Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13


it in those parts that he thought he understood, even if they had not already been expounded by that Servant to the Church? Or was he to accept that Servant's teachings simply on his authority as that Servant? Or was he to subject them to careful examination? First the subtlest arguments were suggested to his mind to study and expound any part of the Bible, regardless of whether that Servant had expounded it or not. He met all of these arguments and refuted them; for he saw that this course would put him into the position of disregarding Bro. Russell in his office functions as that Servant. Then a series of most subtle arguments was brought to bear on his mind not to study or expound any part of the Bible not already seen by him in the expositions of that Servant. These arguments he also met and refuted, since he saw that this would debar his studying and expounding even the simplest and clearest passages, even historical, hortatory and ethical ones, if he had not first gotten their exposition from that Servant. After this feature of the battle was won, the demons suggested very subtle arguments to convince him that he should accept that Servant's teachings without careful proving, since the latter was God's special mouthpiece. J. met and refuted these arguments with the reason that this would make him bow down on his knees and drink with the 9,700, and not stand erect and lap the water out of his hand with the 300 (Judg. 7: 2-7).


This debate, a silent one, carried on in the mind only, lasted about two weeks and was the sharpest by all odds that J. ever had. Verily, he did struggle with demons, whom he found to be the subtlest reasoners; but the Lord stood by him and enabled him to beat back all their subtleties. And he emerged from this struggle with a sober set of ideas that solved the involved questions: (1) he saw that his attitude as a servant of the Church toward that Servant was one that should recognize and act toward him as the Lord's special



mouthpiece, to whom the Lord ordinarily first of all made known the Truth as due, and through whom first of all the Lord made it known to the Church; (2) that his office as such mouthpiece obligated J. to be favorably disposed toward any teaching that he would offer the Church; (3) that he should thoroughly examine, in such a favorable attitude, with a meek spirit, the teachings which that Servant presented, and only if they commended themselves upon thorough study to his mind as true, should he accept and teach them; (4) that in cases where he did not see the matters as that Servant expounded them, he should not dispute such teachings before the brethren, but remembering that the chances were 99 to 1 in favor of that Servant's being right and J. wrong in such a case, he should lay them on the shelf for further study and prayer; (5) that on historical, ethical, hortatory and promissory passages that were clear, as they in almost all cases are clear ("written … on the back side," Rev. 5: 1), he might express his understanding thereon to the brethren, even if he was not aware of that Servant's thought thereon, providing his understanding thereon was edifying, and not contrary to any known Truth or teaching of Bro. Russell; (6) that never on new doctrines, types or prophecies, i.e., those not first explained by that Servant, should he express an opinion before the brethren—a thing that in the past he frequently failed to practice; and (7) that if he should get a thought on a new doctrine, type or prophecy, without letting the brethren know anything about it, he should present it to that Servant, and wait on him to endorse and present it to the Church before speaking thereon to the brethren, and if he would disapprove of it, he should remain silent thereon as being in all likelihood mistaken.


As J. studied over these seven conclusions, which became clear to him as the principles applicable to the case, he recognized their truthfulness and practicability and firmly resolved to act accordingly; for they solved for him



problems on which he had not up to that time been clear as to the pilgrims in their duties and privileges on the study and exposition of the Word in their relations to that Servant as the Lord's special mouthpiece. With the end of this battle in the symbolic valley of Rephaim (sphere of demon activity) J. arrived at the symbolic well and dipped into it and drew out a large vessel full of symbolic water, Truth. That is, the Lord rewarded his steadfastness and victory in his battle with the demons with a sudden, unpremeditated insight into the types of the five siftings of the Harvest, as St. Paul points them out in 1 Cor. 10: 5-11. This understanding flashed through J.'s mind with no study at all, by a sudden illumination. Thus it came to him without his indulging in forbidden speculation (Ex. 19: 21-25). Details on this matter are given in Vol. V, Chap. 2. Too trustful, J. told certain [immature] brethren of his sharp fight with demons and of the Lord's giving him as a reward a full insight into truths not yet had by that Servant, of whose nature he told them not a word. These inexperienced brethren, seeing J. in his brain-fag, concluded that he was demonized and insane, and so reported matters widely in the Northwest. Almost immediately after his collapse J. wrote out this matter of 1 Cor. 10: 5-11 in a lengthy paper and brought it to Bro. Russell (brought it to David, v. 16), to whom he explained his experience. The former made an abstract of J.'s article and submitted it to J. for his opinion as to whether it expressed his thoughts. Bro. Russell had overlooked to insert in his synopsis an abstract of the second sifting. This J. added to Bro. Russell's abstract and with a few slight corrections returned it with his approval as an abstract of what he had written, and of what would have filled at least a Tower. Perceiving what a dangerous battle J. had fought before he reached that well, Bro. Russell refused to take any advantage for himself of the situation (in jeopardy of their lives … would not drink it). Later, telling the brethren that he had gotten the thoughts from an earnest Bible student, he



