Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; Titus 2:13
of God (understood the words … declared).
As indicated above, the expression, second day (v. 13), types the period of J.'s non-convention pilgrim work from place to place in England, Wales, Ireland and Scotland. Everywhere he went especially the elders (chief of the fathers … priests) and the deacons (Levites) came to J. (Ezra), seeking counsel (to understand) on both the theory and the practice (if the Truth (words of the law). The circumstances of the British Truth work and people were such as brought out in discussions (found written, v. 14) the various class standings (booths) of people before the Lord, which were more and more coming to light as the sifting work went on, especially in England and Scotland. Occupying these various standings is the antitype of the Israelites' dwelling in booths during the feast of tabernacles (feast [not fast, i.e., the day of atonement] of the seventh month). These matters were made known (publish and proclaim, v. 15; literally, which [things] they caused [the people] to hear and they caused the voice to pass over) in all the churches (all their cities), as well as in the British Church as a whole (in Jerusalem). They set forth these class standings as follows: Little Flock (olive branches), tentatively justified (pine branches), Youthful Worthies (myrtle branches), Great Company (palm branches) and Second Deathers (branches of thick trees. In each of these five kinds of tree branches the idea of the branches as having leaves is implied).
Members of each of these five classes made preparations to hold their standings during J.'s British work, in the sifting of that time (fetch … to make booths [dwelling places]). Not only so, but members of each of these five classes actually took their class standings in that sifting (people went … brought … made … booths, v. 16). Some did this very publicly, in working out their own schemes (roof of his house); others privately, in working out their own schemes (in their courts); others did it before and in the interest of
the Church (courts of the house of God); others did it in connection with services for the conventioners (street of the water gate); and, finally, others did it in connection with services for the public, e.g., colporteurs, sharpshooters, volunteers, newspaper, Photo-Drama and extension workers (street of the gate of Ephraim). So crucial were the sifting movements among the British brethren at that time that all took their class stands (all the congregation … made … sat … booths, v. 17); for Y's British work began the Epiphany work of leading Azazel's Goat to the Gate, as the revolutionists' work in Britain began the sixth sifting— Revolutionism.
Since the last of the reaping's siftings, that from 1908 to 1911 (since the days of Joshua [Bro. Russell] the son of Nun), when there was the last previous sitting under antitypical booths, manifesting those who retained the Holy Spirit (Little Flock, Great Company and Youthful Worthies) as separate and distinct from those who lost it (Second Deathers) and those who never had it (the tentatively justified), there had not until J.'s British activity (unto that day had not … done so) been, as a result of a current sifting, an antitypical sitting under booths. It was the complete overthrow of the sifters that occasioned the faithful so greatly to rejoice, when they recognized out of, how great danger and mischief they had been delivered (was very great gladness). During that entire time wherein these various standings were being approached and taken, i.e., during the entire British antitypical feast of tabernacles (day by day … seven days … eighth day, v. 18), the pertinent parts of the Lord's Word were preached by J. and his official supporters (some ancient authorities, according to Ginsburg's notes, read, "they read," instead of, "he read"; the antitype suggests the former reading as preferable), with special reference to the prevailing conditions (read … law). The seven days (seven days) represent the shakings and the resultant taking of the pertinent standings; and the eighth day represents the
resultant activities of each class in its standing, a thing full of solemnity (a solemn assembly) according to the Lord's disposal of the situation (the manner).
Chapter 9 takes us to the happenings in the Tabernacle ecclesia in a series of events that were connected with the revolutionistic resolution and pertinent correspondence coming into the fore, and the confessing preaching of 8 repentant brothers of the 11 signatories of the deceitful resolution. The trouble in the London Tabernacle ecclesia resultant upon the acts of the 11 signatories of that resolution, when the nature of their acts became known to the ecclesia, caused great mourning (fasting, sackclothes, and earth upon them, v. 1). It led to a reformation in many besides the 8 repentant elders (seed … separated … confessed, v. 2); for the evil qualities that had produced that resolution had defiled others than the 11. There was in that ecclesia much preaching on repentance during those times (read … the law, v. 3), taking up part of the ecclesia's meetings (one fourth), business meetings, exposure and confession meetings taking up other parts of its meetings (another fourth), coupled with submission to the Lord (worshipped). It will be noted (1) that in vs. 4, 5, excluding repetitions, 11 different individuals are mentioned. Of these 11 only 8 are spoken of as speaking the language of confession set forth in vs. 5-38. The 11 represent the 11 elders who signed the resolution that implied that Bro. Russell's Tabernacle arrangements were unscriptural, and that sought to dispossess him of his powers as pastor of that headquarters' church. Of these 11 elders 3 did not repent and acknowledge their wrong-doing: H.J. Shearn, W. Crawford and A. Cruickshank; the remaining 8 did repent and acknowledge their wrongdoing and are typed by the 8 mentioned in v. 5, whose pertinent preaching and confessing form the antitype of the preaching and confession of vs. 5-38, two of them doing it in their newly formed ecclesia.
