Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; Titus 2:13
strengthening, balancing, crystallizing and birth as a New Creature. Having made Jesus each pertinent promise, if He would fulfill each pertinent previous condition, justice required that God fulfill each promise on the fulfillment of each pertinent condition. Love delighted to fulfill each of these promises, out of God's appreciation, sympathy and delight to serve Jesus in the advancement of good principles. Only Divine power was capable of fulfilling them to Jesus, particularly raising Him to the Divine nature. These three attributes of God operated in Jesus' exaltation to the Father's right hand, high above every name that is named, and that from the three standpoints mentioned in the last three sentences.
Nothing short of Divine justice, love and power could have been dealing with the Church since Pentecost, to accomplish for it, what has been and will be done for it, until it is made Christ's Joint-heir and Bride. We have already seen the operation of these three qualities in the general work of its election, and will now show it in the special steps of that process. In the instruction that God gives to teach the Church His Word there is justice, which requires that He give it a sufficiency of knowledge to enable it to know what, how and why it should do throughout the various stages of the elective process; for without that knowledge it could not make its calling and election sure. Love acts therein; since it delights in, sympathizes with, and takes pleasure in realizing to it this knowledge, in order that it may derive from it all the enlightenment and energy to enable it to win out. And power lodges in this enlightening and energizing Word to enable it to win out. Also in its justification these three attributes work. In view of the ransom, justice must forgive the Church its sins; love takes pleasure in doing it, and in helping it to overcome sin and to live a righteous life; and power gives it the necessary strength to exercise the faith and duty-love to do these two things.
In the sanctification of the Church the same glorious three graces act. Justice declares itself satisfied by Jesus' imputed righteousness to accept it in consecration. Love is delighted to accept its consecration; because it appreciates and sympathizes with its spirit of consecration, and sees that thereby it can advance good principles for the blessing of the Church and the world. Power of course gives each the strength to consecrate. The same qualities also appear active in the begettal, quickening, growing, strengthening, balancing, crystallizing and birth of the Spirit in the Church, Justice does so, because, God promising each of these blessings in turn on certain conditions, each pertinent condition being fulfilled, each pertinent promise obligates God's justice to fulfill the pertinent promise. Love does the same fulfillings; because of its appreciation of, hearty oneness and sympathy with, and delight to sacrifice for such condition-fulfillers; and nothing short of Divine power could beget, quicken, develop, strengthen, balance, crystallize and bring to birth of the Spirit these consecration-fulfillers at each of its stages; for by these first six steps progressively are the Divine heart and mind cultivated in the Church and by the seventh the Divine body is given it, and thus it is re-created to the Divine, the highest nature. In effecting the Church's deliverance, i.e., giving it victory over sin, error, selfishness, worldliness, death and the grave, these three attributes operate: justice, because God's obligating Himself to give them victory in their conflicts, if faithful, is obligated to give it to them on their proving faithful; love, because it heartily appreciates this and sympathizes with, and delights to give them victory in their faithful struggles; and power, because it is the thing that enables them to struggle on unto victory. Finally, in exalting the Church to joint-heirship and brideship with Christ these glorious attributes work: justice, in that it obligated itself thereto, if the Church would be faithful; love, because it delights in, is in sympathy and hearty oneness with, and delights to promote
the overcoming Church; since this will advance good principles in blessing, not only the world, but also the new orders of beings that will be created in the Ages of Glory after the Millennium. In dealing with the Ancient Worthies, Great Company and Youthful Worthies in the successive steps of the elective processes toward them, these same qualities operate in the separate steps that they must take— steps that are similar to those that the Church takes. Being in principle similar to those just described, we would have to explain the same processes, if we showed them as working in these; and, therefore, to avoid repetition we will dismiss them with calling attention to the fact.
These same three graces are manifest in God's Gospel-Age and Millennial-Age dealings with the Jews. His Gospel-Age dealings with them have been mainly along wrath lines, with mercy and favor shown toward those of their believing individuals more than to believing Gentile individuals. It was an expression of justice that has been exercising wrath upon them, because of two great reasons: (1) their wanton disobedience to the Mosaic Covenant, which they pledged themselves to obey, and (2) their unbelieving rejection and crucifixion of the Messiah. Justice has, therefore, been pouring out wrath upon them throughout the Gospel-Age for these two gross evils; for had they been rightly disposed by God's favors, they would not have become guilty of these. Nevertheless, God made promise to them, even before they entered into wrath for these things, that He would preserve them unto using them Millennially as a fifth order of the seed of Abraham that would bless the world. And justice has required him to keep this promise, which He has also done. The preservation of Israel intact as a people separate and compact, though scattered to the ends of the earth, exiled from country to country, shuffled from nation to nation as well as within each nation, fiendishly tortured, barbarously persecuted, fiercely discriminated against, feelinglessly kicked and cuffed
about, ruthlessly segregated in the worst parts of cities and towns, scoffingly restricted to the most ignoble occupations, publicly compelled to wear distinctive garbs and marks, socially ostracized, mercilessly subjected to mobs and brutalities and mistreated to the extreme of exhausting the capabilities of these instruments of savagery, is one of the miracles of history. It has been likened to a huge river falling from a great height in Africa into the Atlantic Ocean, separated in its component parts into size of raindrops and tossed about in separated disorder, scattered about in widely disparate drops in its crossing the ocean and finally coming together on the Atlantic shores of South America, all combined and separate and distinct from the waters of the Atlantic! There is love—love in wrath—in this scattering and preservation of Israel, the love that uses the rod to reform and better character, and the love that keeps them as a compact people so that they, humbled and pliant in God's hands, may be available for their own blessing at Messiah's hand in the Millennium and for the blessing of the Gentile world in and with righteousness and restoration to the original estate of unfallen man. And, certainly, there is power manifested, both in their scattering and preservation; for if Divine power had not kept them amid the nightmares through which they have passed since 66 A. D., surely fleshly Israel must have perished.
