Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13







TOWARD the end of the preceding chapter we called attention to the fact that the Miniatures implied secondary and small fulfillments of those Bible types whose primary and large antitypes have belonged to the Gospel Age proper. And most of the rest of this book will bring to the reader's attention such small antitypes. However, the brother who was foreknown by the Lord as about to become the Epiphany messenger was by God given some part in individual prophecies and types applying to the Gospel Age proper. In almost all of such cases he appears in prophecies and antitypes in which Bro. Russell acted as the leader, and in which he played a secondary role as Bro. Russell's supporter or chief supporter. In Vol. IX many antitypes of our Pastor in the Gospel-Age picture were given; and in a subsequent volume of this series many others, D.v., will be presented. As was and will later additionally be shown, whole books of the Bible typing Gospel-Age matters represent him. For the Gospel Age proper, as distinct from the Epiphany, no such extended prophecies and types of J. are given, for the good reason that he played no such leading roles as would justify such a thing. The prophecies and types applying to him in the Gospel Age, as distinct from the Epiphany, are shorter forecasts because of the subordinate parts that were his in the Gospel-Age picture. Other brothers, apart from our Pastor and him, were also used in some Gospel-Age antitypes, as in part were brought out in Vol. IX, and as further will be brought out later on. In this chapter these shorter forecasts of him will be set forth, we trust, to the Lord's glory, and not to self-exaltation. The



motives for such presentations, set forth in the Foreword of this volume, are true.


First, then, we will study some prophecies applying to the Gospel-Age picture that point out J. The first of these is Deut. 32: 30: "How should one [Bro. Russell] chase a thousand [the Parousia Second Deathers], and two [Bro. Russell and J.] put ten thousand [the Epiphany Great Company] to flight, except their Rock had sold them [given them up to defeat], and the Lord had shut them up [restrained them]." The following remarks will serve to clarify and prove our bracketed comments. Moses' oration to Fleshly Israel (Deut. 4-33), one of the greatest to fall from man's lips, is a prophecy of the teachings that Jesus would give during the Parousia and Epiphany to Spiritual Israel. Accordingly, this verse tells of something that would be done in the Parousia and Epiphany. As during the Parousia our Lord used Bro. Russell to refute, and thus to chase from the field of battle the Second Deathers, so during the Epiphany He has used Bro. Russell (in his writings) and J. to refute, and thus put to flight from the field of battle the Great Company. There was no controversy during the Parousia with the Second Deathers but Bro. Russell thoroughly chased them from the field of battle; and during the Epiphany there has been no controversy with the Great Company but Bro. Russell in his writings and J. put the Great Company to flight. Their thus battling for the Lord accounts for their writings containing so much controversial matter. Search the controversial writings of Bro. Russell, and see if they did not thoroughly refute the Parousia Second Deathers' false teachings, and search the writings of, these two brothers and see whether they do not thoroughly refute the false teachings of the Epiphany Great Company. The reasons for their chasing and driving such from the field of battle is that God had forsaken the latter unto their becoming Satan's mouthpieces, and that He had given the two named brothers the Truth by which they were used by God thoroughly to restrain such.



But, one may ask, how do we know that the thousand are Second Deathers and that the ten thousand are the Great Company? We answer: Both the facts of the case and the Bible in the setting of the Deuteronomy prophecy and in Ps. 91: 7 prove this. Certainly, the Parousia facts prove that Bro. Russell, and Bro. Russell alone, refuted all the errors of the Parousia Second Deathers; and certainly, the facts prove that his and J.'s writings, and those of no one else, refuted all the errors of the Great Company. Thus in the end of the Age only these two refuted the errors of the Second Deathers and Great Company. Hence the passage can apply to them only. The setting of the book of Deuteronomy being Parousiac and Epiphaniac, the passage can be applied to these two brothers only, since no one else except them fully refuted the errors of these two classes. And Ps. 91: 7 corroborates this thought. Ps. 91: 1-13 is an address of Jesus in the spirit of prophecy to the Faithful in the end of the Age—in the Parousia and Epiphany. Those who fall away from the true Church are in v. 7 described as the thousand and the ten thousand, the same expressions as Deut. 32: 30 uses. We know that those who fall out of the Little Flock become either Second Deathers or Great Company members. Thus the expressions, thousand and ten thousand, apply respectively to these two classes. Not only are these two classes distinguished from one another by the expressions, "thousand" and "ten thousand," but also by the expressions, "at thy side" and "at thy right hand." The expression "at thy right hand." means place of chief favor: and certainly as between the Second Deathers and the Great Company the latter are in the place of chief favor with the Little Flock which puts the former by contrast at the left hand, which in some passages means place of utter disfavor (Matt. 25: 33, 41). The Little Flock is distinguished from both of these classes by the pronoun thy (at thy side: at thy right hand) and by the fact that the fall of neither of the other two classes will involve it "it [the fall]