Very briefly will we offer the antitypes of these verses
as the subject-matter of their preachings and confessions. They ascribed and exhorted others to ascribe glory to God (v. 5), whose works of creation and providence and whose angelic subjects are mentioned in v. 6, especially stressing God's love, as typed by Abraham in relation to the Covenant (v. 7) and the promise of victory over their enemies (Canaanites … Girgashites, v. 8) and the possession of the Truth and its Spirit to the Seed, Christ (to give it … seed). His fulfillment of the parts of the promise already due has taken place (performed) through God's justice (righteous); for God sympathizes with His people oppressed by Satan, sin and death and delivers them in this Age and will deliver the rest of them in the next Age (see … Red sea, v. 9), working the antitypical ten plagues on Satan, his representatives and subjects, for their mistreatment of His people (signs … them, v. 10), which is resulting and will later increasingly result in God's glory (name). Through justification by faith and consecration made and carried out God delivers His people now from the second death, and by justification by works will deliver the faithful restitutionists therefrom in the next Age (divide the sea, v. 11), while Satan and wicked angels and men, assaying to entice these, will perish in the second death (persecutors … into … waters).
Furthermore, one or another of these 8 brothers preached on the Word and Spirit of God as the Leader of God's people in the Harvests and Interim (leddest … day by a cloudy pillar … night by a pillar of fire, v. 12). They stressed the thought that He will give the world the New Covenant in the next Age (Thou … Sinai … gavest … commandments, v. 13). Detailedly did they speak of the Millennium as a period of rest from the curse (known … sabbath, v. 14), when God by Christ (Moses) will give the world the Truth on doctrine and life (commandedst), now giving the Church and then the world the Truth (bread from heaven … water … out of the rock, v. 15), and promising for both classes the heritage of the Truth and its Spirit (land … sworn). Despite these
promises in both Harvests many disobeyed (harkened not … refused to obey, vs. 16, 17), made siftings (appointed [literally, sought to appoint] a captain), for which amid mercy they wandered (pardon … forsookest them not) the 40 antitypical years. Even their making creed gods (molten calf, v. 18) did not move God utterly to abandon them (in mercies, forsookest them not, v. 19), but continued to lead them by the Truth and its Spirit (pillar … pillar) and to give them the Truth as food and drink (manna … water, v. 20) throughout the Interim (40 years, v. 21), supplying the Faithfuls' need (lacked nothing), keeping their graces uncorrupted (clothes waxed not old) and conduct spiritually healthful (feet swelled not).
Moreover, God gave them as spheres of the Truth and its Spirit (kingdoms and nations, v. 22) the spheres once occupied by the general doctrines of error (Sihon [rooting] … king of Heshbon [device], of the particular errors of eternal torment and human immortality (Og [giant] king of Bashan [fruitful, as source of error]), which errors they overthrew. Yea, God in their posterity (multipliedst, v. 23) gave them the entire Truth as due and its Spirit (possessed the land, v. 24), as they overcame sin, error, selfishness and worldliness (subduedst … Canaanites) in their strongholds (strong cities, v. 25), but their prosperity (fat land … delighted) did not move all of them to be loyal to God (disobedient … wrought great Provocations, v. 26), which resulted in God's giving them up (deliveredst, v. 27) to spiritual slavery and masters (enemies) that mistreated (vexed) them; yet when they repented and cried unto the Lord He delivered them through the reformers, especially Bro. Russell (saviors). These fallings away and forgivings occurred repeatedly (again … many times, v. 28), God repeatedly seeking by His teachings (testifiedst, v. 29) to reform them, and they as repeatedly proving intractible (would not hear). All these times (many years, v. 30) God exercised longsuffering, sending His mouthpieces (testifiedst … by … prophets)
to expostulate with and teach them. Yet they would not obey (not give ear), which moved God to give them up to the antitypical Assyrian and Babylonian captivities in Catholicism and Protestantism (gavest … people of the lands). Yet in these God did not destroy nor forsake them (consume … nor forsake, v. 31).
Then the 8 repentant elders justified God (the great … mercy, v. 32) in His dealings with His people, and pleaded for His mercy upon them and others who were with them guilty, and thus subject to spiritual slavery (trouble seem little … upon us … people), while Gad had all along dealt aright with them, the guilty ones (just in all … we … wickedly, v. 33). They continued to acknowledge the evils committed by all (kings … fathers, v. 34) as more or less wilful (didst testify against them); and in the face of great benefits (kingdom … fat land, v. 35) they had not repented (neither turned … wicked works). Then the 8 acknowledged that their and the others' wrongs made them slaves of evil (servants, v. 36) and were not walkings as sons in the enjoyment of the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit (the land … eat the fruit … and good), but as servants, not enjoying such (servants in it). The benefits of the Truth and its Spirit were accruing to their oppressors (kings, v. 37) whom God had allowed to bring them into subjection (put over us). They recognized that it was deservedly in punishment of their sins (because of our sins) that they were oppressed (dominion … pleasure), as they also acknowledged their sorrow for their part in the wrong as to the resolution (distress). Six of the 8 repentant elders at J.'s last appearance in the Tabernacle ecclesia's business meetings individually arose and acknowledged their wrongdoings in connection with the pertinent elders' resolution and its correspondence; the other two, as before stated, had formed a new ecclesia, and were no more members of the Tabernacle ecclesia. Not only so, but they made a solemn promise (a sure covenant, v. 38), recorded by the secretary (write it), and asked it to be
witnessed (seal) by the Bethelites (princes), including also the nominees and electees as elders and deacons (Levites and priests).