Equally do we recognize these three graces in Israel's restoration to God's favor and in their return to their land. Ever since 1878 the blindness and hardness that came upon Israel for rejecting the Messiah has been slowly passing away; and their eyes are opening more and more to a better understanding of Him, which is resulting in their prejudice melting away as the frost melts before the sun's warmth. In this we recognize the justice of God that put this blindness and hardness upon them for the period of 1845 years (33 to 1878), the same length of time as they had and abused Divine favor (from the death of Jacob,
1813, B. C., to that of Jesus, 33 A. D.). And as the blindness and hardness came gradually upon them, so are they being gradually removed from them. The sentence of justice, that they must suffer for abusing His favor as long as they abused it, having been completed in 1878, it appropriately began in that year to be removed from them, through the beginning of the circulation of Delitzsch's Hebrew translation of the New Testament. In returning favor to them, of course, love is manifest, for love is favor, and is intended to bring them into harmony with good principles, and to make them instruments to spread good principles in the blessing of others. Certainly nothing short of Divine power could turn away such blindness and hardness [prejudice] from Israel as we see taking place before our eyes. Their return to their land is another evidence of God's returning favor, and curiously enough, it began legally in 1878, by the Berlin Congress of Nations' requiring the Turk to ameliorate Palestinian conditions on behalf of the Jews and to permit larger numbers of them to return. The return has been greatly accelerated by Britain's putting the Balfour declaration into operation. And though of late Britain, in following a short-sighted appeasement policy in Palestine, as well as in Europe, has limited Israel's return, God will bring such pressure to bear upon Britain, perhaps through the recent war, etc., that will force it to permit a freer return of Israel to Palestine. In all this justice, that keeps its promises, is at work. Love, too, is at work in this, to bless Israel unto the advancement of them in good principles, and later through them unto the advancement of such principles among the Gentile nations. And, of course, it is an expression of power, that has been and will be opening Palestine for Israel's return. The unconsecrated but faithful tentatively justified of the Gospel Age undergo similar experiences for similar reasons, which also manifests the same three glorious graces; for these and the believing Jews will be associated as the
fifth elect class in a Millennial world-wide work, hence their similar preparation for that work.
The uses that God will make of the believing Jews and the unconsecrated but faithful tentatively justified of the Gospel Age in the Millennium will be an exhibition of justice, love and power. First of all, these attributes will act in blessing these two parts of the fifth elect class with full enlightenment and opportunities of restitution and in giving restitution to them as they obey. God having promised this, His justice obligates Him to fulfill His promises; and thus these blessings will come to them as expressions of justice. In another sense justice will give them these blessings: Jesus then applying His merit to the satisfaction of all its claims against them, justice will be satisfied to see them receive these blessings. Love, too, will then act: love that forebears and forgives, love that is long suffering and kind, love that is gracious and merciful, love that is good and generous, will delight to pour out its blessings upon them, in order, first, to bring them into harmony with good principles, and, later, to use them to help others into harmony with such principles. The power of God that will smite the curse into oblivion and fill the earth with knowledge and goodness, overthrowing all obstacles thereto and instituting every condition conducive thereto, will operate mightily in their favor to secure these ends, and thus will be fulfilled toward Israel and the Gospel-Age unconsecrated but faithful tentatively justified the good things that God promised them in His plan.
These same glorious qualities mark the plan's course toward the good angels in their ministry in the Second World. It is certainly in harmony with justice to have rewarded their loyalty with the honor of ministering the Old Testament revelation. This was also a loving thing, inasmuch as that revelation is a feature of administrating good principles for the good of others. Likewise it is an evidence of power, e.g., the giving of the Mosaic Covenant at Sinai at their hands was a
marvelous exercise of power, among other ways, by causing the mountain and surrounding earth to quake, and to work on the minds of Moses, the prophets and other writers of the Old Testament so as to reproduce God's thoughts in the words that He designed, as Biblical numerics show, evidenced power at work. Their ministry toward the good in providential ways likewise displays these three qualities: justice, because having covenanted to protect them, it is just to fulfill the promise; love, because this is from appreciation of, sympathy with, and ministering to the just; and power, because they exert all the Divine pressure needed to accomplish the protection of the righteous. Similarly, in executing the Divinely arranged punishment of the oppressors of God's people these same principles are active, e.g., in the destruction of Sodom, etc., in the death of the firstborn of Egypt, in the overthrow of the Egyptian hosts in the Red Sea, in the overthrow of Sennacherib's host, in the death of the Persian conspirators that sought Daniel's life, in the humiliation of Nebuchadnezzar and in the death of Herod, the justice of God, as exercised by the good angels, is manifest. It was also love in wrath that thus delivered the good and punished the evil for their Millennial reformation; and, of course, power worked therein, as they are mainly expressions of power.
Again, the uses that God makes of wicked angels and men as means of furnishing God's people certain features of their training—endurance of obstacles—fitting them for God's future purpose, are just, loving and powerful. It is not unjust either to the wicked or to the righteous, for it does not force the wicked in any way to commit the pertinent wrongs, since they do so led on by their own depravity, and it is not unjust to the righteous, since it ultimately blesses them; and the sufferings that the wicked undergo for so doing are an expression of justice punishing them for their wrong-doing. It is a loving thing, since it is a means of ennobling the righteous; and since it is a
part of the program involving either the punishment of, or destruction upon the wicked, it tends to insure the destruction of evil, a necessary accompaniment of establishing good principles everlastingly. And, naturally, it requires power to overrule the machinations of the wicked for the good of the righteous, as power expresses itself in the pertinent rewards of the righteous and punishments of the wicked. Thus ultimately the machinations of wicked angels and men under Divine rule inures to righteousness and holiness.
