Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13

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I acquire on the basis of a price paid, i.e., to buy: "Feed the church of God, which he has purchased with his own [Son's] blood" (Acts 20: 28). In Eph. 1: 13 Paul uses this Greek word in noun form, peripoiesis, to show Christ's act of buying the Church: "Ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit of [the] promise, which is the earnest [hand payment] of our inheritance until the redemption [deliverance] of the purchased possession." Thus these passages put the matter in the regular terms of a business deal; for there is one from whom something is bought, the Father (Heb. 9: 14); there is something bought, Adam and his race (Matt. 20: 28; 1 Tim. 2: 6); and there is a purchaser who pays the price, Jesus (Rev. 5: 9; 1 Pet. 1: 18, 19).

 

Additional to these proofs we submit twelve considerations, the main features of the Bible, that prove such a purchase: (1) Equal things are paid for the debt: a perfect man for a forfeited perfect man, a perfect soul for a forfeited perfect soul, the right to life and its life-rights for a forfeited right to life with its life-rights (1 Cor. 15: 21, 22; Heb. 2: 6-9; Ps. 8: 4-8; Is. 53: 10, 12). (2) Equal parts were given for the debt of the equal parts. A perfect body was given for the forfeited perfect body, a perfect life for the forfeited perfect life (Gen. 1: 26, 27, 31; 2: 7; Luke 22: 19; Matt. 26: 26-28; Heb. 9: 14; 10: 5). (3) The same thing was endured in laying down the price as was endured in giving up the debt (Gen. 2: 17; 3: 19; Rom. 6: 23; Is. 53: 12; 1 Cor. 15: 3). (4) Justice is satisfied by the ransom-price to the same degree that it was by Adam's sin dissatisfied to let him retain his life (Ex. 21: 23-25; Rom. 3: 25, 26; 1 John 2: 2; 4: 10; Heb. 2: 17). (5) The ransom-price makes available for communion with God the whole race, which by Adam's sin was made unavailable for communion with God (Eph. 2: 3; 2 Cor. 5: 19). (6) The ransom-price now effects by faith as to the elect justification for sinners who were under condemnation for Adam's sin (Rom. 3: 19-26; 5: 12-17; 4: 2-8; 10: 4;

 

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1 Cor. 1: 30; Phil. 3: 9). (7) The ransom-price in the Millennium will effect the cancellation of the sentence and forgiveness of sins for all the non-elect (Rom. 5: 15, 16, 18, 19). (8) Through the ransom-effected faith-justification we now actually get peace with God, instead of our former ruptured peace with God (Rom. 5: 1, 9-11; Eph. 2: 3, 12-17). (9) Jesus' ransom-price, justifying us from the Adamic condemnation, makes our humanity acceptable as sacrifices (Rom. 12: 1). (10) All the sacrifices that we cause our humanity to undergo are by Jesus' ransom made acceptable to God as sacrificial acts, whereas Adam's sin made them unacceptable as such (Prov. 15: 8; 21: 27; 1 Pet. 2: 5; Heb. 10: 14; 13: 15, 16). (11) The ransom-price guarantees that there will be gradually given to the whole world what it lost in Adam, if and as it obeys in the next Age (Luke 19: 10; 1 Cor. 15: 21-26; 1 John 3: 8; Heb. 1: 8; 10: 12, 13; Rev. 20: 4-9; Heb. 9: 23). And (12) through the ransom-price Jesus and the Church as the tree of life will actually give to the obedient of the world all that Adam lost for it—perfect humanity and life, the right to life and its liferights (Rev.21: 3-5; 22: 1-3; Acts 3: 19-21).