Chapter 10 also treats matters in the Tabernacle ecclesia connected with the troubles incidental to the resolution, to the nominations and election of elders and deacons and the resultant reformation of arrangement and life in that ecclesia. In vs. 1-8 names of 23 persons are given; in vs. 913 those of 17 others occur; and in vs. 14-27 still other 44 names are recorded—a total of 84 names. These 84 persons represent the 84 brethren who were connected with the nominations for elders and deacons, including the 18 elders of the ecclesia who held office until the election in its two parts was completed. There was a printed list of 77 nominees, which served as ballots in the election. From this list by an oversight the name of R. Cormack was omitted, who was among the nominees and was later elected, which brought the list to 78. Later the names of the two managers whom J. appointed, A. Kirkwood and E. Housden, were added as nominees. Two of the 18 elders were also omitted from the list of nominees because they formed another ecclesia, their names being C.J. Cotton and W.P. Frazer. The name of J.F. Rutherford (Meremoth, v. 5) was also omitted from the ballot, who later was nominated and elected the chairman of the ecclesia, its board of elders and its executive committee, he being ordinarily represented as such by J. Hemery. J. was a witness and participant also, because of his office, though not a nominee. The first 23 names represent the 18 old elders of the ecclesia, the chairman of the deacons, the two new managers, J.F.R. and J. The next set of names represents the 17 deacons who were, according to the schedule of the Tabernacle ecclesia, for April to June, 1917, given classes to lead. There were 31 leaders of such ecclesia meetings, of whom 13 were elders and 1 the chairman of the deacons, and the rest were the involved 17 deacons antitypical of the Levites named in vs. 9-13. The 44 of vs. 14-27 type the
rest of the nominees, 4 of whom, besides the 17 deacons and their chairman above-mentioned, were also elected deacons, and 40 of whom failed of election. But all of these 84 witnessed the solemn promise of the repentant elders before the church.
But the reformation did not merely affect these repentant elders. It affected the 7 non-signatory elders (priests, v. 28), the rest of the deacons (Levites), the evangelists, i.e., colporteurs, sharpshooters, volunteers, newspaper, Photo-Drama and extension workers and conversationalists, whose ministry was to open an entrance (porters) into the Truth to responsive ones, those in the ecclesia who gave discourses (singers) and the auxiliary pilgrims (Nethinim [given ones]). Additionally, the bulk of the ecclesia cleansed themselves (separated themselves) from filthiness of the flesh and spirit (people of the land), and re-dedicated themselves to the Lord (unto the law of God), and all in communion with them (wives) and all that they could influence, whether strong (sons) or weak (daughters), even those who were wise (knowledge … understanding). They held (clave, v. 29) to the Bethelites (nobles) and vowed to the faithful in their consecration (entered … oath … law … statutes), promising that they would not defile, themselves by subjecting their faults to those of others (daughters … people of the land, v. 30), nor subject others' faults to their own (daughters … sons). They also agreed that if speculators would offer them their speculations (bring ware … victuals, v. 31) on subjects as to which their minds should rest and not work (sabbath), or in any other feature of the Christian life (holy day), leaving the work of studying out such things to the mouthpiece priest, they would not accept their speculations (not buy).
They also agreed to forgive their wrongers (leave the seventh year) and to be merciful to their wrongers' (exaction … debt). All agreed faithfully to sacrifice in the interests of the Church (ordinances … yearly … for house … God, v. 32), the truths that strengthen the brethren in every
good word and work (shew-bread, v. 33), the preaching and teaching, of the Word (continual meat offering), teachings as to justification (sabbaths), the exercise of the graces (new moons), other Christian experiences (set feasts), other features of consecration (holy things) and the atonement relations of the consecrated humanity of Christ and the Church (sin offerings … atonement), for the Church (house of God), all of which was done as an exhibition of the manifest acceptance, by God, of Christ's sacrifice (continual burnt offering). The various preaching and teaching servings (priests … wood offering, v. 34) of the elders and the various teaching servings (Levites … wood offering) of the deacons and the servings (people … wood offering) of meeting places at the Tabernacle, private homes and halls, were arranged by votes (cast the lots), all for the service of the Church (bring … house … God), according to the varying needs and developments of the brethren (houses … fathers), for regular meetings (times appointed … year), for the service of sacrifice (burn … altar … Lord), according to the Divine arrangements (as … in the law). Moreover, all the brethren promised to make their New Creatures (firstfruits, v. 35) further the interests of the Church sacrificially at the regular meetings (bring … year … house … Lord). Yea, this was to include the New Creatures and humanity of the Little Flock and Great Company (firstborn … firstlings, v. 36). This included these New, Creatures from the standpoint of the Pentecost type (firstfruits of our dough, v. 37).
Consecrations as the antitypical tithes were brought for the various pertinent offices (chambers) of the elders (priests) and the deacons (Levites), pledged for the work of the Church (bring … to … house of our God). The chief elder, J. Hemery (priest, v. 38), as the brethren's (Aaron) leader, was to supervise the work of the other elders and deacons in their leading new ones to consecration (when … take tithes); and these subordinate elders and deacons
were to bring those newly consecrated ones, in their relation to the main leaders, the priests (tithe of the tithes), to the offices (chambers) of the; priests' ministries in the Church (house … God … chambers … treasure house). This was done by J.'s making it clear to the Church that some brothers by reason of superior qualifications should be put into more responsible services than those of inferior qualifications, for which reason J. recommended J. Hemery for the most responsible services in the Tabernacle, others according to qualifications to appropriate services, some being assigned to preach, some to preach; and teach, and some to teach and not preach; and' J. exhorted the members of the ecclesia so to arrange matters (children of Israel … Levi shall bring the offering, v. 39), i.e., put the higher qualified ones into higher offices (chambers) for ministering various uses of the Word (vessels), those of the lowest qualifications into the offices to which their qualifications fitted them (porters) and those of medium qualifications (singers) into positions to which their qualifications fitted them. And all pledged themselves to be loyal to the Church (not forsake the house of our God).
