants—to oppress others. He has made conditions among men to conduce to such evils. Thus he is the real oppressor, however much secondary agents act.


(12) Pharaoh's claim (v. 8) that the Israelites were lazy types Satan's claim that people want too easy a time in desiring release from his bondage and in desiring



the liberty that service of God gives. Pharaoh's heartless cruelty in commanding the taskmasters and officers to crush the Israelites by more and prostrating work (v. 9) types Satan's charge to increase the woes that sin, error, selfishness, worldliness, the dying process and the number going into the death state bring upon the people. The antitypical taskmasters were commanded so to do by Satan's direct mustering of them for this diabolical work (Heb. 2: 15); and the reformers (officers of the people) were commanded to do this by circumstances which Satan wrought in their lives, in several ways: (1) by designedly getting them to advocate what to the conservatives seemed radical and very selfish, and then by appealing to the self-interests of the conservatives bringing the reform efforts to naught, e.g., Mr. Bryan's bimetalism advocacy, etc.; (2) by getting them more or less to compromise their reform principles and practices for the sake of practical exigencies—expediency—which likewise increased the woes of the curse; (3) by making it more or less advantageous to some of them to drop their reform agitation; (4) by putting them into such positions as lured them on by more or less selfish considerations to differ from one another; (5) by giving them some slight success when it had to be conceded; and (6) especially by constant suggestions, internal and external, appealing to their desires to pursue a course that he wanted them to take. Pharaoh's charge (v. 9) that the taskmasters and officers dissuade the people from listening to vain (literally, deceitful) words, which by insinuation he charged Moses' and Aaron's propaganda were, types Satan's charge that the especial three features of the curse (sin, error and death) and the reformer leaders of the people by acts and teachings seek to refute, as erroneous, impractical, unfactual, unreasonable and unscriptural, the Parousia and Epiphany teachings of Jesus and the Church on freeing God's people from Satanic rule and oppression forever.



(13) The going forth of the taskmasters and officers of the people types the procedure of Satan whereby he initiated the first start of the added oppression. Their speaking to the people types, not words, but oppressive acts ("acts speak louder than words") whereby the added oppression was brought to the attention of antitypical Israel, e.g., the single gold standard in 1877, first beginning to make itself oppressively felt, was a speaking of the added oppression by the five forms of the curse as the antitypical taskmasters, while the reformers began to agitate palliative measures, starting in 1877, immediately after the oppression began to make itself felt, which expressed themselves legally in 1878 in the Bland-Allison Act. An example of this in the religious world is the antitypical taskmaster, error, initiating ante-millennial and post-millennial movements in the more conservative nominal churches, and in the more liberal of the nominal churches a pre-millennial movement that advocated Christ's return in the flesh to set up a kingdom for the blessing of the then living only. Similarly intentioned measures were introduced as to vice, society, state, nominal church, family, etc. The taskmasters' and officers' saying, "Thus saith Pharaoh" (v. 10), types that the curse features and the reformers by their acts showed that the real source of their endeavors was Satan and an acting out of Satan's principles. The statement (v. 10), "I will give you no more straw," types how the pertinent acts declared that the former relative leniency of the curse would no longer be allowed. Their charge to the people (v. 11), "Go, get your straw where you can find it," types their acts that pressed the people on into deeper and heavier oppression. The statement (v. 11), "Yet not ought of your work shall be diminished," types the acts whereby these showed that none of the past oppressive features of the curse—sin, error, selfishness, worldliness and death—would be taken away. Hence Satan's purpose was to continue to act as the one who



had the power of death in the application of former methods of executing the curse and adding others.


(14) The straw-gathering scattering of the people throughout Egypt (v. 12) types the spreading throughout the present evil world of the increased rigor of the curse during the Parousia and Epiphany and the affecting of all God's people with these added afflictions. The people seeking stubble (v. 12) instead of straw, which the owners would refuse to give, stubble thus being easier for them to get than straw, represents how the increasingly oppressed have been grasping at palliative measures, which, while increasing the evils of the curse beyond what they were before the Harvest, promised some measure of relief from the worse threatening evils pressing in on all sides. The task masters' hastening the people (v. 13) types the speeding up of the curse, which certainly since 1877 has been increasingly going on. This is evident in the increasingly great rush of evils in state, church (nominal), family, finance, industry, commerce, society, the underworld, transportation, agriculture, labor, radicalism, education, science, militarism, pacifism, efficiency methods, etc., etc., etc. The ruthless and unceasing sway of abounding selfishness on all sides, speaking louder than words, demands of the people that they undergo to the full—to the last ounce ("Fulfill your works, your daily tasks, etc."—v. 12), the increasing forms and rigors of the curse in addition to those of its forms existing before the Harvest and up to 1877. And in these added forms of the increased curse each aggravates the other. Thus sin, error and death increase one another and each separately in itself increases. The beating of the officers (v. 14) types the afflicting of the reformers by selfishness, worldliness, sin, error and death. The vilification of, and opposition to, such reformers as Lawson, Bryan, La Follette, Willard, Comstock, Wheeler and McBride in the financial, political and moral world; as Mitchell, Gompers, Murray and Greener the