shall not come nigh thee." Moreover, Benjamin (i.e., son of the right hand) types the Great Company, which fittingly is here shown to be at the Little Flock's right hand. Accordingly, the Bible and facts prove that the one who chased the thousand is Bro. Russell and the two who put ten thousand to flight are he and J.


The second of the shorter forecasts is Rev. 19: 9, 10. The angel who here speaks to John was by not a few of the brethren during the Parousia understood to be Bro. Russell. But the fact that the vision of Rev. 19: 1-10 describes events occurring after his death proves that he evidently is not the messenger of vs. 9, 10, though he belongs to the class symbolized by the messenger of Rev. 22: 8, 9, and thus shared with the rest of that class in giving the reproof and correction of v. 9. We understand the angel of Rev. 22: 8 to symbolize all 49 star-members, from one standpoint viewed as one messenger (Rev. 1: 1; 22: 8, 9), all of whom have been more or less worshipped by the John class, and all of whom have, therefore, given the reproof and correction of v. 8. Not only does the fact that the vision of Rev. 19: 1-10 prophesies things that were to occur after Bro. Russell's death proves that he is not the angel of vs. 9, 10, but also the fact that he never gave the invitation to the Great Company to be present at the marriage supper of the Lamb (v. 9), an invitation that has not yet been given, proves that he is not the one that was to give that invitation. He could not have given that invitation to the Great Company, since there was no Great Company in existence before his death, a fact that he often taught us, though, of course, he taught that there were individual crown-losers in existence then, as well as from shortly after Pentecost onward. The tabernacle shows this; for it shows that all new creatures were in the Holy, priests, and that the court types the condition of the justified; hence before the Epiphany came there was no place in the tabernacle to type Great Company members as such, as New Creatures. A brief synopsis of the vision of Rev. 19: 1-10



proves that this vision refers to the Great Company after our Pastor's death: Vs. 1, 2 symbolize the Society's big drive in Jordan's second smiting, in which they forecast, as vs. 1, 2 show, Babylon's destruction. V. 3 shows that, after ceasing from giving it for a while, they would renew that message, which they did after the release of the Society leaders from prison. V. 4 symbolizes the Epiphany message, and that as one coming (mainly) out of the Old Testament Scriptures interpreted in harmony with God's four great attributes. V. 5 symbolizes the Lord's charge coming, after the Levites will begin to cleanse themselves, to all the Lord's people to proclaim His Word as bringing praise upon Him. Vs. 6-8 prophesy the proclaimers and their proclamation. V. 9 contains a charge that will be given by the Epiphany messenger to the Little Flock, exhorting her to proclaim the blessedness of the Great Company as being invited to the Lamb's Marriage Supper. He further assures the John class of the truthfulness of his message. Then follows (v. 10) the attempt by the John class to worship this messenger, who corrects them for it, showing why they should not so do. Evidently this section treating of Epiphany events, its angel is the Epiphany messenger, which name is largely based on this verse, though other passages also imply it.


The third shorter forecast in the form of a prophecy on the Epiphany messenger is found in Rev. 22: 10, 11. Here he speaks again and that as the last one of the 49 star-members, who are represented in vs. 8, 9 as a Mass symbolized by the angel, as they are also in Rev. 1: 1 so symbolized. That the Epiphany messenger is represented by the "he" of v. 10 is evident from the nature of what is said. Only when he expounds connectedly the entire book of Revelation will it be due to say, "Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book"; for Bro. Russell refused to expound the book as a whole, and after the early eighties of the last century refused to answer almost all questions asked him thereon. J. has hitherto followed, and for some years yet will continue to