Chapter 11 continues to describe the work of reformation, both as to the London Bethel and Tabernacle, especially showing how this reformation affected the officials of these two parts of the British Church, which in its entirety was affected by the reforms at the workshop and sample church for the British churches. The leaders (rulers, v 1) naturally were in Bethel (Jerusalem) and the brethren everywhere favored those who were there (cast lots), as representatives of the whole (one of ten). Naturally the others spoke well of (blessed, v. 2) those who became Bethelites (Jerusalem). At Bethel (Jerusalem, v. 3) there were some brethren (Israel) who were the helpers of their more able brethren (Levites) and of their most able brethren (priests), as there were there also some auxiliary pilgrims (Nethinim) and special supporters of J. (Solomon). At Bethel (Jerusalem, v. 4) at this time were the main (Judah) leaders,
J. Hemery (Athaiah [whom God made]) and J. (Maaseiah [work of Jehovah], v. 5). The pertinent characteristics and uses, endowments, etc., of each are set forth in the meanings of the names of their typical forebears, i.e., as to J Hemery: Uzziah—strength of Jehovah, Zechariah— remembrance of Jehovah, Amariah—sayings of Jehovah, Shephatiah—judgment of Jehovah, Mahalaleel—praising God; as to J.: Baruch—blessed, Colhozeh—all-seer, i.e., overseer of all, Hazaiah—Jehovah sees, Adaiah—Witness of Jehovah, Joiarib—Jehovah strives, Zechariah— remembrance of Jehovah, Shiloni—my messenger. Their main supporters were in the Bethel and Tabernacle (sons of Perez … valiant men, v. 6). The secondary (Benjamin, v. 7) leaders at Bethel were A. Kirkwood (Shallu (promoted, in allusion to J.'s promoting him to managership]), whose qualities, uses, endowments, etc., are indicated in the meanings of Sallu's forebears, and E. Housden (Gabbai [collector, in allusion to E. Housden's being the treasurer], Sallai [promoted, in allusion to J.'s promoting him to managership], v. 8). They had many supporters (928). J. (Joel [Jehovah is God], Zichri [my remembrance], v. 9) was the overseer of these; and J. Hemery (Judah [praised], Senuah [bristly]), while J. was at Bethel, was next in power in Bethel.
Next the picture goes over from Bethel to the Tabernacle, which with Bethel throughout this book is included under the idea of Jerusalem; indeed, the same holds true of the entire British Church. On account of his being the Society's special representative J. was considered an official of the Tabernacle, though he never was elected as an elder or deacon. Here, again, the priestly, Levitical and Israelite picture is used as elsewhere in this book, and not as in the Pentateuch. J., because of his office, is here mentioned first (Jachin (established, faithful), son of Jedaiah [Jehovah knows], son of Joiarib [Jehovah strives], in allusion to the knowledge Jehovah gave J., enabling him to strive against the Tabernacle evils and for its good,
v. 10). Regularly the chief one (ruler, v. 11) in the Tabernacle was J.F. Rutherford, as he was chairman of the elders (Seraiah [prince of Jehovah]), whose characteristics, uses and endowments as to his Tabernacle office are indicated in the meanings of Seraiah's forebears: Hilkiah— Jehovah's portion, Meshullam—recompensed, Zadok— righteous, Meraioth—heights, Ahitub—my brother is good. J. and J.F.R. had very large support in the reformatory work (their brethren … 822, v. 12). J. Hemery was the assistant chairman and ordinarily, i.e., in J.F.R.'s absence, acted as chairman (Adaiah—witness of Jehovah, Jeroham—he is merciful, Pelaliah—judges of Jehovah, Amzi—my strong one, Zechariah—remembrance of Jehovah, Pashur— splitter, Malchiah—king of Jehovah). He also had abundant supporters (brethren … 242, v. 13). T.M. Seeck, who, as secretary, furnished J. with the elders' minutes, well documented, covering the meetings during and through which the conspiracy on the revolutionary resolution to oust Bro. Russell from his pastoral powers in the Tabernacle was going on, was re-elected the ecclesia's secretary (Amashai [burden-bearer]). His qualities, uses, etc., are indicated in the meanings of his type's forebears. He and the treasurer had many supporters (their brethren … 128, v. 14). Who was elected treasurer (Zabdiel [God's gift]) we have forgotten; but he had chief influence (overseer) among his and the secretary's supporters.