trades-union world; as Debs, MacDonald, Liebknecht, Tolstoy, etc., in the socialist world, exemplifies how sin in others beat the reformers. Their own errors made them go astray in damaging mistakes and harried them in most cases to untimely graves. Thus were the antitypical officers beaten. Satan's traitorously turning the middle against the ends is illustrated in these cases—himself by the five forms of the curse, as the antitypical taskmasters, beating the officers that he had put over the people to oppress them even to an extremity.


(15) The taskmasters' demanding (v. 14) from the overseers the reason why they had not as formerly delivered yesterday and today the required number of bricks types how the acts of the curse rebuked the reformers for not themselves having suffered enough oppression, as well as for not having oppressed the people of God enough, which resulted from their reformatory efforts tending to relieve the people from a measure of the curse. The yesterday refers to the time of the Israelites' ceasing to labor so hard after the first message went out, beginning at 1874 and lasting to April, 1877. The today refers to the time following April, 1877; for we are to remember that the picture goes on to a completion, even to the end of the Epiphany. The sufferings of the reformers have been moving them to more strenuous and concerted public efforts to put aside the evils of the curse, each group fighting its own particular choice of evils to be antagonized. These more strenuous and concerted public acts are typed by the officers of the people complaining to Pharaoh (vs. 15-18) of their being mistreated, of the ill success that they have had and of the sufferings imposed upon them by evil opponents, whose sins, selfishness, worldliness and errors, as well as those of the reformers themselves, have been afflicting the latter, grinding them down in the death process. Their sufferings under the aggravated forms of the curse speak as acts in antitype of the officers' complaining that while the straw was withheld (v. 16) from them



and their underlings, they and their underlings had to make as many bricks as when straw was provided.


(16) From the accusation of the taskmasters in v. 14 and from the officers' statements in v. 15, we infer that the superintendents of the slaving Israelites had, in addition to overseeing the slaves, themselves to make bricks; and this certainly is apparent in the antitype; for not only the reformer leaders have had the work of supervising God's selfishness-worldliness-sin-error and death oppressed people, but themselves have had to undergo oppression from these antitypical taskmasters. The enacted protests, often coupled with words, against these antitypical oppressions antitype the officers' question put to Pharaoh, "Wherefore dealest thou thus with thy servants?" The statement, "Thy servants are beaten," typed the factual and verbal protests against the oppression that others and their own sins, errors and dying processes brought upon the reformers. Mr. Bryan's verbal and factual protest against the oppression coming from the mistreatment that Mr. Darrow's sinfulness and errors brought upon him during the Dayton, Tenn., evolution trial in 1925, culminating in his actual death, is an example of such antitypical protests. The officers' laying the fault at the doors of Pharaoh's people, especially his taskmasters (v. 16), types the reformers by public word and act laying the fault on the antitypical Egyptians, particularly on sin, error and death, as these acted through the antitypical Egyptians. It is these efforts of the officers to get relief for Israel that enabled us to see that they type the reformers.


(17) Pharaoh's answer (vs. 17, 18) means, type and antitype, the same as we saw above when considering vs. 7, 8, which he here reiterates, except his repeating the word "idle" serves to intensify the thought typically and antitypically. Hence further explanation on these verses is not needed. Of course, as in vs. 7, 8, he gave the answer in acts, not words. The officers' recognizing (v. 19) their evil plight types that