In God's Millennial ways these three qualities will operate. It was shown above that there will be ten great purposes effected in the Millennium, and each one of them is a most glorious manifestation of these three qualities. Briefly will we point this out in each of these ten purposes. (l, 2) The resurrection of the elect classes and their establishment as God's Kingdom, as the first two of these, is just, as a reward of the righteous, as a just acknowledgment of the ransom and as a means of establishing righteousness. It is loving, as a delightsome gift to the good and as a gracious ministry in the interests of goodness. It is powerful, as a work that is the most difficult ever done—the re-creation of the identical persons on various planes of being. (3) To suppress evil and establish good conditions in their very nature self-evidently imply the exercise of justice, love and power; and, therefore, their mere statement suffices, without further reasoning on them. (4) To awaken the dead is self-evidently an act of power, also of love, when its object is kept in mind, as its justice is evident as an effect of the ransom, in setting aside the Adamic sentence, as putting them under the Kingdom necessarily is an expression of power and of love, when its object is kept in mind, likewise of justice toward Christ, in view of His ransoming them for that purpose. (5) Self-evidently, to influence them favorably toward Christ is in view of the ransom a matter of justice, in view of the purpose a matter of love, and in view of its
intricacy a matter of power. (6) There need be no discussion of the justice, love and power in rewarding good and punishing evil for reformatory purposes, as such are the very nature of the activities of these qualities. (7) In view of the ransom it is, of course, just to give them the blessings of the experiences with righteousness, and love and power must be active in giving them. (8, 9) Self-evidently justice, love and power must act in giving the race a final trial, for it to demonstrate whether it will choose good or evil and to pronounce sentence accordingly. (10) To execute the sentence of destruction upon the incorrigible will be just; because they under trial will have refused to use life under the condition upon which its continuance was offered. It will be a matter of love to the wicked, as it will prevent their eternal unhappiness, and to the righteous, to preserve them from an eternal menace to their happiness; and, of course, power will work in inflicting that sentence. On the other hand, to give eternal life to the righteous will be just; since they will by their obedience have fulfilled the condition made for its obtaining. It will be a matter of love; for thereby good principles will be made possible of practice forever; and, of course, Divine power must be exercised to give and continue these.
The way in which the secret, and to man the confused, plan has been hidden in the Bible is also an expression of these three qualities. Both justice and love operate in hiding it from the unfit, lest they be put on trial at a time in which they could not overcome; and it certainly is a very powerful thing mentally, morally and religiously so to have constructed the Bible as to hide its thoughts from the unfit. On the other hand, this peculiar form in which the plan is hidden is an expression of justice, love and power, so far as the righteous are concerned, for justice requires that they undergo the involved trials, if it would reward them with life; love works therein; for it uses this matter for the better development of qualities in
harmony with good principles; and power cooperates in this matter for such development. For the same reasons as this peculiar structure of the Bible is an expression of justice, love and power, toward the unbelief class and toward the faith class, are the gradual revelation of the Bible and the gradual clarifying of its meaning, and that in due time, an expression of justice, love and power. Conversely, we remark that in none of the features of the plan above treated, nor in any other of its features, can there be pointed out one breach against the highest form of wisdom, justice, love and power. It would be largely a matter of repetition, if we should go over these matters to show this negative feature of the Bible's plan, but the closest examination of them will result in the demonstration of this feature as to the plan. This positive agreement of the plan with the highest form of perfect wisdom, justice, love and power, and the absence in the plan above outlined of any disagreement of any of its parts with such qualities, coupled with the fact that every feature is an outflow and manifestation of these four qualities are the strongest possible proof of the Bible's being a Divine revelation, for these things are self-evidence of its super-human and super-angelic, i.e., Divine origin.
Having seen that the salient features of the plan set forth in the Bible prove that it is a Divine revelation and that these features are an outflow of, and in harmony with a super-human and super-angelic, i.e., Divine wisdom, justice, love and power, and, therefore, also prove the Bible to be a Divine revelation, we now proceed to show that the attributes of being and character that it ascribes to God are a proof of the Bible's being a Divine revelation. First, we will show how the attributes of being that the Bible ascribes to God prove the Bible to be a Divine revelation. For details on these attributes we refer our readers to our book, God, 27-66. We will here mention each of God's fourteen main attributes of being, with a brief definition of each
of them: personality: the quality of a being that is endowed with intellect, sensibilities and will; corporeality: the quality of a being that has a body; for God is not simply a great mind without a body; spirituality: the quality of a being that has a body that consists of spiritual substances, in God's case perhaps life-principle; self-existence: the quality of a being that does not depend upon anything outside of itself for being or continuing to be; eternity: the quality of a being that always has been, is and always shall be; self-sufficiency: the quality of a being that has in and of himself all that he needs for his being, character, plans and works, and needs nothing to supply any lack, since he has no lack; immortality: the quality of a being that is death-proof, that cannot die; invisibility: the quality of a being that makes him impossible of being seen by any material creature without its killing him, but is visible to spirit beings; unity: the quality of a being that makes him but one person; omnipotence: the quality of a being that enables him to do anything that he wills; omniscience: the quality of a being that enables him to know everything that he desires to know; omnipresence: the quality of a being that enables him to be, not in his body, but in his attributes, especially in his omnipotence and omniscience, wherever he wishes to be; supremacy: the quality of a being that makes him a superior over all persons and things; and unfathomableness: the quality of a being that, though permitting him to be comprehensible in part, makes him incomprehensible in part. These fourteen qualities are the main attributes of God's being set forth in the Bible in its revelation of Him as a being.