Six of the deacons (Levites, v. 15), F.J. Pett, C. Guiver, T.J. Ensol, A. Barnes, S.H. Martin, and H.D. Headland, were not given classes to lead, but were given purely deacon work to do, as antitypes of the six Levites mentioned in vs. 15-17. The first three had external business matters of the Church as their charge (oversight … outward business … house, v. 16). The other three had to do with non-preaching and non-teaching parts of the services (thanksgiving in prayer, v. 17). All of these had many supporters (Levites … 284, v. 18) in the Tabernacle (city). Two of the deacons (porters, Akkub, Talmon, v. 19) were especially
commissioned to serve toward outsiders and had a goodly number of supporters (172). In other churches there were also main leaders, as elders (priests, v. 20), deacons (Levites) and non-official brethren (Israel). The auxiliary pilgrims (Nethinim, v. 21) were members of Bethel, though not in all cases resident there (dwelt in Ophel [tower]). Their leaders were A. Kirkwood (Ziha [dry]) and E. Housden (Gispa [caressing]). The Tabernacle deacons had a leader (Uzzi [my strong one], v. 22), whose name we have forgotten. His qualities, etc., are indicated by the name meanings of his type's forebears (son of … Micha). The leaders of the meetings (singers) were the ones who were charged with the real work of the Tabernacle (over … house). J. Hemery (Pethahiah [Jehovah opens up], v. 24), whose pertinent qualities, etc., are indicated in the meanings of the names of his type's forebears, had charge of the general work toward the brethren in Britain (king's hand … the people). In vs. 25-35 are the names of 31 towns, 17 (vs. 25-30) in Judah and 14 in Benjamin. As mentioned above, there were, according to the Tabernacle ecclesia's schedule for April-June, 1917, 31 different Berean class leaders. The brethren as gathered in the meetings, led by these 31 leaders, correspond to these 31 towns, the 17 towns of Judah corresponding to the 17 more influential of these, and the 14 towns of Benjamin corresponding to the 14 less influential of these. There were deacons (Levites, v. 36) among these 31 Berean leaders; some of them had charge of the more important' classes (divisions in Judah) and the others of the less important classes (Benjamin).
Our study brings us now to Chapter 12. Zerubbabel (v. 1) has J. as his small antitype, from the standpoint of the latter's organizing the Epiphany work as to building the Great Company into the Epiphany Court. Accompanying him, of course unconscious of the nature of the work, were 23 who took a prominent part in this work, and who correspond to the 23 priests mentioned in vs. 1-7. They were the following: (1) the 7 Board members of the Society, who
decided to send J. to Europe in harmony with Bro. Russell's plan on this subject; (2) J.'s 8 extra-London British counselors; (3) the 3 British managers; (4) J.'s 3 assistant counselors (A. Kirkwood, E. Housden and R Cormack); (5) J.'s private secretary, F.G. Guard, Jr., and Pilgrim Bro. Smedley. The six non-signatory elders (J. Hemery not here included, as belonging to the previous list) are the antitypes of the six Levites mentioned in v. 8. The two Levites mentioned in v. 9 represent two of the leading Tabernacle deacons as supporters of the non-signatory elders; i.e., F.J. Pett and F. Lardent. Various phases of activities, qualities, etc., of J. Hemery are typed in the meanings of the six high priests' names mentioned in the history in vs. 10, 11. J. Hemery's activities, qualities, etc., as a supporter of J. in the fight against H.J. Shearn and W. Crawford, are typed by Joiakim (v. 12); and the 20 chief priests of the days of Joiakim (vs. 12-21) represent the same persons as were typed by 20 of the 23 priests of vs. 1-7; the omitted 3 of the 23 are J.F.R., H.J. Shearn and W. Crawford, who did not support J. in the involved conflict. There was, of course, a record (recorded, v. 22) kept of all the Tabernacle deacons (Levites) in the secretary's minutes and in the ecclesia's Berean studies' schedules all the times of J. Hemery's varied activities (Eliashib … Jaddua). This was the case until the renewal of the work on the temple as the Lord's people in America, in 1917 (Darius, who authorized the renewal of the work), the pertinent work done in England from Nov. 21, 1916 to March 30, 1917 being the antitype of the building of the altar and foundation of Zerubbabel's temple. More will come on this when expounding the book of Ezra. H.C. Thackway, G.T.R. Swain and T.M. Seeck (chief of the Levites, v. 24) were the 3 leading non-signatory elders, who served in the Tabernacle ecclesia in conjunction with the other 3 (with their brethren over against them) in the fight for Bro. Russell's Tabernacle arrangements (commandment of David) against H.J.
Shearn and W. Crawford. Only 6 of the signatory elders were re-elected in the Tabernacle ecclesia, though two others were elected elders in the Crouch End, London, Church. These 6 are represented by the 6 Levites of v. 25 (porters). V. 26 summarizes what is said, type and antitype, in vs. 12-25, with the exception that it adds that these served in the days of Nehemiah (J. as special representative) and Ezra (J. as pilgrim). And the facts of the case prove that these were the days of conflict with and over H.J. Shearn and W. Crawford.
This conflict from the standpoint of its steady progress toward and in victory is set forth typically in the procession of the two companies on Jerusalem's finished walls. The first work on the antitypical wall began Nov. 19, 1916, in starting arrangements for J.'s pilgrim work, and in the delivery of his first discourse that afternoon to the Liverpool ecclesia. Within 52 days the first phase of J.'s pilgrim work was finished, with his night meeting in Sheffield, Jan. 8, 1917; and, as shown, every other phase of the British reformatory work took 52 days from its start to its finish. Hence the procession began in both of its phases after the evening of Jan. 8. The work as soon as completed in each of its features was given (dedication of the wall, v. 27) to the Lord, beginning with Jan. 9, when J. started out on the second phase of his pilgrim work. To insure the benefit of this work to remain with Bethel and the Tabernacle the election of the Tabernacle elders and deacons was undertaken (sought the Levites), so that they might be assigned to their several services in preaching, teaching and testimony meetings (thanksgivings and singings), at which they used Tabernacle Shadows, the Volumes (psalteries), Mannas (cymbals) and Bibles (harps). The leaders (singers, v. 28) of other ecclesias than the Tabernacle came to this dedication, which occurred especially, but not exclusively, on the Sundays, Jan. 14, 21, 28 and Feb. 4 11 and 18. Particularly was this true of elders from the Crouch End and Forest Gate and other neighboring churches (plain country
… Azmaveth, v. 29). For a number of ecclesias were developed in and near London by the elders and deacons (singers … villages … Jerusalem). There was a general purifying work going on in those days by the leaders in Bethel (priests, v. 30) and in the Tabernacle (Levites) and these helped cleanse the non-official brethren in the various forms of Truth servants (gates) and the various powers (wall) of the British Church. Seldom anywhere else was there such a purifying work done in the Epiphany.