follow, the same course, which he will change toward the end of the Epiphany, when he will begin to expound the book in its entirety connectedly. Another and still stronger reason that J. is the "he" of v. 10 is this: that the message of v. 11 will not be due until Oct., 1954, when the Epiphany begins to lap into the Basileia, kingdom; for 1954 is the date that the last member of the Great Company will get his first enlightenment that will bring him into the Truth by Passover, 1956; after 1954 no Youthful Worthies will be won; and after 1954 no more persons will enter the tentatively-justified state. Hence the exhortation: "He that is unjust [the tentatively justified, who are not actually justified, not just, let him be unjust still [remain tentatively justified, and not consecrated; and he that is filthy [the impenitent sinners, who in no sense are clean, let him be filthy still remain in his then condition]; and he that is righteous [Levites of the Great Company and Youthful Worthies, who, being in the Court, are righteous, let him be righteous still; and he that is holy [Priests are holy, since they are in the Holy], let him be holy still." Certainly, when we come to a time when no more consecrations are possible for Gospel-Age purposes, it would be useless to exhort the tentatively justified, to consecrate and sinners to repent, for the tentatively justified and sinners could arise no higher from their standings before God under such a condition; hence only at such a time could the first and second exhortations of v. 11 be given, but, of course, the exhortation for the Great Company, Youthful Worthies and Priests to continue faithful will remain appropriate as long as they are in the earth. Thus the nature of these four exhortations, coming in the order in which they come in v. 11, proves that these exhortations will be given by the Epiphany messenger; for in the order given they will not come until from 1954 onward.


The fourth and last shorter forecast in the form of a prophecy that is here to be given is Micah 5: 5, 6. The



Assyrian (v. 5) of this passage is those who make spoil of God's people by devastating (shall come into) the Truth and its Spirit (our land) and by trampling under foot their chief doctrines (palaces). This the Assyrian has done in each of the seven stages of the Gospel Age. And in these seven stages God's people (we) have raised up against such spoilers the seven angels (seven composite messengers, here called seven shepherds) and eight principal men, one of whom presided in each of the first six Churches, and two of whom preside in the seventh Church. In each of these Church stages the angel (shepherd) was a composite one, e.g., the angel of the Ephesian stage, was the twelve Apostles, a composite angel, accordingly. In each of the first six Churches these angels had among them a principal man. The principal man of the Church's first stage was Paul; of its second stage, John; of its third stage, Arius; of its fourth stage, Claudius of Turin; of its fifth stage, Marsiglio and of its sixth stage, Wessel. The seventh stage, consisting of two similar periods, the second of which containing three Miniatures that duplicate the whole Age and a parallel that duplicates its Parousiac part, has a composite angel of only two members, who are each a principal man. Thus while there are seven composite angels (shepherds), these seven shepherds contain eight principal men. The principal men bore the brunt of the Assyrian's attacks on the Truth and its Spirit and they more than any others of the star-members devastated (waste, v. 6) the teachings and spirit (land) of these spoilers (Assyrian), especially their most public and important ones (entrances thereof). It was through these seven shepherds and eight principal men (thus) that the Lord delivered His people from the antitypical Assyrian. If we look, e.g., at what our Pastor did against the Truth and nominal-church sifters during the Parousia and at what J. has been doing against the sifters of the Epiphany, we will readily see how the Laodicean Church's composite shepherd,



even its two principal men, have wasted the teachings and spirit of these marauders, especially their public and main ones and how thus God by them has wrought deliverance from them for His people in the two periods of the end of the Age, even as by the first six shepherds, including their principal men, the Lord did the same thing for the previous Churches.


Our study so far shows that there are shorter forecasts in the form of prophecies that point out J.'s work, but the same thing is done by shorter forecasts in the form of types, which we will now proceed to study. The first of these to reach its fulfillment is the type of Medad. The story of Eldad and Medad is found in Num. 11: 26-29. In Vol. IX, Chap. I, details on Num. 11 are given; and then there is given a rather detailed discussion of the Gospel Harvest's Eldad and some details on its Medad, to which the reader is referred, but practically nothing on the latter's anointing is there given. A few features of the antitype will, therefore, here be set forth. As a Lutheran pastor J. early in 1903 desired earnestly to have a more fruitful ministry for the Lord. R.A. Torrey's booklet on the baptism of the Spirit as an indispensable equipment for the Lord's service had made a deep impression on his mind on the desirability of having such an equipment. Though consecrated for 15 years, he made a re-consecration of himself, this time, as he thought, for service, an unclear idea that he had imbibed from the said booklet. Among other things, he told the Lord that he was willing to become a doormat on which the church members might wipe their feet, if that should be the Lord's way of making him more effective for the Lord. He arose from his knees fully persuaded that the Lord had given him the desired gift. And from that time onward, despite several errors that he had imbibed from that booklet, he was given a different spirit from that which prevailed in the Lutheran Church, and shortly afterward his study of the Scriptures extending over a period of 2½ months, without human aid,