published word for word the abstract as J. returned it to him, in the article entitled, These Things Were Types (Z '13, 198-200). His publishing it antityped David's pouring out the water as a drink offering.


In another connection (1 Chron. 27: 4) Eleazar, the Dodoite, an Ahohite, appears as the captain of the second course, i.e., the captain who had charge of the army in the second month. These twelve courses of the army type the brethren from the standpoint of their relations to the individual twelve chief graces used by them controversially in defense of the Truth and against error. The twelve captains correspond to the twelve captains of thousands in Num. 31: 14, 48-54. For details please see Vol. IX, Chap. IV. Jashobeam as the chief captain, and thus as the captain of the first course, typed Bro. Russell as a pilgrim controversialist and the leader of the brethren in spiritual warfare wherein the chief grace comes into chief exercise. Eleazar as captain of the second course types J. as a pilgrim controversialist and the leader of the brethren in spiritual warfare wherein the second chief grace comes into chief exercise, and so with the other captains mentioned in Vol. IX, Chap. IV. Again, Bro. Russell and he are respectively typed as viewed from the priestly figure (1 Chron. 24: 3-19), by the two priests, Jehoiarib (Jehovah pleads, or strives) and Jedaiah (he knows, or confesses, Jehovah), who headed the first and second of the 24 courses into which the priests were divided by David who in this action types Bro. Russell as that Servant arranging the pilgrims in their priestly ministries. The key to unlocking the historical types connected with David is the fact that he represents in those types that Servant as executive and warrior for the Lord. And the fulfilled facts as given above corroborate this viewpoint.


Another marked type as a shorter forecast of certain events in J.'s pilgrim activities, in his relations to Bro. Russell as that Servant, and in the latter's office as a star-member, is the story of Jacob's wrestling with the angel (Gen. 32: 24-32). The setting of the antitype of the story



will serve to clear matters. Jacob's leaving Laban, taking with him his wives, children and flocks, types Bro. Russell and his five special assistants (J. being the last of these, and serving as such from 1909 onward to Oct. 31, 1916) separating themselves and leaving the nominal people of God (Laban), taking with them the twelve stewardship truths and their crown-lost servants (wives), the Parousia truths (Rachel), unconsecrated sympathizers and the Little Flock (children, also Joseph) and others (flocks).


The pertinent events immediately preceding and accompanying Jacob's meeting with Esau represent pertinent events immediately preceding and accompanying the meeting of antitypical Jacob (Bro. Russell as a star-member and J. as his special assistant in 1910) and the Jews. Jacob's flight from Esau types that of the 12 and 70 during the Jewish Harvest from persecuting Israel. Jacob's long stay with Laban types the 35 Interim star-members' and their 35 special helpers' stay with the nominal church between the Harvests. In discussing this antitype with Bro. Russell J. learned that the fear which Jacob had, found no antitype in Bro. Russell's experience; it had its antitype in J.'s pertinent experiences. The preliminary message sent by Jacob to Esau (Gen. 32: 3-5), announcing his coming back to Canaan with much possessions, represents the first efforts in 1909 on Bro. Russell's part to establish contact with the Jews along Zionistic lines and not along churchianity's lines. The messengers' announcement (v. 6) of Esau's coming to meet Jacob's advance with a hostile host represents the brethren who told, especially Bro. Russell and subordinately J., of the kind of a suspicious response the Jews were making. Jacob's dividing his company into two groups consisting of two classes, nominal and real Spiritual types Bro. Russell's setting forth of Spiritual Israel as such, so as to defend one (real Spiritual Israel) from an attack by the Jews. The antitype of the prayer of vs. 9-12 was offered by J. The five classes of animals (vs. 13-21) divided into as many groups,