 

We have in the preceding three paragraphs proved that the ransom—Jesus' perfect humanity and life and His right to life and its life-rights—is the corresponding-price for Adam's forfeited perfect humanity and life and his forfeited right to life and its life-rights. We have given this proof because it establishes the thought that there is a corresponding-price, which is offered as our sixth proof that the Bible, giving it as its central and dominating thought, and making it the hub out of which all the spokes of the wheel of the Divine plan emanate, about which they revolve and in which they are stabilized, as God's character is the axle about which the whole wheel of revelation revolves; hence the ransom is the foundation upon which the whole building of God's counsel stands; hence it proves that the Bible is a Divine revelation. That it

 

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holds such a relation to the plan, counsel or revelation of the Bible, we now proceed to set forth. The plan of God was formed to solve the problem of how to work deliverance from the ruin that Adam's sin had brought upon the human family. That ruin seemed to have frustrated God's purpose in bringing a sinless human race into existence, i.e., to create a human race that, intelligently appreciating sin and righteousness in their natures and effects, would hate and avoid the former and love and practice the latter, and thus exhibit the reign of moral law, which God desires to be exhibited by a sinless race; for this ruin involved the whole race in sin, with its consequent physical, mental, artistic, moral and religious degradation unto death. This ruin was brought upon the entire race through (not its, but) Adam's fault, and was transmitted to it by heredity, and not through direct action by the race (Rom. 5: 12-19). Thus the death sentence came upon all indirectly, i.e., by heredity, and not by personal participation in Adam's sin. But though the sentence came upon all indirectly, yet it none the less actually came upon all of it; for, condemned and dying Adam could not transmit a perfect and uncondemned life, since he did not have it to transmit. He could transmit only what he had—a condemned, a dying life.

 

Christ crucified, i.e., the ransom, is the expression of God's wisdom and power (1 Cor. 1: 23, 24), i.e., it is the means that God's wisdom devised to undo the ruin that Adam brought upon the race; and at the same time it is the power that will effect that undoing. If this can be proved, it will prove that as the central and dominating doctrine of the Bible it proves to be a Divine revelation. This is Paul's thought in 1 Cor. 1: 23, 24, when he calls Christ crucified … the power of God, and the wisdom of God. Let us see, first, how it is the wisdom of God to undo the ruin of the race, effected by Adam's sin; then we will see how it is the power of God to effect that undoing. That it is the wisdom of God to plan the undoing of that ruin is seen

 

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when we consider its antecedents: Justice rightly condemned Adam and the race in his loins to death when Adam refused to fulfill the condition upon which he might continue having the right to life and its liferights; for those rights were conditionally bestowed, and he, refusing to fulfill the condition, forfeited the right to have them. Thus justice rightly demanded his death—the forfeiture of all he was and had—his perfect humanity and life and the right to human life and its life-rights. This forfeiture meant their taking away by the dying process until it brought the condemned race into the death state. And God's justice demanded their remaining in the death state eternally— their eternal annihilation. But God's love, desiring to give the race the opportunity of being freed from this calamity and the chance eternally to exhibit the reign of moral law in perfection, sought some way whereby this could be accomplished satisfactorily to God's justice. Hence God's love asked His wisdom to devise a way whereby this might be done. Wisdom suggested to Divine love that it give the ransom as the way whereby the sentence of Divine justice might satisfactorily to justice be removed from Adam and his race; for the ransom, being an exact corresponding-price to the debt, by paying that debt could by right of purchase free the race from the death sentence and thus from the death state. God's love agreed to provide such a ransom. But none of the condemned race could provide that ransom, because, being under that sentence and its effects, it had nothing to give as a corresponding-price (Ps. 49: 7, 8).

 

Hence some one had to become a human being without having obtained his life from Adam's condemned life; and, therefore, God's wisdom suggested that the prehuman Word, the Logos, become a human being, by exchanging his spirit nature for human nature. To this God's love assented, so loving the world as to give up His only begotten Son to become a human being by the process of carnation, His life-principle

 