opened up to him a number of teachings that drew him away from those of the Lutheran Church and into some peculiarly harvest truths.


His prejudice against "Russellism" was so great that he would not read its literature, nor listen to its expounders. The following are the teachings that solely from Bible study without human help became clear to him from about Feb. 23 to May 5, 1903, after which date no further such openings of the Scriptures came to him at that time: (1) the unity of God, as against the trinity; (2) human mortality, as against the deathlessness of the soul; (3) death, not eternal torment, as the penalty of sin; (4) Papacy, the beast, and Protestantism, the image of the beast, constituting Babylon; (5) the identity of the Millennium and the Judgment Day; (6) probation for the non-elect dead during the Millennium; and (7) 1914 the end of the Age. Immediately, while in the nominal church he began to teach and preach some of these things, which led to his renouncing the Lutheran Church and to his coming in among the Truth people. For a full year he did unofficial pilgrim work before the public and a little of it in several Truth ecclesias until on the first anniversary of his renouncing the Lutheran Church, May 1, 1903, he became an official pilgrim under Bro. Russell's appointment. Apart from Bro. Russell and J. none of the Gospel Harvest pilgrims was given his anointing to the pilgrim work until after he had come in among the Truth people (gathered the seventy … about the tabernacle, v. 24).


The next shorter forecast in the form of a type to reach a fulfillment in him is given in two places (2 Sam. 21: 20, 21; 1 Chro. 20: 6, 7). This type occurs in connection with some related ones in 2 Sam. 21: 15-22; 1 Chro. 20: 4-8. We gave a brief exposition of 2 Sam. 21: 18-22 and 1 Chro. 20: 4-8 in Vol. IX, 391 (34), to which we refer our readers for the special setting of these passages. Here we will give a few details typed by Jonathan's fight with the twelve-fingered



and twelve-toed giant of 2 Sam. 21: 20, 21 and 1 Chro. 20: 6, 7. This giant types M.L. McPhail, whom J. esteemed as, next to our Pastor, the ablest of the pilgrims. Late in 1908 he became disgruntled and joined the 1908-1911 sifters. J. was appointed to give, April 18, 19, 1909, a pilgrim visit to the Church at Chicago, where M.L. McPhail lived. After much thought and prayer J. decided to make a special effort to win him, and in case of failure to destroy, if possible, his sifting influence in that Church. Accordingly, on the 18th J. delivered such discourses as he thought would tend to secure these purposes. For the next day he planned for a question meeting in the afternoon, well knowing that the questions would be on the burning questions of the hour: Sin-offerings, Mediator, Covenants and Ransom. Further, he planned to invite M.L. McPhail to be his guest for the evening meal, hoping by private conversation to win him, after he would have heard his answers in the question meeting; and the final part of his plan was to discourse at night on the Church as the second Sin-offering. All three things were calculated to win him and strengthen the Church against sifting activities. His great abilities are typed by the twelve fingers and twelve toes, as well as by the great height of the giant. J., however, knowing that he had the pertinent Truth, and believing that he could successfully expound it and defend it against the sifters' attacks, feared not the encounter. The effect of the first two discourses on the Church was very favorable and resulted in putting M.L. McPhail on the defensive, without directly attacking his teachings; particularly was this the effect of the second discourse, in that part of it that dealt on the harvest siftings and trials; for at the end of that talk brethren weeping, pleaded with him to return to the Truth.