sent by Jacob as presents to conciliate Esau, type respectively the first five of the twelve articles on God's Chosen People that appeared monthly (a space between drove and drove) from Bro. Russell's pen in the Overland Monthly, beginning in Feb., 1910, the fifth appearing in the June issue. These articles aroused great curiosity and interest in the Jews (Gen. 33: 8). Bro. Russell and J. during the first few months of 1910 confined themselves to work among Christians (Gen. 32: 21), but in the Spring the former arranged to engage in the work among the Jews along Zionist lines (v. 22).


The meeting of Bro. Russell and the Jews occurred in specially publicized meetings for the Jews, beginning early in June, shortly after his return from a European pilgrim trip, and lasting for years (33: 1). He had prepared his discourses so as first to set forth before these Jews the Christians and Christian teachings in their various kinds and denominations (v. 1), then to present the least sectarian ones and their teachings first (handmaids and their children foremost, v. 2), the most sectarian next (Leah and her children after) and the true Christians and their teachings last (Rachel and Joseph hindermost). His discourses prepared, he then very respectfully presented himself and his mission in a very winsome way to his Jewish hearers (passed over … bowed himself … came near to his brother, v. 3). His kindly manner won their hearts and they responded with reciprocal affection; for such unaccustomed and unaffected kindliness they had not expected, nor previously experienced at the hands of Christian ministers (v. 4). The Jews' first thought was a resentful one toward Christian teachings and believers; and they questioned him respecting these (first part of v. 5). Then, in a gracious, winsome and tactful manner he presented these three above-mentioned groups of vs. 1, 2 to them, in a way that was deferential to the Jews (vs. 6, 7).


To their question as to the meaning of the five above-mentioned articles in the Overland Monthly, he graciously answered that they were offered to them as a gift of blessing



to make peace between Christians and Jews, as having much interrelations on their main beliefs (v. 8). Naturally at first the Jews declined the gift of the involved truths; and only after considerable persuasion did they accept them (vs. 9-11). To the proposal of many Jews that the Truth people join forces and work for Zionism together with the Jews (v. 12), they joining the latter and the latter them, Bro. Russell gave a negative answer in the last two articles of the series of twelve on God's Chosen People—(1) Must Jews Become Christians In Order To Return To Divine Favor? (2) Should Jews And Christians Unite (vs. 13, 14)? All overtures to a closer fellowship and assistance Bro. Russell declined (v. 15). In the various places where Bro. Russell preached the Zionism message during a number of years the same features marked his meeting with the Jews. Through Bro. Driscoll, Bro. Russell's publicity director, he approached J., asking him to take over the Zionism work, and thus relieve him of some of his heavy burden. But J. pointed out his former relations to the Jews was sure to work havoc to that work, if it were made known, which, if he became very prominently identified with that work would most certainly become known to them. These considerations prompted Bro. Russell to withdraw his offer, so that J., while giving a few lectures to them on Zionism, and that under not much publicized conditions, did not take a prominent part in the meeting of antitypical Jacob and Esau, which privilege was almost exclusively confined to Bro. Russell, in its writing and lecturing features.