It will now be shown that each one of these attributes of being is set forth in the Bible as those of Him as a being. We will here merely give the pertinent citations, referring our readers to our book, God, 27-66, for general details thereon. The Bible reveals God as having the quality of personality, i.e., He is a being who thinks, feels and wills, as the following passages prove:
(a) He thinks: Josh. 22: 22; Is. 44: 8; Job. 36: 4; Ps. 44: 21; Matt. 6: 8; Luke 16: 15; Acts 15: 18; Rom. 8: 29; 2 Tim. 2: 19; 1 John 3: 20; (b) He feels: Ps. 103: 13; John 16: 27; Ex. 34: 6; Heb. 11: 5; Ps. 30; 4; Ex. 20: 5; Ps. 7: 9; 1 Pet. 3: 20; John 3: 16; Ps. 25: 6; (c) He wills: Matt. 6: 10; 7: 21; Luke 22: 42; Acts 21: 14; Gal. 1: 4; Eph. 1: 11; 1 Thes. 4: 3; 1 Cor. 12: 11; Heb. 6: 17; 2 Pet. 3: 9. Besides these and numerous others that attribute to God the essential elements of personality, other passages, like the following, reveal Him to us to be a person: Ex. 8: 10; 15: 11; 20: 3; 34: 14; Deut. 4: 35; 5: 7; 6: 4; 10: 17; 1 Sam. 2: 2; 7: 3; 2 Kings 17: 36; 19: 15; Is. 40: 25; 44: 6; 45: 21; Jer. 10: 10; 32: 27; Matt. 23: 9; John 17: 3; Eph. 4: 6; Heb. 1: 3. The Bible reveals God as having the attribute of corporeality, i.e., He is a Being who has not simply personality, i.e., a disposition, but also a body. The following passages imply that God has a body: John 5: 37; Ex. 33: 20-23; John 4: 24, compared with 1 Cor. 15: 44-49; Heb. 1: 3; passages that speak of His dwelling in heaven imply it, e.g., Ps. 73: 25; Matt. 5: 16, 45; 6: 9, etc., etc. The Bible reveals God as having the quality of spirituality, i.e., as having a body consisting of one or more spiritual substances: Acts 17: 29; John 4: 24, compared with 1 Cor. 15: 50; 44-49; Heb. 1: 7, 14. The Bible reveals God as having the attribute of self-existence. The following passages so reveal Him: Ex. 3: 14; Deut. 32: 40; Job 35: 6-8; Is. 44: 6. The Bible reveals God to have the quality of eternity, as the following passages show: Deut. 33: 27; Job 36: 26; Ps. 41: 13; 90: 1, 2; 93: 2; 102: 27; Is. 57: 15; Jer. 10: 10; Heb. 1: 12; Rom. 1: 20; 1 Tim. 1: 17 (A. R. V.); Rev. 4: 8, 9; 16: 5. The Bible reveals God as a being having the attribute of self-existence as the following Scriptures manifest: Acts 17: 25; Job 35: 6-8. Again, the Bible reveals God as a being who has the quality of immortality. This is evident from the following citations:
1 Tim. 6: 16; compare 2 Pet. 1: 4 with 1 Cor. 15: 53, 54; John 5: 26; 1 Tim. 1: 17.
There are, among others, seven others that it also reveals. The first of these is invisibility to His material creatures, who cannot see Him and live, as the following verses prove: 1 Tim. 6: 16; Deut. 4: 15; Ex. 33; 18, 20, 23; 1 Kings 8: 12; Job 23: 8, 9; Ps. 18: 11; 97: 2; John 1: 18; 5: 37; 6: 46; Col. 1: 15; 1 Tim. 1: 17 (A. R. V.); Heb. 11: 27. Unity is another attribute of God as a being revealed in the Bible, as the passages now to be cited show: Deut. 6: 4; 1 Kings 8: 60; Is. 42: 8; John 17: 3; 1 Cor 8: 4-6; Gal. 3: 20; 1 Tim. 2: 5; Jas. 2: 19; 1 Tim. 1: 17 (A. R. V.); Jude 25 (A. R. V.). Another attribute of being in God is Biblically revealed—omnipotence as the accompanying Scriptures prove: Ps. 115: 3; Is. 46: 10, 11; Job 23: 13, 14; Is. 43: 13; Job 42: 2; Matt. 19: 26; Luke 1: 37; Gen. 17: 1; 18: 14; Is. 26: 4; Rev. 19: 6; 21: 22; Ex. 15: 6-12; Num. 11: 23; 23: 20; Dent. 3: 24; 7: 27; Dan. 4: 35; Is. 31: 3; Jer. 32: 17, 27; Job 26: 11, 14; 40: 9; 41: 10, 11; Is. 14: 24, 27; Matt. 10: 28. The Bible reveals omniscience as an attribute of God's being, as can be seen in these Scriptures: Job 12: 13, 22; Rom. 11: 33; 1 John 3: 20; Ps. 1: 6; Prov. 5: 21; Rom. 8: 27; 2 Tim. 2: 19; 1 Cor. 3: 20; Jer. 23: 24; Ps. 92: 5; 104: 24; 136: 5; 147: 4; Is. 42: 9; 44: 7; Matt. 24: 36; Acts 15: 18. Again, the Bible reveals God as a being possessing omnipresence, as instance these verses: Gen. 28: 16; 1 Kings 8: 27; Ps. 139: 3, 5, 7-10; Jer. 23: 23, 24; Acts 17: 24, 27, 28. God's supremacy is another of His attributes of being revealed in the Bible, (a) as to ownership of all things: Gen. 14: 19; Rev. 4: 11; (b) as to control of nature: Job 38: 33; Jer. 31: 35; 33: 25; (c) as to giving laws to all: Ex. 20: 2; Matt. 22: 37; (d) as to trying men: Dent. 13: 1; 1 Cor. 11: 19; (e) as to bestowing favors: Rom. 9: 22; 2 Tim. 2: 25; (f) as to disposing of men's lives: Gen. 22: 2; 1 Sam. 16 2; (g) as to His judging men and nations: Dan. 4: 17; Rom. 12: 19; 1 Cor. 6: 3; Rev. 11: 18; (h) as to our
Lord Jesus: John 10: 20; 14: 28; 1 Cor. 3: 23; 11: 3; 15: 24, 27, 28; Phil. 2: 8; Eph. 1: 17; 1 Pet. 1: 3; Heb. 1: 8, 9; (i) as recognized ultimately by all: 1 Cor. 15: 28; Phil. 2: 9-11; Rev. 5: 12, 13; 19: 6; Ps. 47: 2, 3, 7, 8. And, finally, the Bible reveals unfathomableness as an attribute of God's being, as the following Scriptures show: Deut. 29: 29; Job 5: 8, 9; 11: 7; 26: 14; 36: 26; 37: 5, 23; Ps. 139: 6; 145: 3; Eccl. 11: 5; Is. 40: 28; Rom. 11: 33, 34.