His coming to the question meeting too late for J. before the meeting personally to invite him to have supper with him, J. arranged for a deacon to inform him on his arrival that the former desired to see him after the meeting. J, had



in the question meeting a splendid opportunity to explain the Covenants; for, as he expected, almost every question was on the New Covenant, and the controverted aspects of it he covered in fair detail. The question meeting finished, J. took his place at the exit to greet the brethren as they left the hall. Perhaps nearly half of the audience had already left when M.L. McPhail reached J. and asked him what he desired. Thereupon J. invited him to take supper with him, where they could talk over the matters that J. had in mind. M.L. McPhail was much wrought up. He insisted on discussing matters then and there. Knowing that he would go down to defeat before about 125 brethren, if it would there be discussed, and knowing that that would make his recovery harder, J. declined, asking to defer it until they would be at supper. This the former would not allow, and began to attack the Truth. Hence much against his preference, J. was compelled to debate with him before about 125 brethren. At first J. acted on the defensive, refuting the offered objections, and kept reminding him that he was attacking things that up to a short time before he had for years believed and taught.


Toward the end of about 90 minutes' discussion, J. took the aggressive, on the claim that Sarah typed the Oath-bound Covenant to the Christ, especially using Acts 3: 25, where the prospective Church gathered from Israel is called, the children of the prophets and of the Covenant that God made with their fathers. M.L. McPhail fairly shouted that this Covenant was not the Oath-bound, but the New Covenant, which the sifters claimed was the Church's mother. J. asserted that it was the Oath-bound Covenant, because it was spoken to Abraham, and was in the very words of the last feature of the Oath-bound Covenant, "saying unto Abraham, 'And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed.'" Quivering with excitement, M.L. McPhail reasserted that the covenant of Acts 3: 25 was the New Covenant, claiming that he would prove it by the reading of



the text. He then called for a Bible, which, when handed to him, he could hardly hold, his hands trembling so greatly. His eyes became dimmed by his nervousness, so that for quite a time he could not read. But when his eyes cleared and he read the text, he violently closed the Bible and, crestfallen, immediately went away, exhibiting to about 125 brethren his complete defeat. That debate and that night's talk on the Church as the second Sin-offering put the finishing touches on his sifting influence on that Church. Apart from his wife and one or two others, he utterly failed to win any to his side in that Church of about 400 members. And the next morning the Lord gave J., as a reward for his defending His Truth and people, the understanding of the parable of the penny in those parts fulfilled before its evening. Later, except the meaning of the penny, which the Lord gave to our Pastor first to see, every other part of the parable was given to J. first to see, as due, and our Pastor endorsed his view of it after careful study.


The next shorter forecast of J. in the form of a type to be fulfilled is a triple one and is found in 2 Sam. 23: 9, 10, 1317; 1 Chro. 11: 12-19. We have already shown in Vol. IX, Chap. VI, how Jashobeam, the mightiest of David's warriors, in the three acts narrated of him in 2 Sam. 23: 8, 13-17; 1 Chro. 11: 11, 15-19 types Bro. Russell as a pilgrim, while David types him as that Servant acting executively in peace and controversy. Briefly, we would say that David's mighty men listed in 1 Sam. 23 and 1 Chro. 11 represent the pilgrims as warriors, five of whom are specially typed by details of their forecast deeds. Since in Vol. IX, Chap. VI, in addition to explaining the Jashobeam type we expounded Abishai in slaying 300 with his spear as typing Bro. John Edgar by his booklet, Where Are The Dead, refuting those who teach the consciousness of the dead, it will be unnecessary for us to go into that type and antitype any further. In that same chapter we showed that Shammah, the third



mightiest of David's warriors in defending and delivering the field of lentils from the Philistine band (2 Sam. 23: 11, 12) types Bro. Barton defending the Truth on the Covenants against the 1908-1911 sifters.


Shammah's part with David's two mightiest warriors in breaking through the Philistine guard at Bethlehem and dipping from its well water with which to refresh David (2 Sam. 23: 13-17; 1 Chro. 11: 15-19) types Bro. Barton's battle with, and victory over demons, who attempted to sour him against Bro. Russell because of the latter's course toward the leading sifters, and his consequent getting from the well of Truth, the Bible, the Truth on the individual Satan's having been bound (1874-1878), in so far as absolute control over the fallen angels is concerned. The fifth pilgrim whose special exploits are set forth in 2 Sam. 23 and 1 Chro. 11 is J. F. R., the antitype of Benaiah (vs. 20-23), whose killing of the two lionlike men of Moab types J.F.R.'s refuting his antagonist in two debates, whose slaying a lion in a pit in winter types J.F.R.'s refutation in the Time of Trouble (winter) of the nominal church in its slanders against the harvest people, particularly Bro. Russell, in his booklet, A Battle In The Ecclesiastical Heavens, and whose attacking a spear-armed giant Egyptian, with his staff types J.F.R.'s advancing, without any other preparation than his general legal knowledge, to meet the lawyer who was carefully prepared in legal argument to prove that the Society should be taxed, taking the lawyer's own points, and overthrowing him therewith.