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being used instead of the life-principle of a human male, and his perfect disposition being used instead of the human brain qualities needed to give soul qualities to that carnated being, the body, and thus the human nature, being provided by the Virgin Mary (Phil. 2: 6-8; Heb. 2: 14, 16, 17; John 1: 14; 2 Cor. 8: 9; Luke 1: 26-35; 2: 4-14). In this Divine power cooperated to effect the carnation. Thus Jesus came into existence as a perfect, sinless human being, free from the Adamic sentence and curse, and thus was an exact equivalent of Adam in his unfallen condition. And after Jesus had by death laid down His perfect humanity and life and His right to human life with its life-rights, He, not taking back His human body, life, right to human life and its life-rights, but being raised from the dead a spirit being of the Divine nature, had as assets that He did not need for His personal existence exactly what Adam and the race in his loins had to forfeit for his sin. Thus God's wisdom planned the ransom, God's love provided it, God's power actualized it and His Son in love gave it up in death. God's wisdom, seeing that the race consisted of two classes: a faith class and an unbelief class, and seeing that the faith class could be trained in character through its faith for a higher nature and office than the unbelief class, suggested a twofold use of the ransom merit: first an imputative use of it for the faith class and later an applicatory use of it for the unbelief class. The imputative use was suggested so that, after all the imputations were cancelled by the completed sacrifice of the elect, the whole merit necessary for the ransom of the race would be available actually to purchase the race in the second use of the ransom merit.

 

The suggestion of the imputative use of the ransom merit was made also that by its use a Second Eve might be provided as the Bride of Jesus as the Second Adam, to become the mother of the race that He would father by regeneration through the Second Eve as mother. Divine love acceded to this suggestion. To win

 

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this Second Eve God's wisdom suggested, first, that repentance toward God and faith in the Lord Jesus be preached, to draw the faith class to justification through faith in God's promise to forgive the repentant and believing sinner, for the merit of the ransom. Divine love agreed to and made the sacrifices needed to this end; and it and Divine power cooperated thus to bring the faith class to repentance and faith. Then Divine wisdom suggested that the privilege of sacrificing their justified human all be offered to the justified, in order for them as consecrated believers to gain the privilege of becoming of the Second Eve, each member of whom is to help others of them to become of that Second Eve. This, too, involved sacrifices on the part of Divine love, to which it assented; and with the cooperation of Divine power it has during the Gospel Age been by these sacrifices winning this Eve. When the Second Eve will have completed her qualification to become the Second Adam's Bride, then the Bridegroom and the Bride will be united in the heavenly marriage. Through justification by faith and consecration certain ones of the Old Testament were made available to be servants and friends of God; but because the ransom had not yet been laid down, much less actually imputed, they could not be of the Bride, because the Bridegroom had first to come into existence as such before the Bride could be such; for as out of sleeping Adam Eve was formed, so out of Jesus' death (the ransom) the Second Eve is developed. Those servants and friends of God will be made servants in the household of the Second Adam and Eve. During the Gospel Age certain ones, given the opportunity to be of the Bride, the Second Eve, failed to qualify therefore, yet, repenting, and then proving faithful, they will become the Bridesmaids and guests at the heavenly marriage feast, and later members of the household of the Second Adam and Eve. Then at the end of the Gospel Age, after the full number of the Second Eve has come in, there are still members

 

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of the faith class in the world, but too late to become of the Bride. These by faith justification and consecration will be made friends and servants, like those who were too early to be of the Bride, and after the marriage and its feast will, like those who were too early to be of the Bride, be made members of the Second Adam's and Eve's household.

 

These four classes constitute the four-faith classes, who as the elect will be ready to help the unbelief class gain the benefits of the ransom. It will be seen that God's wisdom planned every step in the salvation of the four elect classes, that God's love provided all the sacrifices, including the ransom sacrifice, for their winning, and that Divine power executed every step of it, on the basis of an imputative use of the ransom. Note how wisely Divine wisdom planned for an imputative, a reckoned, and not an actual purchase by the ransom on behalf of the elect classes. Had the merit of the ransom been actually given for and to them, there would not have been any of it left for a second use, i.e., its use for the non-elect, the unbelief class. Hence God's wisdom planned for an imputative use of it for the elect, so that when the imputations would all be cancelled by the sacrificial death of the elect, it would in its entirety be available for the use of the actual, not reckoned, purchase of the world, of the non-elect. Not only the Bible teaches the imputative use of the merit for the elect, but facts prove it; for if the ransom had been actually given justice for, and then had actually been given to the elect, they would have been made actually perfect in body and in life, with the actual right to life and its life-rights, things that all experience of the elect prove were not given them. Most wise, just, loving and powerful, therefore, has been the elective use of the ransom; and the same will be true of its non-elective use when it is due to be made.