Thus we have shown that the Bible reveals God's attributes of being as consisting, among others, mainly of fourteen of them. As we consider these attributes we must conclude that God in His being is superlatively excellent; that His person is superlatively sublime; that His person unites every desirable quality for a spirit being to have; that there is no perfection of spirit being that could be added to Him; and that He lacks no attribute of being pertinent to supreme excellency, sublimity and perfection. So wonderful a being as He is in His attributes of person calls forth from us the supreme sentiments of wonder, awe, reverence, worship, praise, adoration and worship. They make Him, so far as attributes of person are concerned, worthy of being what He is set forth in the Bible as being— the supreme Being. There is no attribute of being in Him of which we need be ashamed, apologize for or hide from others for fear of their rejecting Him for some imperfection, some self-contradiction, some crudity, or some absurdity, as can be charged against some creedal views of God's person, e.g., that His unity consists of three persons, that His omnipresence consists of the extension of His body throughout the universe, and yet its entire inclusion in the smallest possible part of every electron in the universe. Nay, let us study every one of them, let us analyze every feature of every one of them, let us search them as thoroughly as our finite minds are capable of searching them out, and they will stand before our sanctified reason as reasonable in the highest degree, excellent, sublime, perfect and appropriate.
We can think of no perfection of the Divine nature not present in Him. He has in His attributes of being everything that we can imagine the Supreme Being to need for His absolute perfection in every particular. Such, and no less than such, is the Supreme Being that the Bible reveals to be such.
Contrast His attributes of being with the attributes of being that heathenism has ascribed to its gods, and immediately the unrivaled superiority of the attributes of being that the Scriptures ascribe to God shine out above the attributes of being that heathenism has ascribed and ascribes to its deity, rather deities. We will not institute this comparison with the deities of lower heathen religions. We will take the two highest, the deities of the Greeks and the deities of the ancient Germanic nations, i.e., the Teutonic and Scandinavian nations. Of these two sets of deities the Germanic nations in the revelation that they received (theirs came from Satan) developed a doctrine of their gods nobler by far than that of the Greek gods. While the latter made beauty the main feature of their mythologies respecting their gods, the former made righteousness the main feature of their mythologies as to their gods. But both of these in the attributes of being that they ascribe to their gods fall far below the attributes of being that the Bible ascribes to Jehovah. Confessedly the divine attributes of person that these two mythologies ascribe to the gods do not in their entirety inhere in any one of their gods, but are in piecemeal distributed among them, so that these are ascribed in their entirety compositely and not to any single one of their gods. This, of course, shows the inferiority of every one of them to Jehovah in person. Furthermore, every one of the attributes of being that they compositely ascribe to all their gods is inferior in reasonableness, nobility, excellency, sublimity, perfection, utility and appropriateness to the corresponding attribute that the Bible ascribes to God. Thus qualitatively and quantitatively Jehovah in the attributes of being ascribed to Him in the Bible is
superior to each and all of these gods in the attributes of being that their mythologies ascribe to them, which, of course favors the Bible as a Divine revelation.
Certainly, the Norse (Germanic) mythology presents a finer set of gods as to attributes of being than the Grecian mythology does. Hence to illustrate this line of thought we will instance the chief god of the Norsemen, who developed their mythology into higher forms than the other Germanic nations did with the same general myths as their common possession. Odin was their chief god, who was in every way a better being than Zeus, the chief of the Grecian gods. We will, therefore, compare him in his attributes of being with those of God; and immediately the superiority of the God revealed in the Bible to the supreme god revealed in the Norse mythology appears. Both have personality attributed to them in their separate revelations, but the intellect, sensibilities and will ascribed by the Bible to Jehovah are as high above those ascribed to Odin by the Norse mythology as the heaven is above the earth. The latter's intellect is circumscribed; it is puzzled by problems, many of which it confessedly cannot grasp; it forgets things: and at times overlooks pertinent matters, and it at times draws false conclusions. His affections often cleave to vain things and repeatedly His will is thwarted. Nothing of this kind is found in Jehovah. Thus in personality He is incomparably superior to Odin. As to corporeality, so sublime, etc., is Jehovah's body that human language cannot describe it, nor human mind grasp it; hence no attempt is made in the Bible to describe it, while Odin's body was quite mundane in the descriptions given it in the Norse mythology. He was a big overgrown man in his body, having a great long beard. While he is set forth as an immense, man of fine mien and form, he is nevertheless of necessity made to appear distinctly inferior in corporeality to Jehovah. As to spirituality of bodily substance, while the Norse mythology claimed that Odin was a spirit being, it made his body consist of refined
material substances, which at once proves the inferiority of his body; for it needed food and drink to sustain it, a thing that not only proves its non-spirituality, but sets him forth as very inferior to Jehovah, who is self-existent, an attribute that Odin did not have, proven by his having to eat, drink and sleep, as well as to perform Acts implied in eating and drinking. Odin is in the Norse mythology not set forth as eternal; for he is therein described as having been born, i.e., as having a beginning; and in Ragnarok—the Norse end of the world—he is to die. His being one of many gods, unity in a monotheistic sense would be a misnomer applied to him, because of his relation to other gods.