In the type one of the companies started just east of the valley gate, marching first eastward (toward the dung gate, v. 31); the other started just west of the valley gate (from beyond the tower of the furnaces, v. 38), marching westward first. The company marching eastward first types the brethren of Bethel and the Tabernacle ecclesia and other ecclesias who supported the non-revolutionists; and the company marching westward first represents the brethren of Bethel, the Tabernacle ecclesia and other ecclesias who opposed the revolutionists. Our reasons for saying this are as follows: (1) The latter stood still in the prison gate (v. 39), which represents the Great Company in restraint; and (2) J. (I … with me, v. 40), as Nehemiah's antitype, supported such resisters of revolutionists; for Nehemiah represents him here as the leader under Christ in forcing Azazel's Goat to the Gate and fit man, while Ezra, who was in the other company, types J. as pilgrim, not as the Lord's representative in leading the Goat to the Gate. The eight nobles of vs. 32-34 represent eight Bethelites. Hoshaiah types the Bethelite J. Hemery, whose qualities, acts, etc., in this matter are represented by the name meanings of his type's forebears. The 9 priests of v. 36 type 6 non-signatory elders (J. Hemery, the other non-signatory elder, being typed by Zechariah in v. 35, is here, in v. 36, omitted), A. Kirkwood and E. Housden as managers and J., who as pilgrim took precedence over the others (Ezra … before them, v. 36). These were loyal to,
and advocated the use of Bro. Russell's writings (musical instruments of David). These acted aright toward the managers (fountain gate, v. 37), to whom they stood in intimate relations (over against them). They proceeded in their advancing to higher positions along the lines of Bro. Russell's arrangements (went up by the stairs … David … wall … David) and were faithful, even to standing for Bro. Russell's arrangements for conventions (unto the water gate). The other company had many hard experiences (tower of the furnaces, v. 38), beginning shortly after they began to work against the revolutionists. They opposed the revolutionists against the workers toward outsiders, i.e., colporteurs, sharpshooters, evangelists, volunteers and newspaper, Photo-Drama, extension and conversationalist workers, etc. (gate of Ephraim, v. 39), against the work of the counselors (old gate), against the faithful elders (fish gate), against J.'s public pilgrim work (tower of Hanantel), his parlor pilgrim work (tower of Meah) and against the other pilgrims (sheep gate), and they continued this fighting against revolutionism until they brought the revolutionists into proper restraint (prison gate). Apparently the prison gate was near the water gate, between it and the horse gate; for both companies stood at the house of God (v. 40), which types that the two antitypical companies did their good work of praising God in the Tabernacle (stood … thanks … house of God, v. 40). The 7 non-signatory elders are typed by the 7 priests of v. 41. These certainly did trumpet the wrongs connected with the 11 elders' resolution, etc. The 9 singers of v. 42 type the 9 deacons who were elected at the first election and who took charge of Berean lessons, the other 4 deacons chosen at the first election not taking charge of such F. Lardent was their leader (Jezrahiah, v. 42).
During that symbolic parade there were many self-denials and sacrifices made (offered great sacrifices, v. 43) by the brethren, as there was great rejoicing in the deliverance effected from the machinations of the revolutionists
(rejoiced). This was experienced not only by the Bethelites and Tabernacle ecclesia's chief sacrificers (they … them), but also by their supporters and dependents (wives … children); and many brethren of other ecclesias observed this joy (heard even afar off). It was at this period (at that time, v. 44) that J. appointed A. Kirkwood and E. Housden managers (appointed), who were charged with caring for various features of the general work: E. Housden to look after the orders for literature (treasures) and the contributions (offerings), and A. Kirkwood to look after pilgrim, convention, etc., matters, as these concerned New Creatures (firstfruits), and consecrations (tithes), as these pertained to the main and subordinate workers (priests and Levites). The brethren rejoiced with and in these and gladly helped them. The Berean teachers (singers, v. 45) and those (porters) supporting the serving brethren faithfully served newcomers (kept the ward), and sought to purify themselves and others (ward of the purification) as Bro. Russell (David) and J. (Solomon) arranged (according to the commandment). Such ministries were conducted in Bro. Russell's times (v. 46). Indeed, in J.'s times in his twofold work (days of Zerubbabel … of Nehemiah) the brethren stood for Berean teachers and supporters of the Truth servants, and carried out their consecrations (sanctified) in support of the subordinate (Levites) and main leaders (children of Aaron), giving needed help.