We have above briefly set forth the deeds of three of David's four mighty men (the deeds of the fourth being in Vol. IX set forth in detail) as preliminary to a larger exposition of the deeds of Eleazar, David's second mightiest warrior. Three special exploits of his are set forth. In all three he represents J. as a Parousia pilgrim warrior for Truth and against error.


The first of these to be antityped is found in 1 Chron. 11: 12-14. Eleazar means mighty help; Dodo, loving;



Ahohite, brotherly (v. 12), whereby J.'s character as a warrior is set forth. Pas-dammim (v. 13, field of bloods) represents the sphere of the two Sin-offerings, in connection with which the hardest battles with sectarian errorists (Philistines) were fought. J. was especially associated with Bro. Russell as that Servant in fighting for the Truth on these two Sin-offerings (was with David at Pas-dammim). The truths (barley) in great abundance (parcel of ground full of barley) specially there defended were on the two Sin-offerings, Mediator, Covenants and Ransom. At the beginning of the sifting most Truth people fled from the field of argument for fear of the sifters (the people fled from before the Philistines). But Bro. Russell and J. (they, v. 14) took a determined stand (set themselves) on these subjects (in they midst of that parcel) and successfully defended them (delivered it) and completely refuted the sifters (slew the Philistines) in a great victory (saved by a great deliverance).


Bro. Russell's share in the fight is here not represented by Jashobeam, i.e.: as a pilgrim, but by David, i.e., as that Servant in his executive and warrior capacity. Accordingly, his part in the controversy as conducted in the Tower, beginning with the Jan. 1, 1909, issue, is here pictured, while J.'s part is pictured as performed by himself as a pilgrim warrior (Eleazar). Some facts to clarify his part in the defense of the four pertinent truths will here be given: One of the sifting elders of the Allegheny Ecclesia, a Mr. Read, in Feb., 1909, sent J. a long typewritten discourse, giving the sifters' pertinent views, with copious but misapplied Scripture references as alleged proof of their position. He asked J., after studying his discourse, to give him his thought thereon, and to give book, chapter and verse in disproof, if he disagreed with him. His article was subtly drawn up, calculated to deceive the elect, if that were possible. Realizing that this discourse was one of the first literary guns of the sifters to go off, J. went to the Lord in prayer, asking for His help to defend



His Truth and His people. J. had had difficulty in 1903 in seeing the Church's share in the Sin-offering. Amid that difficulty he had made a vow to God that, if the Church did share in the Sin-offering, and if God would make it clear to him, he would do his utmost to expound and defend it for the good of God's people. Accordingly, often from 1903 to 1909 J. preached on this doctrine, proving it by abundant literal and figurative Scriptures.


When Mr. Reads discourse came to him, J., after studying it carefully, drew up in writing a series of 28 questions and answers, backed by numerous Scriptures on the four involved questions, and sent these to him. Mr. Read, after receiving it, must have concluded to fish in other waters, since he did not reply to J.'s letter, nor ever afterward approach him on the subject, though he was active in seeking to win others. This letter was written to Mr. Read from Detroit, when J. served there as a pilgrim, Feb. 21, 22, 1909. His letter convinced J. that the sifters had begun their doctrinal sifting in full earnest. Remembering his pertinent vow of 1903, he immediately threw himself into the controversy with every power of his body, mind and heart. Almost everywhere he went during the next 15 months, he preached on one or another of the four pertinent subjects, especially emphasizing the Church's share in the Sin-offering, as he recognized it to be the key to the other involved points, particularly to the Mediator and the Covenants. Many a troubled and doubting brother or sister was he enabled to help come out of their pertinent troubles and doubts, and reach solid convictions on the involved matters. His zeal and heavy work on this matter was contributory to his falling into brain-fag within 15 months. But he spared not himself, but "set" himself with all his power to defend these truths and to refute the sifters; and by the Lord's help (the Lord saved with a great deliverance) his efforts were blessed with success in these two respects. The typical episode at



Pas-dammim emphasized J.'s controversial activities as a pilgrim working among and toward the Truth people, as Bro. Russell's special helper in the latter's capacity as that Servant and as a star-member.