Nor does the Norse mythology ascribe self-existence to Odin. His having been born and his requiring nourishment and shelter prove the reverse of it as to him. Nor does the Norse mythology ascribe self-sufficiency to him. He had to be assisted in his work, in the solution of some of his problems, in some of his fights and in some of his debates. Hence he is not in the Norse mythology revealed as self-sufficient, as the Bible God Is. Immortality is expressly denied him in the Norse mythology; for according to it he is to be killed in the battle of Ragnarok. He was revealed as invisible, but his invisibility was of a distinctly lower kind that that of Jehovah; for whereas no human being can see God's body and live, Odin's body was often seen by humans, according to the Norse mythology, without their being thereby killed. Odin is not revealed in Norse mythology as omnipotent, i.e., able to do anything that he willed. Though there set forth as very mighty, many things were beyond his power, else, e.g., he would not have to endure death while fighting in Ragnarok. While he is set forth as the wisest of the gods; his knowledge was very circumscribed, so much so that he was baffled by many problems, and frequently had to consult other gods for advice. Nor does the Norse Mythology set him forth as omnipresent, in the sense in which Jehovah is present everywhere in the extension of His
attributes, especially of wisdom, justice, love and power throughout all space and things. On the contrary, to exercise his volitions he had to be present physically wherever he desired to accomplish anything personally. Nor is he set forth in the Norse mythology as supreme; frequently he had to submit to superior power; and a combination of the other gods, particularly if Thor, the god of war and power, was in the combination, outmatched him in power; and the fact that he will be killed in battle proves that, while he was the chief god of the Germanic nations, he was not supreme as the Bible reveals God to be. Nor does the Norse mythology reveal him as unfathomable. The other gods fathomed him repeatedly; and his needing their advice at times proves his fathomableness. Thus he is as distinctly inferior to Jehovah in attributes of being as the earth is inferior to heaven.
If the noblest of all heathen revelations sets forth its chief god as so inferior to Jehovah in attributes of being, what shall we say of a comparison in attributes of being between Jehovah and the chief god of the Greeks, the Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Chinese, the Japanese, the Hindoos, the North and South American Indians, etc.? The Bible assures us that Satan and the fallen angels have been the revealers of the heathen religions, as they have also been their gods (Deut. 32: 17; Lev. 17: 7; Ps. 106: 37; 1 Cor. 8: 5; 10: 20, 21; 1 Tim. 4: 1; 2 Cor. 4: 3, 4; 11: 14; John 8: 44). Their worst revelations are seen in the most degraded of heathen religions held by the aborigines of Africa and some of the isles of the Pacific. But their very best revelations—those given the Germanic nations, especially in their Norse representatives, and the Persians, the latter getting their best ideas from the Old Testament, are in their teachings on the attributes of being in their gods so inferior to those that the Bible attributes to God that we are warranted in concluding that the revelation of the attributes of God's being given in the Bible cannot have been invented by Satan and the
fallen angels. Their best performances in this respect being so very inferior to that of the Bible, we can fairly conclude that they are incapable of making such a revelation.
Nor can human beings invent so glorious a personality in attributes of being as Jehovah. Thrown upon their own resources without the aid of the Bible, some of them, atheists, have denied His existence altogether, and thus do not come within the category of God-believers and teachers as to His attributes of being. The same may be said of agnostics, who profess not to know that there is a God, and incline to deny His existence. Materialists are little better than these; for, denying the existence of a personal God, they really deify nature, and, of course, cannot attribute to their newly-made god the glorious attributes of being that the Bible ascribes to God. Pantheists are little better than materialists; for, while they teach that all things constitute God, they claim that He attains personality in man alone, the highest form that their God attains. Here, again, we see its inferiority as to attributes of being to the God of the Bible. Deists, again, while teaching the existence of a personal God, are so nebulous in their views of Him that they do not in hardly any particular approximate any one of the attributes of being revealed in the Bible of God. What shall we say of the creedal views, the mixed products of the Bible, of man's reasoning and of Satanic delusions None of them teach the Bible fullness of God's attributes of being. Some of them teach part of them fairly correctly, but others of them grossly misrepresent some of these, e.g., self-sufficiency, unchangeableness (not enumerated above), omnipotence, omniscience, omnipresence and unity; and some others of these they do not teach at all, e.g., corporeality. While the creeds of Christendom on the subject of God's attributes of being got some help from the Bible directly, in the heathen religions Satan gave them his perverted representations of some Biblical features of the Deity, which
he failed to do completely in the creeds of Christendom, not even in the papacy's creed, which contains his chief counterfeits on God's attributes of being.