J.'s part in the pertinent work was largely in a suffering way, as follows: As soon as he heard of the Jews' advancing inimically toward the work after Bro. Russell's first efforts to arouse a friendly interest in them as to Zionism, he became greatly afraid and distressed (Gen. 32: 7), lest his former relations to the Jews become known, which would make them think that Bro. Russell was using new methods to proselyte them—a thing sure to prove fatal to the work. J.'s



distress was made all the greater when the Portland, Ore., brethren, to whom he was to give a second pilgrim visit, the one scheduled for May 27-29, were planning to have him address the Jews of Portland in a widely advertised public meeting, for which his former relations to the Jews was proposed to be advertised. Against this kind of advertising he earnestly advised, as a sure injury to the whole Truth people's work on Zionism. He, too, knowing that his former relations to the Jews were known through previous advertising for public meetings at Portland, was keenly distressed and earnestly advised the Portland class not to use him, but some other pilgrim to address a meeting for them on Zionism. This experience increased J.'s fears and distress on the fact of his relation to the Truth work and its effect on the approaching work on Zionism. This led him to most earnest prayer for weeks to the Lord that his former relations to the Jews become not a drawback and a stumbling block to the work; and his prayer without his realizing the relationship at the time contained the same thoughts as those expressed in vs. 9-12. But this fear and distress lasted for several weeks and was not overcome until after his breakdown, which to his great relief he felt sure eliminated him from the scene. From v. 13 to v. 23 the antitype of Jacob was enacted in Bro. Russell alone; but that of vs. 24-32 occurred in J.


The distress that J. felt put him into the experience of the sore wrestling pictured forth in these verses. The wrestling consisted in an internal debate over the pros and cons of his taking part in the Zionistic work as lecturer thereon. No audible words were spoken during this debate, as some to whom we described the experience years later misrepresented it, and therefore claimed that it was a piece of occultism. To his mentally-put objection that his former relations to the Jews would work ruin to it, if he took a prominent part in it, the reply came, Trust the Lord to overrule it. To this the answer was, The Lord desires not that we cast ourselves down from a pinnacle in tempting Him to



certain disaster. This debate lasted for weeks and took on all sorts of angles to which J. made constant replies mentally in ways that seemed to him Truth-and logic-harmonious. It began after the debate of antitypical Eleazar above described and lasted until a little after J.'s breakdown, and was contributory to that breakdown. J. was immovable from his position (He [the Lord] prevailed not against him [J.), v. 25). The Lord was testing him to see whether he would allow himself to be maneuvered into a prominent service, however much prized, that he felt sure would result in injury to the Lord's cause. This conviction made him adamant against being maneuvered into such a service. He had no idea at first that he was wrestling with the Lord. At the time he simply considered it as a weighing back and forth of principles that had relation to the subject on hand. It was as his brain was wearying that the height of the debate was reached, and as it continued brain-fag set in (he touched the hollow of his thigh … out of joint, as he wrestled with him, v. 25).


As J. continued the debate, even after his breakdown, the pro arguments were giving away before the con arguments (Let me go, v. 26); but J. still held on, in the hope of attaining complete clarity on the line of thought under debate. At that stage he became aware that he was debating with the Lord, who was all along merely testing his obedience and his loyalty to His interests. Then he pleaded long and perseveringly for a blessing from the Lord (will not let thee go, except thou bless me). Then, as in a silent conversation, the question arose in J.'s mind, What is your office (What is thy name, v. 27)? and he answered mentally, A pilgrim, a general elder, who loyally will support Bro. Russell—an answer that, unknown to J., but in the Lord's sight, implied that J. was Bro. Russell's special helper in the former's office of star-membership as well as that Servant, as he had been since his encounter with M.L. McPhail, about 13 months before.


To make this office-promotion known to J., the Lord



opened his mind to see that he was made a special victorious warrior leader for God and the Church (Israel, prince, or warrior, of God, v. 28), because of his victorious struggle in his wrestling (host prevailed). The Lord made this known to him by opening his mind to see his recent experiences to be typed by the three exploits of Eleazar, the son of Dodo, the Ahohite, his office-promotion to the antitype of Eleazar's captaincy of David's second course of soldiers and of priestly leadership as antitype of Jedaiah, leader of the second course of the priests. Furthermore, He gave him to understand the antitype of the Jacob, Eldad, Medad and Jonathan types explained above, as well as several other Scriptures. These blessings were antitypical of those with which the Lord blessed Jacob (He blessed him there, v. 29). Before this antitype became clear to J., he sought long to know who his debating [wrestling] antagonist was; for he felt that the discussion that had been going on in his mind was not in the pro-arguments thoughts originating in his own mind (Tell … thy name). And until the antitype became clear he was given no informative answer, rather questionings as to the motive for his query came into his mind (Wherefore … ask … name?). However, after J. was blessed, among other ways, by an understanding of this type, he knew that his fellow-wrestler was the Lord Jesus. Accordingly, he considered the sphere of this experience one that brought him face to face mentally with the Lord (Peniel, face of God, v. 30), for mentally in this debate he had seen God as it were face to face (face to face). The wonder of it all was that his life was not crushed out, for this and the three Eleazarite experiences took much of his life (and my life is preserved).