 

After the three elect classes of the present will have left this world, and thus will no longer need the imputation of Christ's ransom-merit, then it will be free

 

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to be used for the actual purchase of Adam and his race of the unbelief class. Divine wisdom arranged for that use of the ransom, which, by way of distinction from its use in an imputative or reckoned purchase, we call its application or actual purchase; but since it is to be applied for the purchase of the race by the Second Adam and Eve, in order to regenerate the race in righteousness and life as their children, they will be taken away from the court of God's justice as the Second Adam's and Eve's personal possession by right of purchase, and by them will be shielded from another condemnation of Divine justice for their sinfulness, while they are raising them up to perfection as their imperfect children, who as such may be spoken of as then not yet having attained the years of discretion before God's justice, and who will attain such when they are made perfect at the Millennium's end, by their full appropriation of the ransom merit. Thus with the consent of justice wisdom will devise an arrangement whereby the ransom merit will gradually be given to the non-elect as they obey and to the degree that they obey, love and power operating this regenerative process in them as they obey and to the degree of their obedience. Wisdom at the demand of justice arranged that those who determinedly would not act as children, i.e., obey the second Father Adam and Mother Eve, would be destroyed in the second death; and love and power, knowing that they would be irreformable, will cooperate in that destruction, to prevent their and others' eternal unhappiness and evil-doing. But by obedience the others will gradually during the Millennium be given more and more of the ransom merit-perfect human bodies and life and the right to life with its life-rights, until by the end of the Millennium they will be perfect in all their faculties, have perfect life and the right to life and its life-rights, all brought about by the ransom merit received in obedience; for be it remembered that after justice accepts the ransom merit for the debt that merit is by God imputed to the Church now and given the world later.

 

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Thus viewed the ransom will bring the obedient back to what Adam was before he sinned. Thus we see that the ransom will cancel the Adamic condemnation from the race, bring it back from death free of that sentence, give all of the non-elect the opportunity to regain all that they lost by Adam, and actually give the obedient all that Adam forfeited for them by sin. It will really do more than this: By giving them the experience with righteousness, whereby they will be delivered from all the effects of the curse and be given all that Adam lost for them, they will be in a better position to stand successfully the final trial than Adam's position was to stand successfully his trial; for the experience of the terrible nature and effects of sin will move the faithful to hate and avoid it, and the experience of the blessed nature and effects of righteousness will move them to love and practice it; and only those who externally, but not internally reform will fail under that trial at the end of the Millennium, and thus perish in eternal annihilation; while those who will have reformed from the heart during the Millennium, educated by the experience with evil in this life to hate and have nothing to do with sin, and by the experience with righteousness in the Millennium to love and practice righteousness, will obtain eternal life in the restored Paradise, all as a result of the ransom merit received in good and honest hearts. And thus through the ransom so used God will get a perfect human race of free moral agents in righteousness glorifying Him and Christ forever, by illustrating the reign of moral law in their lives (Rev. 5: 13). The ransom working the effects described above in God's plan is certainly a proof that the Bible is a Divine revelation; for nothing less than a God of perfect wisdom, power, justice and love could have made and outworked such a ransom plan with such results.