Accordingly, we see that the Biblical doctrine of the Divine attributes of being did not come from the heathen, who even in their best efforts were more or less deluded on the subject by Satan. Further, we see that the Bible fullness on it did not result from the best efforts of unaided man. Moreover, it did not come from the creed-builders, who measurably used the Bible in their efforts to attain Truth on the subject. All the false religions in the world, coming as they do in whole or in part from the fallen angels, are proof positive that the fallen angels could not have thought out such marvelous attributes of God's being as the Bible presents them. Their nature and character are of such an exalted degree as to be the teaching-product of a super-human and super-angelic source. Hence we present the kind of a being that the Bible reveals as endowed with the attributes of being described above as a strong proof of the Divine origin of the Bible as a revelation.
That it is a Divine revelation becomes all the more apparent when we consider the elements and attributes of character that the Bible ascribes to the God that it reveals; for none other than the Supreme Being could have arisen to the exalted heights of thought capable of revealing such a character. Generally speaking, it presents Him negatively as having a righteous attitude toward evil, whereby He abhors, avoids and opposes it, and positively as having holy affections, as having all the graces, as having strength in every element of character, as having the higher primary graces in domination of all His other affections and graces, and as having these in crystallization and absolute and highest perfection. These are merely the elements of His character as revealed in the Bible. It reveals particulars as to these. It reveals Him in His higher and lower primary graces and in His secondary and tertiary graces. Thus as to His higher primary graces, it reveals Him as supreme in the possession and exercise of wisdom,
i.e., able supremely to apply Ibis omniscience, in ways whereby He secures good results, a wisdom that operates in the widest possible spheres of the physical, mental, artistic, moral and religious worlds with unerring exactness and good results (Rom. 11: 33, 34; Eph. 1: 8; 1 Tim. 1: 17). Thus it also reveals Him as having perfect power, strength of character, acting executively in self-control and perseverance in furthering His plans and purposes (Gen. 17: 1; Ps. 115: 3; Matt. 19: 26; Luke 1: 37; Rev. 19: 6). So, too, it reveals Him as having and exercising perfect justice, duty-love (Ex. 20: 4; Ps. 89: 14; Jer. 50: 7). And, then, it reveals Him as having and exercising perfect charity, disinterested love (John 3: 16; Rom. 5: 28; Tit. 3: 4; 1 John 4: 8-10, 19). All four of these attributes are symbolically pictured as His in Rev. 4: 6, 7; Ezek. 1: 5-14, and are expressly or impliedly revealed in job 37: 23; Jer. 9: 24; Deut. 32: 4. Their acting harmoniously with one another is symbolically set forth in Ezek. 1: 5-14. We have above shown how the salient features of God's plan revealed in the Bible are in harmony with supreme perfect wisdom, justice, love and power. But they do more than harmonize with supreme perfect wisdom, justice, love and power. While so doing, they reveal these as the dominating attributes of God's character; for not only are the salient features of the Bible plan harmonious with wisdom, justice, love and power, and not only are all of the features of the Bible plan harmonious therewith; but all these are revelatory of supreme and perfect wisdom, justice, love and power as the chief and dominating attributes of God's character. Details on these qualities are found in E1, 67-140.
But the Bible reveals more than supreme and perfect wisdom, justice, love and power as characterizing the God that it reveals. It also reveals Him as having the lower primary graces, on which we have given details in E1, 141-202. Here we will offer merely generalities. He is set forth in the Bible as having perfect self-esteem that works in perfect self-confidence, self-satisfaction and self-respect; and He is there also set forth
as having perfect approbativeness, in which He desires that others in confidence, satisfaction and respect esteem Him for what He is and does. He is there presented as being at perfect peace amid all conditions, plagued by no perplexity or anxiety. As a warrior for Truth and righteousness He is in the Bible represented as exercising the perfect combativeness of such a warrior acting defensively for right and the good, as He is there represented as acting aggressively in the destruction of evil and in the establishment of Truth and righteousness. The Bible discloses Him as secretive in hiding whatever would work injury, if not kept undisclosed, as He is there manifested as exercising the cautiousness that secures the good from danger and injury. The Bible represents Him as being acquisitive of good, as well as economical as to the use of good. He is there disclosed as having the love of life and of spiritual thought. Moreover, the Bible reveals Him as exercising real spiritual conjugality toward the covenant as His symbolic wife,, and as an ideal Father to His children, mothered by the covenant. Toward the justified He exercises the finest of all friendships, as He also exercises the finest of domesticity toward His home members and the best of all patriotism as to the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit as His country. Thus God has and exercises in absolute and highest perfection all of the lower primary graces, according to the Bible.
The same absolute and highest perfection characterizes His secondary graces as these are displayed in the pertinent Bible passages and incidences. According to the Bible's passages and examples He is truly humble and modest, wondrously industrious, brave and candid, remarkably longsuffering, forbearing and forgiving, truly kind and generous, and incomparably self-sacrificing and thoughtful. So, too, does He suppress by His higher primary graces any expression of His social qualities—conjugality, fatherliness, friendship, domesticity and patriotism—that would make these control His sentiments and acts. Accordingly, impartiality and non-partisanship, under the control of wisdom, justice,
love and power, govern the sentiments and expression of His social affections, as the higher primary graces also control His selfish sentiments and their expressions. Thus in His secondary graces the Bible presents Him as absolutely and supremely perfect (God, 203-282). The same is the case with His tertiary graces. Where can such meekness—submissiveness to the Truth and its Spirit—be found as the Bible reveals in Jehovah? How beautifully it displays His zeal toward Truth and righteousness and their cause and participants! His joy is so wondrously revealed therein that it designates it by the expression, "the joy of the Lord." In all His dealings He stands in the Bible as the embodiment of gentleness, a fact that our experiences corroborate. His moderation in thought, motive, word and acts shines out on every page of the Bible. His magnanimity, Biblically called, goodness, is written all over the Bible; and our experiences also show this quality to be His. His obedience (which, contrasted with meekness, is the active, whereas meekness is the passive feature of living in subjection to the principles of the Truth and its Spirit) is revealed in the Bible as fulfilling every behest of wisdom, power, justice and love harmoniously blended. And, finally, His faithfulness is so absolute in the highest degree of perfection that it can successfully withstand any strain placed upon it, according to the Bible's passages and examples. We have abstained from citing Bible passages and examples in proof of its revealing His lower primary, His secondary and His tertiary graces in absolute and highest perfection for lack of space. These can be found in E1, 283-334.