the reformers after many bitterly disappointing experiences have been recognizing the futility of their reform efforts, yea, the more than futility of these, since their best efforts have only led to worse abuses. This is clearly seen in the world financial situation and prohibition in the North, where bootlegging worked worse havoc than the saloon with many, especially with the youth. The second half of v. 19 being a repetition of the second half of v. 11, we will not repeat the explanation here, but refer the brethren to the comments given above on v. 11. As after their interview with Pharaoh the overseers met the waiting Moses and Aaron, so after each general reform effort and its failure (as the antitype of the interview with Pharaoh) the reformers came into contact with the awaiting Jesus and the awaiting Church, i.e., an exchange of ideas between the reformers and Jesus and the Church, Jesus speaking through the Church, took place. We have a splendid illustration of this in 1897, after Mr. Bryan was defeated in his reformer efforts in connection with the free coinage of silver, in his 1896 presidential campaign, when Jesus and the Church in "The Cries of the Reapers" chapter of Vol. 4, which appeared in 1897, met him. In fact that chapter, appearing as a Tower (Oct. 1, 1896; No. 19 Tower Extra), was circulated to the extent of 100,000 copies by the Democratic National Committee, as a part of their campaign literature in favor of Mr. Bryan's stand. But its forecasting from James 5: 1-8 the failure of his efforts, made him and others feel that it injured his cause; and their disappointment made them act out a blaming of the Lord and the true Church (v. 21) for increasing the evil.


(18) The officers' wish (v. 21) that Jehovah would enter into examination and judgment of Moses and Aaron as mischief-makers, stirring up Pharaoh and his servants against them, types the reformers in their capacity of regarding the Church, while acting in reality as Jesus' mouthpiece, as a mischief-maker, and



denouncing it as injuring the cause of reform, by raising up evil opponents and conditions against their reform work, longing and praying for God to enter into examination and judgment against what was in reality God's Christ. These reformers, being cocksure that they were in the right, could regard what was really God's Christ as enemies of righteousness, against whom they felt justified in praying by longing acts God's curse! What a warning example against cock-sureness and self-opinionatedness! How manifestly apparent do the reformers stand here revealed as longers for popularity ("caused our savor to be abhorred"), even with the wicked! Unpopularity with the wicked rightly should be regarded as a decoration for meritorious service bestowed by the approving Jehovah on those faithful to His cause. Many have wondered why these reformers did not come into the Truth. V. 21, showing that they have been timeservers, trimmers, panters after popularity, even with the wicked, proves that they have lacked the necessary humility, hunger, meekness, honesty, goodness, reverence and holiness. Surely here again we see that all is not diamond that sparkles. The officers' saying that Moses and Aaron had put a sword into the hands of Pharaoh and his servants to slay them, types the reformers by word and act declaring that what was really Christ and the Church were giving their oppressors arguments refutative of their positions. The case of Mr. Bryan cited above is to the point. Our refusing to engage in slum, conversionist, prohibition, social uplift, good citizenship, etc., works, combined with our pointing out the difference of our mission, the relative futility of reform work now, and the kingdom as the only cure for present evils, and giving our time and strength to the Lord's work, the reformers have regarded as putting arguments against them into hands of the devil and wicked men, to their refutation.


(19) Moses' returning (v. 22) to the Lord with a report of apparent failure types our Lord rehearsing



before God the fact that the public efforts seemed to be unfruitful. Moses' sorrow over the situation as having been made worse for God's people, by his Divinely-commissioned work to obtain their release, effecting so far the reverse from what was desired and intended, types our Lord's sympathizing heart sorrowing over the temporarily worse condition of God's people occasioned by His Divinely-commissioned work of seeking to effect their release seemingly making the situation worse instead of the desired and intended bettered condition. Our Lord's sympathetic sorrow, not His words, spoke to Jehovah the antitype of Moses' questions and statements of vs. 22 and 23. Despite the fact that both Moses and Jesus had been forewarned of initial ill success with Pharaoh (Ex. 3: 19, 20; 4: 21-23), their deep love for, and sympathy with God's people made them very sad at their increased oppression. Vs. 22, 23, manifest to us the deep love for, and sympathy with God's typical and antitypical oppressed people, felt respectively by the typical and antitypical Moses. For ourselves there is much comfort in the thought that we have a sympathizing High Priest and Leader, who is not untouched by the feeling of our infirmities (Heb. 2: 17, 18; 4: 14, 15). The love and sympathy that our Lord learned as respects us in the days of His flesh still abide with Him and qualify Him to be a High Priest suitable to us in our need (Heb. 5: 7-9). These considerations should cooperate with others to keep us from fainting (Heb. 12: 3), and prompt us with assurance to come to the throne of grace to obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need (Heb. 4: 16), "seeing He ever liveth to make intercession for us" (Heb. 7: 25), even as this is typically shown in vs. 22, 23. Both the typical and antitypical Moses show how hard it is for the best of beings to bear without sorrow a much desired hope deferred—"Neither hast Thou delivered Thy people at all." From vs. 22 and 23 we may well learn the lessons of