 

But from another standpoint the ransom proves that the Bible is a Divine revelation, i.e., from the standpoint that it is that out of which all other Bible teachings

 

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flow, on which they are built and in harmony with which they are. This is what was meant above when it was said that it is the hub of the wheel of revelation, out of which hub as spokes all other Bible teachings come, by which they are held in place, and about which they revolve. Let us look at this thought somewhat more closely. This we saw also above in the 12 facts that were given in proof that the ransom is a corresponding-price (in fact, 14 proofs were given for it, the 12 facts and the proofs from the meaning of antilytron and the meanings of the four words proving that it purchases). It will now be shown from the hub character of the ransom in the wheel of revelation

 

The above 12 facts are the main things in God's plan, and are all built upon, are in harmony with, and flow out of this precious doctrine. But, more than this, the ransom conditions all other Biblical doctrines. It proves the unity of God, since the Ransomer cannot be a part of Him whose justice must be satisfied. It proves human mortality; for it requires the death of both soul and body. It proves death to be the penalty of sin, since Christ laid the ransom-price down by death. It proves Christ's resurrection as a spirit, since had He taken back His humanity, He would not have the ransom-price available to purchase us. It proves the Second Advent, the judgment day, the resuscitation of the dead and future probation to be the objects of the Kingdom for the blessing of the non-elect, since the ransom has in this life been used for the benefit of the elect alone. It proves eternal life on earth in human nature to be the reward of the righteous in the next Age, and death eternal—annihilation—to be the punishment of all who make shipwreck of their opportunity for life, whether given in this or the next Age; for "Christ dieth no more"; "There remaineth no more sacrifice for sin." Reversely, it overthrows the doctrine of the creedal as distinct from the Bible trinity, human immortality, eternal torment, probation limited to this life or to the elect, absolute predestination, universalism,

 

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evolution and every other doctrinal error: It is a touchstone of truth and error. It is, as we have said, the hub from which radiate, as spokes in a wheel, all Bible doctrines. Hence its denier denies God's plan.

 

For our present purpose—proving the Bible to be a Divine revelation—we have discussed such features alone of the ransom as furnish a ground work for that proof. As said above, it is, next to God's character of perfect wisdom, power, justice and love, the greatest touchstone of truth and error, demonstrating the former as truth and the latter as error. It conditions, as just shown, every doctrine of the Bible, and gives it its proper setting in relation to God's plan. It is the key that unlocks the storehouse of the Bible, opening all therein to view. It dominates and assigns their proper bearings to all Bible teachings that logically precede, accompany and follow it. It unites them in a perfect blending into one harmonious, logical, practical and errorless whole. It satisfies the exactions of the severest logic, and gives unspeakable comfort to the bruised and contrite heart, as it is the inspiration of the Church now and the hope of the world for the Age to come. Misteach it, and disharmony sets in between it and all other Bible doctrines; or misteach any other Bible doctrine, and immediately contradiction and confusion set in between that mistaught doctrine and the ransom, just as confusion sets in with an intricate puzzle, if its main feature is distorted, or any of its parts is misshapen. In the marvelously logical, beautiful, harmonious and practical arrangement called God's plan, consisting of many interdependent and interlocking parts all harmonious with one another, the ransom is made the center, conditioner and activator of all, just like the main spring of a watch in relation to the watch's many interdependent and interlocking parts. To have made such an arrangement for satisfying Divine justice completely, unto providing deliverance from the curse, all pivoted upon, and activated by the ransom, considered in connection with the vast ramifications, agents

 

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and subjects of the plan, displays omniscient wisdom; and to operate it displays an omnipotent power; while to provide such a ransom manifests an all-surpassing love. No wonder, therefore, that Christ crucified, the ransom, is the concentration of the wisdom and power of God (1 Cor. 1: 24). And because it is such, we present it as our sixth general proof that the Bible is a Divine revelation; for only God could have planned, effected and applied the ransom with all its implications; for as the highest product of Divine wisdom as the only satisfier of Divine justice for sin, as the sublimest expression of Divine love, as the greatest instrument of Divine power, as the key of the problem of evil's permission, as the cure of the curse, as the concentrated essence of the Bible, as the radiator, dominator and grounder of every Bible doctrine, as the conditioner of its very teaching, as the touchstone of every truth, as the exposer and refuter of every error, as the meritorious cause and the efficient means of election and free grace, as the most practical and effective of all theories, as the glorifier of God in the highest, as the pacifier of earth and as the creator of good will to men, it cannot be otherwise than one of the finest of the internal evidences of the Bible as a Divine revelation.