When one considers the exhausting character of the hard labors and struggles involved in the three above-described experiences antitypical of Eleazar's three exploits, all of which consumed much of J.'s vitality, and then adds to this the exhausting effects of this wrestling match, is it any wonder that J., as a result, suffered brain-fag? Rather, the



wonder is that he remained alive! Yea, so severe a blow to his brain were these four experiences that brain-fag set in, disqualifying him from pilgrim service for 3½ months, and for some time following made him incapable of hard mental effort; yea, to this day his brain cannot stand nearly the amount of strain that it could stand before those experiences (he halted upon his thigh, v. 31). And the crown-losers hearing of J.'s collapse would not heartily accept his statement of those experiences as antitypes made clear to him just after his collapse, even as Israelites after Jacob's limping and to this day do not eat round steak (the children of Israel eat not the sinew, because of [that of Jacob] shrinking, v. 32) which is on the body of the thigh (because he came against the body of Jacob's thigh, against the sinew that shrank, v. 32, literal translation). Despite the harmony of the above interpretation with the facts and setting of the fulfillment, the Levites (the children of antitypical Jacob) will not heartily accept it. They will fear, as they have done in the past, that the wrestling above described may have been a demonized affair. To give an intelligible setting to the shorter forecast just explained we have been compelled to expound above Gen. 32 and 33. The next shorter forecast in the form of a type that belongs here is Ex. 19: 24. Here an exclusive privilege granted Bro. Russell as the Parousia Messenger and J. as the Epiphany messenger is set forth; but as the details on Ex. 19: 21-25 pertinent to an understanding of this subject are given in Vol. IX, 126-131, it will be unnecessary to go over it again here.


Another shorter forecast in the form of a type of J. to be presented is that of Ithamar. In Vol. VIII, Chap. II and Vol. IX, Chap. VI, it was shown that Eleazar, the son of Aaron, during Aaron's high-priesthood for the Jewish Harvest types the twelve Apostles and for the Gospel Harvest, Bro. Russell. It was in those same volumes and chapters shown that Ithamar types the 35 star-members who officiated between



the two Harvests, i.e., during the Interim, and the star-member who officiates during the Epiphany. The reason in both sets of cases is that the two respective sets of periods are parallels, i.e., the Harvests are parallels and the Interim and the Epiphany are parallels. The former fact we learned in Studies, Vols. II and III; and the latter fact we have learned from the Gospel Age and its Miniatures. Especially have we learned the latter fact from our study of the twofold antitype of Israel's wandering 40 Years in the wilderness, in Vol. IX, Chap. III. As it pleased the Lord to make Bro. Russell the parallel of the twelve chief star-members, those of the Jewish Harvest, so it pleased Him to make J. the parallel of the 35 subordinate star-members, those of the Interim, and that because of the parallel periods in which each set has ministered. Aaron's two sons, i.e., Eleazar and Ithamar, when not specifically named; type the Under-priesthood; but when they are specifically named they type the persons referred to above. Briefly will here be pointed out the various respects in which Ithamar types J., even as in these same respects he also types the 35 star-members of the Interim. In Ex. 38: 21 his mission as the exponent of every teaching of the Bible is set forth. This implies that he will not only interpret everything in the Bible not interpreted by Bro. Russell, but also that he will vindicate against attacks all of Bro. Russell's teachings as he left them in Oct. 1914. It will take the whole of the Epiphany to accomplish these two works; but so far much progress has been made in these two respects, as can be seen in The Present Truth and in The Herald Of The Epiphany. Accordingly, when the Epiphany will have been ended, as between Bro. Russell and J. everything in the Bible will have been interpreted (Rom. 15: 4). In Lev. 10: 6, for the Parousia Bro. Russell and for the Epiphany J. have been, the latter still so, admonished not to mourn over the Second Deather's of their respective periods, but to be at one with God's will in their destruction from the Lord.