Our study now proceeds to the 13th, the last chapter of Nehemiah. During the period (that day, v. 1) of the antitypical procession much was preached and spoken against clericalists (Ammonite) and autocrats (Moabite), the leader of the former being H.J. Shearn, and of the latter W. Crawford, both of whom were by J. announced before the Tabernacle ecclesia, Jan. 28, as forever cut off from the Little Flock (not come into the congregation of God forever). Such did not refresh the Little Flock in its British wilderness journey (met not … with bread and water, v. 2), but
used elders who were greedy (Balaam [greedy]) for personal gain to speak evil of them (curse them); but the Lord turned their evil-speaking into good-speaking by the efforts of the faithful British brethren. The pertinent preaching and teaching was listened to (heard, v. 3) and produced fruit; the faithful supported it; and those who were contaminated with the spirit of clericalism and absolutism and would not sever themselves from these were alienated (separated) from the other brethren, first internally, and then externally, e.g., H.J. Shearn, W. Crawford, A. Cruickshank (none of the three were reelected elders), and C.W. Cotton and W.P. Frazer, the signatory elders who left the ecclesia and formed another, and their partisan supporters; and those (the 6 penitent signatory elders) who were contaminated with the spirit of clericalism and absolutism, but who cleansed themselves, though losing some of the appreciation of the ecclesia, yet retained their fellowship. The antitype of the episode described in vs. 4-9 concerns the scheme (see Vol. VI, 5160) that J. Hemery, H.J. Shearn and W. Crawford as managers concocted, to make the W.T.B.&T. Society a money and books providing and a guaranteeing corporation and the I.B.S.A., an independent and controlling corporation in the British work. This scheme would have made H.J. Shearn (Tobiah, v. 4) the chief manager, yea, almost the controller of the British work. The antitypical procession commenced before the first election, that of Jan. 21. It was before this procession (before this) that the three managers, especially J. Hemery and H.J. Shearn, concocted the scheme, for the letter of the Society's auditors that outlined the scheme in detail was written Jan. 22, 1917, the day after that first election, and it shows in the third par. that the managers had requested the auditors to suggest a way to carry out the scheme; and in the first par. it states that the latter's various suggestions were in their letter being confirmed. The scheming took some time before the managers unfolded it to the auditors. Very
likely the scheming started sometime before Jan. 8, when J. heard J. Hemery's charges against the other managers in his last meeting with the three.
Accordingly, sometime before Jan. 14, 1917 (a Sunday), when the procession began publicly, the scheme was concocted by the three managers, especially by J. Hemery and H.J. Shearn (allied); consequently before that date J. Hemery (Eliashib), the chief manager and the leader of the ecclesia (oversight … house) cooperated in concocting that scheme. That scheme, if put into effect, would by J. Hemery's intention have given H.J. Shearn a great position of responsibility in the British work (he had prepared for him a great chamber, v. 5), a position that would have put into his control the main parts of the British work, i.e., the pilgrim, auxiliary pilgrim, extension, Photo-Drama and pastoral work (meat offerings, the frankincense) and the colporteur, newspaper and volunteer work (vessels), as well as the persons engaging in these works (tithes of corn, new wine and oil … Levites), as well as all of the leading brethren (priests). Before this he acted as a deputy of the Society toward these works and persons, i.e., a distinct subordinate; but that scheme, put into effect, would have given controllership to the I.B.S.A. as a British corporation, as against the W.T.B.&T. Society, and hence would have made H.J. Shearn the almost exclusive controller of the British work. The scheme was unknown to J. until March 12, not only until after his recall, but later than after the week in which he erroneously believed that his recall was valid (not at Jerusalem, v. 6). For a week the adversary (Artaxerxes, king of Babylon; not our Lord, Artaxerxes of Persia) deceived J. into believing that J.F.R. had the right to recall him; and thus during that week J. unknowingly, by submitting to the recall and by ceasing to act as special representative, was furthering Satan's schemes operating through J.F.R. against the British work (I came unto the king). At the end of the week (March 6), by a strong mental struggle
(I earnestly requested,—margin), he came very definitely to the conclusion that without the Board's authorization J.F.R. could not recall him, who was the Board's, not J.F.R.'s special representative. Hence J. resumed his duties as special representative toward the British work (I came to Jerusalem, v. 7). Thereafter (March 12) J. learned of the scheme and J. Hemery's part therein (understood … Eliashib … Tobiah … chamber … house). For details please see Vol. VI, 51-60. That J. was much grieved at this treachery of J. Hemery goes without saying (it grieved me sore, v. 8). By the ensuing suit, authorized March 14, J. destroyed the scheme, whose exposure made it impossible to put it into effect, though he lost the suit through J.F.R.'s fault (cast forth … stuff of Tobiah … chamber). The suit also was a command to end all such and similar powergraspings (commanded … they cleansed). It also resulted in deputy powers exercised by Society authority being restored (brought … vessels … frankincense).