The Bible not only reveals God as having in absolute and highest perfection all the higher and lower primary graces, but also in such perfection all the secondary and tertiary graces. And not only so, but it reveals them as existing and acting in God in absolute and highest strength, balance and crystallization, so that His character is wholly free from any lack, blemish or imperfection. How beautiful and sublime is the character
that the Bible discloses as God's! How praiseworthy, worshipful and adorable is He for having so exalted a character as the Bible ascribes to Him! His character needs no apology; it is sufficient to meet aright every contingency; it surmounts every obstacle; and it emerges from every experience unsullied by evil and triumphant in righteousness and goodness. It is a character that elicits love, that wins confidence, that inspires hope, that arouses devotion, and that produces faithfulness. It never disappoints; it never repels; it never leads to delusions; it never brings the loyal to despair; and it never falls short in ideals and acts. The enlightened Bible believer never needs to be ashamed of God's character, doubt its reliability, despair of its loyalty, blush for its acts, or concede in debate any imperfection in its performances or sentiments. Nay, it stands before the minds and hearts of the truly enlightened believer as the acme of goodness, the climax of virtue, the highest example of faithfulness, the admiration of the good and the wonder of the clear-headed and truehearted.
It is incomparably superior to the greatest characters invented by Satan and the fallen angels. Comparing it with that of the Greek and Roman gods, we find it incomparably superior to that of any of them. Jupiter, Zeus, their highest god, was a mixture of depravity, stupidity and inefficiency. His rapes, rages, quarrels, murders, falsehoods and treacheries prove him to be a most despicable character. The jealousies, envies and unchastities of Juno are proverbial. Venus is the very apotheosis of impurity. Almost all of the Grecian and Roman gods, though varyingly so, are a set of rakes and dissolutes. We turn away from them in disgust. What shall we say of the gods of the ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Moabites, Ammonites, Philistines, Phoenicians, Syrians, Hittites, etc.? As to character they are unworthy of mention in the same breath with the God of Biblical revelation. What shall we say of the character of the gods of India, China, Japan, Tibet and Oceania? Again it must in truth be said that
they are unworthy of mention in the same breath as the God of Biblical revelation. If we compare the character of the God of the Bible with the character of the best gods of heathenism—those of Persia, the Germanic nations and the North and South American Indians, all of whom were of better characters than those heathen gods referred to above in this paragraph, we must again place them, as far as character is concerned, as distinctly beneath that of Jehovah. From this process of comparison the God revealed in the Bible emerges as superior to the Satan-and demon-invented gods as heaven is better than earth, day than night, light than darkness, truth than error, righteousness than sin, love than selfishness and good than evil.
Man never did nor ever could invent so beautiful, glorious and sublime a character as that of the God revealed in the Bible. As we trace the views of God presented by the founders of the world religions—Buddhism, Confucianism, Shintoism, Taoism, Maneism, Zoroastrianism and Mohammedanism—we find their views of God's attributes of being, and especially of character, as a deep abyss, while those of God as Biblically revealed are as a Mt. Everest. If we look into the views of the world's great philosophers who were not Christians—Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Maimonides, Spinoza, Hobbes, Hume, Voltaire, Rousseau, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Comte, (J. S.) Mill, Spencer, Hartmann, etc., their views of God's being and character appear as crude speculations in contrast with the reasonable, factual, beautiful and sublime revelations of the Bible on God's attributes of being and character. If we enter the sphere of the speculations of non-Christian scientists, such as Lamarck, Wallace, Weismann, Lyell, Darwin, Huxley, Tindal, Helmholz, Haeckel, Osborn, etc., we find nothing satisfying in their views of Deity in His person and character; indeed they are almost silent on the subject, having almost nothing to present thereon. They and the philosophers mentioned above were among the ablest intellects
of the human race, and arose on the subject of God's person and character as high as human ability could do, but with all their ability and searching they could give nothing on the person and character of God that is worth while; and at best it is incomparably inferior to the Bible's revelation on those subjects. Its revelations on God's attributes of being and character are unique and most excellent.
Whence did the writers of the Bible get these views? We have seen that they could not have gotten them from the fallen angels, since these have over and over again proven themselves incapable of inventing them, in view of the attributes of being and character that they ascribe to the gods of their invention. We have further seen that the greatest philosophers and scientists, much less so philosophers and scientists inferior to these, could not have invented them. Moreover, a combination of fallen angels, philosophers and scientists could not have thought them out, as their failures at such a thing prove abundantly. Certainly, if they were uninspired humans, the writers of the Bible, less able, for the most part, than these great philosophers and scientists, could not have developed the Bible views of God's attributes of being and character. The only answer to the question as to what is the source of such views of God's attributes of being and character, therefore, remains this: The writers of the Bible were given super-human and super-angelic illumination whereby they wrote out the thoughts that disclose God's attributes of being and character as these are revealed in the Bible. And this, the sole answer to the above-stated question, unanswerably proves that, so far as the Bible's teachings on the attributes of being and character of the God whom it reveals are concerned, it is a Divine revelation; and this goes a great way toward proving that the bulk of the Bible is a Divine revelation, since its teachings on the subject of God's attributes of being and character are interspersed throughout the Bible, and are inseparably mingled with its other teachings.