Lev. 10: 12-15 shows for the end of the Age that the Lord in His justice (the Law) apportioned certain advantages to come to Bro. Russell in the Parousia and to J. in the Epiphany in view of their service, while in vs. 16-18 they are respectively reproved by justice for imperfections in their sacrifices, for which imperfections our Lord as typed by Aaron intercedes and satisfies justice for them, amid this intercession commending what was commendable in their sacrifice. The mention of the four sons of Aaron by name (Ex. 6: 23; 28: 1; Num. 3: 2; 26: 60; 1 Chro. 6: 3; 24: 1) for the end of the Age is to bring out the idea typically that Bro. Russell in the Parousia and J. in the Epiphany would be much occupied with Second Deathers in their ministries. Num. 3: 4 and 1 Chro. 24: 2 in the mention of Eleazar's and Ithamar's names for the end of the Age types the thought that in the Parousia Bro. Russell and in the Epiphany J. would be the special priestly representatives of Jesus as High Priest (ministered … in the sight [literally over the face, i.e., the veil through whom Jesus speaks and acts] of Aaron). Num. 4: 28 for the Epiphany types the fact that J. would have charge of the Epiphany Gershonites, and v. 33 types the fact that he would have charge of the Epiphany Merarites in their ministries. On account of their present uncleanness his charge can be executed only in rebukes and corrections; after they begin their cleansing this charge will be complete; for they will recognize it to be the Lord's will for them. Num. 7: 8 for the end of the Age types that the Lord Jesus through J. as His special representative will give the Gershonites two and the Merarites four kinds of organizations for the doing of their Levitical work. This will be after their cleansing begins. Thus the Ithamar (land of Palms, Rev. 7: 9) type for the Epiphany gives a number of important items on J.'s priestly ministry, and shows that his ministry is mainly a charge over the Great Company and the Youthful Worthies, though it is toward, not over, the Little Flock.



As the last of the shorter forecasts Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada (2 Chron. 24: 20-22), will be presented. Jesus gives us the key to this forecast in Matt. 23: 35, 36. While all the shed righteous blood from that of Abel to that of typical Zecharias was required from the generation of the Jewish Harvest, all the shed righteous blood from that of antitypical Abel, Jesus, to that of antitypical Zecharias, J., the last of the star members, and the last member of the Little Flock to remain on earth, would be required of the Gospel Harvest's generation. Accordingly, the Zechariah of 2 Chron. 24: 20-22 types J., and that as the main priestly rebuker of the symbolic fornication practiced between the U. S. government and the Romanist Church, typed by the illicit union between Joash and a heathen religion (vs. 1719). This picture corresponds to a later phase of the illicit union of Herod and Herodias, as typical of a later—the Roosevelt administration's—phase of the working cooperation, the quasi-alliance, between the U. S. government and the Romanist Church. A combination of these two pictures shows that J. is the leader of the John the Baptist class in connection with their rebuking antitypical Herod, and their consequent imprisonment and beheading, as we saw from the Pyramid's symbolism he stood as the leader and representative of the Elijah class over against J.F.R. as the leader and representative of the Elisha class at the time of the separation of the two classes. As for administering his pertinent rebuke Zechariah was stoned to death in the temple, so J. for his part in this rebuke is cut off, with the loss of much of his vitality, but not unto death, from service with Extra No. 121 of the nominal church, particularly by its Romanist leaders' hurling all sorts of disparaging and false accusations, combined with suppressive acts against mailing Extra No. 121. V. 25 shows that with J. the rest of the priesthood are cut off, with the loss of much of their vitality, but not unto death, from the same service, in which they cooperate with him.