The second of the three related typical shorter forecasts now under study types J.'s controversial pilgrim work from Feb. 21, 1909, to May 22, 1910, toward the public, as distinct from his controversial work as a pilgrim, just brought out, among the brethren. It shows, among other things, one of the main causes of his breaking down in brain-fag. The typical episode is given in 2 Sam. 23: 9, 10. Not only did J. occupy himself with the phase of the murmursome contradictionism sifting as this was carried on by the Truth sifters; he also occupied himself with that phase of it as it was carried on by the nominal-church sifters, who during those days not only wrought havoc among nominal-church people, but savagely attacked the Truth. The intensified public work had its beginnings during the 1908-1911 sifting. This phase of the public work was a defiance of the pertinent nominal-church sifters on the part of Bro. Russell, as warrior-executive, and J., both of whom stood together (one of the three mighty men with David, when they defied the Philistines that were gathered together to battle, v. 9). The attacks of these nominal-church sifters were so numerous and severe that most of the Truth people retreated from before them (the men of Israel were gone away). J.'s share (Eleazar) in this battle was contemporaneous with his battle with the Truth sifters on the Sin-offerings, etc. In the involved 15 months, during which he spent 13½ months in the pilgrim work, J. held 259 public meetings, an average of nearly 5 a week, and of these 105 were held from Jan. 1, 1910, to May 22, 1910, the date of his breakdown, i.e., an average of 5¼ a week, while during that same time he conducted 611 parlor meetings, an average of 11½ parlor meetings a week, 182 of these being conducted from Jan. 1, 1910, to May 22, 1910,



an average of over 9 a week. In all, during those 13½ months' pilgrim work he conducted 870 public and parlor meetings, an average of over 15 a week, 287 of these between Jan. 1, 1910, and May 22, 1910, an average of nearly 15 a week. During this time he did not spare himself between meetings, for then, too, he was continually helping others. With the possible exception of his 41/3 months' work in Britain in 1916 and 1917, he never worked harder before or since. He put every ounce of his strength into the meetings and into conversations between meetings.


His pertinent public subjects also were very largely controversial, as against the nominal-church sifters (he arose and smote the Philistines, v. 10). Controversial discourses and writing take a great deal more vitality from one than non-controversial discourses and writing do. In these public lectures all sorts of attacks on the Truth from nominal-church sources were refuted. Under this long-continued and hard work weariness was J.'s constant portion. By March 1, 1910, his exhaustion began to undermine his sleep until, though working at the utmost of his power, only 3 or 4 hours could he sleep in 24. This increased his exhaustion, but did not slacken his work. From about May 10 onward he found it increasingly difficult to concentrate and on the 22nd brain-fag set in (his hand was weary). It was during the second public meeting of May 22 that the collapse came. He was, so weary that he could not stand at the beginning of the lecture, and asked the audience whether it would not permit him to speak seated. After speaking awhile he became oblivious to his surroundings, forgetting that he was delivering a public lecture, his mind wandering off his subject, and he saying nothing for awhile. Then he remembered that he was delivering an address. Catching the thread of his talk at the place where he ceased speaking, he apologized to his audience, and then went on again for a few minutes, when again the same obliviousness to his surroundings overtook



him. This happened perhaps from six to ten times. During these periods of obliviousness he could see a large part of the audience weeping and some of the brethren praying. He struggled along in this manner for about an hour. Not a soul left the auditorium; all seemed to understand and sympathize. They could see his will struggling to control and make subservient an exhausted brain. Yea, his brain, the hand of his New Creature, by which he held his controversial discourses and smote the nominal-church sifters, "was weary."