Vs. 4-9 are a parenthesis. V. 10 goes back to the period of the procession dealt with in the second part of the preceding chapter and in vs. 1-3 of this chapter. In Bethel, in the Tabernacle and afield not a few of the subordinate workers (Levites, singers, v. 10) under H.J. Shearn's and W. Crawford's administration were circumscribed in, or withheld from opportunities of service (portions) that belonged to them, when they would not lend themselves to the schemes of these two. As a result the work in all three spheres lagged and in some cases was left undone, and other work was undertaken (fled … field). This caused J. to argue (contended, v. 11) with these two against their causing without right the work to be neglected (Why … forsaken?). He then changed this evil condition and encouraged each to resume his service in his special sphere of work (gathered … set … place). This resulted in a widespread increased participation in the Lord's service in activities and contributions (brought all Judah the tithe … treasuries,
v. 12). It was also during the antitypical procession that J. appointed the two new managers (whose appointment is described, but not by name, in Neh. 12: 44). Here they are described by name: E. Housden (Shelemiah [peace of Jehovah] the priest, v. 13), treasurer, and A. Kirkwood (Zadok [just] the scribe), secretary, both of whom were charged with responsibilities over the symbolic treasuries, i.e., goods of the Lord. J. similarly favored the election of the ecclesia's secretary, T.M. Seeck (Pedaiah [ransomed of Jehovah]), and treasurer, perhaps R. Cormack (Hanan [grace]). They were faithful in their service (faithful … distribute … brethren). J. by his conduct asked that God remember his labors on behalf of the Church and its offices (v. 14). One of the many evils that J. sought to correct was textbookistic methods in Bible study, which was very prevalent in Britain (I testified against them, v. 15). Great were the speculative products (sheaves … wine, grapes, figs) that these exchanged (sold) with one another. Because the Lord Jesus is the only Interpreter of the Bible, and uses a special mouth through whom to speak to the brethren, the latter should rest (sabbath) from speculative study. Hence J. disapproved of such textbookism.
Another evil against which he wrought was the practice of influential brethren to study books of nominal-church writers and to circulate them among the brethren (men of Tyre … fish … ware … sold, v. 16), which increased speculating among the brethren (children of Judah), who should have kept a rest (Sabbath) from such activities. This was done even in Bethel and in the Tabernacle ecclesia (in Jerusalem). J. rebuked the Bethelites (nobles) and others for practicing this evil (contended … nobles … evil thing … profane … Sabbath, v. 17). J. pointed out the evils that came in former days through such a course (fathers … bring evil, v. 18), leading to taking up nominal-church errors. He stressed as more deadly the speculative habit (wrath … profaning the Sabbath). He took practical methods to break up such speculations in Bethel, in the
Tabernacle and in the churches afield. By church action he had the churches banish textbookistic studies, on account of their speculative nature, from the churches' schedules, especially that of the Tabernacle ecclesia (commanded the gates … shut … not be opened … sabbath, v. 19), by stirring up the involved servants to shut such things out of their spheres of service.
He had trustworthy brethren see to the squelching of such speculative studies (servants set … gates … no burden … Sabbath). Some sought to continue this evil practice (merchants … ware lodged … twice, v. 20). Against this J. protested (testified against them, v. 21), threatening to denounce them by name, if they did not desist (do again, I will lay hands on you). This ended their open efforts at speculation (came they no more on the sabbath). J. charged the deacons and other less prominent brethren to rid themselves of speculations (Levites … cleanse themselves, v. 22) and to seek to hold back various serving brethren (keep the gates) from speculating (keep the gates to sanctify the Sabbath). For this J.'s conduct, by ill health from heavy labor, asked the Lord to remember him in mercy (Remember … spare … mercy). During the time of the procession J. also saw that not a few leaders had the qualities (wives, v. 23) of sectarianism (Ashdod [stronghold]), of clericalism (Amnion) and of autocracy (Moab). Their supporters (children, v. 24) were neither wholly in the Truth nor wholly in error (spake half … speech of Ashdod … Jews' language). They were confusing both. This was especially true of the supporters of C.W. Cotton, W.P. Frazer (Ashdod), H.J. Shearn (Amnion) and W. Crawford (Moab), though others had like qualities. For this J. argued with them (contended, v. 25) and spoke against all of them (cursed them). He laid a very heavy hand on H.J. Shearn and W. Crawford before the Tabernacle ecclesia, Jan. 28 and Feb. 18 (smote certain of them), and dismissed them from Bethel as managers and moved the Church not to elect them, taking away their powers (plucked off their hair).
J. required of the penitent signatory elders a solemn promise to cleanse themselves from, and not to practice these qualities (made them swear … not give your daughters … take their daughters). He pointed out how the leading sifters in the Harvest (Solomon, v. 26) fell (sin) from their steadfastness through developing such unholy qualities (outlandish [foreign] women cause to sin), and that they fell, despite the high positions (no king like him … God made him king over all Israel) that they reached, and despite God's special favors (beloved of his God). Their examples J. held before the leaders, etc., as a warning to them, if they imitated such (hearken … evil … God … strange wives, v. 27). J. Hemery (one of the sons of Joiada [Jehovah knows] … Eliashib [God returns], v. 28), after J.F.R. recalled J. and denounced him as a fraud, showed a character much like that of W. Crawford (son-in-law of Sanballat [the moon god gave life] the Horonite [double cave, i.e., doubly secretive]). Details on this phase of his doings and character are given in Vol. VI, Chap. I. His evil course gave J. his last unpleasant work in Britain; and it resulted in J.'s suspending him as manager, and in bringing the suit in part against him to protect the Society against his scheme (I chased him from me). Against all three of the managers who held office as such on J.'s coming to England did his resistance of them become in God's sight a prayer, because they had defiled themselves as the main leaders in Britain (priesthood, v. 29) and had defiled their office obligations (covenant) as these respected them and their subordinates (Levites) in Bethel and the Tabernacle. The first clause of v. 30 summarizes for the type what was given above as the antitype of vs. 15-27, as the second clause of v. 30 and the first clause of v. 31 summarize for the type what was given on Neh. 9: 1–12: 47 as the antitype. J.'s whole-hearted service on behalf of the British Church in defending it against its exploiters, in giving it the Divine arrangements for carrying on its work and in seeking its real prosperity was a prayer to God to remember for blessing his labors (Remember … for good, v. 31).