J. feared that his brain was forever wrecked, and could no more retain hold on his many lectures, which must then have numbered something like three hundred, of which about 45 were public lectures, averaging in length of delivery about 90 minutes. His custom had been, especially as to his public lectures, to build up his addresses on the basis of a large number of Bible proof passages, of which he had perhaps an average of about 125 passages in each public lecture. These he would quote from memory, giving in each case its book, chapter and verse. This method, he believes, was especially blessed by the Lord to the bringing of unusually large numbers of new brethren into the Truth. Having so many public discourses, all so largely supplied with Scriptures, not to forget these it was his custom to rotate his discourses, only then breaking the rotation, if the discourse whose turn was next had already been given in the town where its turn in the rotation came, or when some special need required another discourse to be given. It so eventuated that it would be perhaps once every four months before he could complete going over the whole number of these discourses. J. used the same method of rotation for his parlor discourses. The Lord granted him an exceptionally quick recovery, for in about 3½ months he was able, but with greatly reduced brain power, to renew his pilgrim service. He proved to be mistaken in his fears that his brain power was irretrievably lost, and that it no more could retain his



discourses. The lecture that by rotation was due to be his first public discourse after he re-entered the pilgrim work was on The Wages Of Sin—Is It Eternal Life In Torment, Or Death—Which? This lecture had not been delivered for over seven months and though it contained at least 125 scattered passages, every one of them came promptly to mind, with book, chapter and verse, the first time he ran over it preparatory to its delivery. The same was true of the rest of the 300 discourses. His wearied brain held firmly to all his discourses (his hand clave unto the sword).


The Lord showed His appreciation of the efforts of his weary servant by using him to bring unusually large numbers of new brethren into the Truth through the ministries rendered amid such wearying conditions. A few illustrations will clarify this: Late in Jan., 1910, because of four days' appointments falling out, J. spent six days at Calgary, Alta., Can. There were previous to his visit a colporteur, a brother and sister who had lately come from Toronto and a deeply interested local brother there. J. gave about 8 public lectures during his six days' stay there. Much new interest was thereby aroused, a class was immediately formed; and at the Passover 23 brethren memorialized there. His next appointment was at Vancouver, B.C., Can., where at his first visit of that trip two public meetings were held. Visiting the same place about seven weeks later, he learned that seven new ones had been won through those two public meetings. At Seattle even larger numbers were won for the Truth. The brethren reported that through the four public meetings held on the occasion of that trip, during which he visited Seattle several times, the attendance of new brethren at the regular meetings was increased by about 25. Similar results, but on a smaller scale, marked most of the visits during that trip throughout its course in the state of Washington (the people … spoil). J.'s being that Servant's special helper is shown by Eleazar's being with David in the first and second episodes.



The third of the three episodes now under study is that of the three mightiest of David's warriors' breaking through the ranks of the Philistines, and getting from the well at Bethlehem's gate the water so ardently longed for by David (2 Sam. 23: 13-17; 1 Chro. 11: 15-19). In Vol. IX, Chap. VI, the antitype of Jashobeam's part was given in some detail, and above was briefly sketched Bro. Barton's part therein. Here will be given some details on J.'s part therein, as the antitype of Eleazar. David's longing for water typed Bro. Russell's longing as that Servant, not as a pilgrim, for Truth needed at those three times. As Bro. Russell's pertinent fight with demons and sifters was along the line of trusting the Lord's ability fully to protect the flock against demons and sifters, and as Bro. Barton's pertinent fight with demons and sifters was against their efforts to arouse him to resent Bro. Russell's way of dealing with the sifters, especially A. E. Williamson, so J.'s pertinent fight was against demons and sifters (the troop of Philistines pitched in the valley of Rephaim [gigantic, i.e., demons], v. 13) who sought to make him take a wrong attitude toward Bro. Russell as that Servant. The three coming to David in the harvest time, and that to the cave of Adullam (vengeance of the people,—the Hebrew for the Greek Laodicea), places the antitype in the Harvest. The 19081911 sifters above all others entrenched themselves in the Bible, misinterpreted, of course (the garrison … in Bethlehem [house of bread], v. 14).


J. started toward the antitypical well, the Truth (the well of Bethlehem, which is by the gate, v. 15), about April 1, 1910, and soon found himself engaged in the sharpest internal debate of his life. The debate revolved about this question: How in the study and exposition of the Scriptures, as a servant of the Truth, was J. to act internally and externally toward Bro. Russell as that Servant? Was he to, abstain altogether from studying and expounding the Bible to the Brethren in each detail until that Servant first expounded it in such detail? Or was he to study and expounded