 

So far we have studied six general reasons from the Bible's internal evidence that it is a Divine revelation; and now we come to the study of our seventh and final general reason from the Bible's internal evidence therefore: the Bible's unique excellences evidence its Divine origin; for it has such excellences as only a Divine revelation could and should have. These are so numerous and varied that our space can allow but a brief description of them. Some that will be mentioned will not logically force the conclusion that they prove the Bible to be a Divine revelation, but do prove that they are what we should expect to find in a Divine revelation, while others of them do prove it to be a

 

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Divine revelation; and all combined prove to the reasonable mind that the Bible is such.

 

The first of the Bible's excellences that are in harmony with the thought that it is a Divine revelation is that the agents through whom it was written were sober, intelligent and good men. This is true of its New Testament writers, as well as of its Old Testament writers. Its New Testament writers were men of most exemplary characters and sober minds. That Jesus of Nazareth lived, performed a unique ministry and died as a malefactor at the demand of the leaders and led of His people through Pontius Pilate is established by the historical testimony of friends, enemies and indifferents more firmly than any other contemporary event. Some of those who wrote the record of His life and transmitted His teachings were followers of Him during His ministry, and looked upon Him to establish an earthly kingdom in which they would become His chief lieutenants. Their hopes were dashed to pieces by His death as a rebel and blasphemer. We can assign ready reasons for their being His followers with such expectations while He was alive; but after His public crucifixion as a rebel and blasphemer for them to continue to be His followers under the circumstances cannot be explained on any other understandable grounds than their honest and intelligent conviction of the truth of their testimony as to His life, death, resurrection, ascension and outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon them, some of these things as the fulfillments of prior promises made to them by Jesus. If they had been selfish men they would have had selfish motives, like the desire for worldly honor, power, wealth, ease, luxury, a following, etc., which motives doubtless did have some place in their hearts up to Calvary. But the kind of death of their leader, the whole nation, headed by its leaders, accusing Him and demanding and securing His sentence to death, the sentence of the governor and its execution negatived and destroyed as useless and unrealizable such aspirations, so that such

 

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motives no longer after Calvary could have prompted their advocacy of His cause.

 

Under the untoward circumstances produced by Jesus' death wicked and designing men simply would not have advocated a so seemingly doomed cause. Such advocacy can be explained reasonably only from the standpoint that the Apostles were good, honest and sober-minded men, unselfishly and intelligently convinced of the truthfulness of their message: for be it recognized that their unselfish acts, the logicalness of their reasoning and the sobriety of their lives prove them not to have been fanatics, but to have been sober thinkers and upright men. Hence other motives than selfish, wicked and designing ones must be sought to explain their advocacy of Jesus under the circumstances amid which they did it. The circumstances were these: Their nation, under the direction of its leaders, believed Jesus to have been a fraud, blasphemer and rebel, and persecuted with ever-increasing rigor their advocacy of Jesus and the heralds and converts of this faith. These lost their human rights and privileges selfward and othersward; and in almost every case their lives were taken from them by violence for their message. It brought upon them every human hardship, loss, disappointment, suffering, privation, persecution, unpopularity, unease. Yet with holy hearts and clear minds they continued in the teeth of these circumstances kindly, unselfishly, self-and-world-denyingly and self-sacrificingly to give forth the message as true, and that even unto death. Take the case of Paul. His high position in Judaism was given up; and he exhausted the resources of loss, privation, suffering, labor, tortures and martyrdom, using one of the keenest intellects and most loving hearts ever to grace a human being as channels of advocating the message. Yet in the teeth of all these untoward conditions neither he nor any of the others ever gave up their mission, none of them ever renounced his testimony, none of them could by any kind of a bribe be induced to turn

 

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his back on his course since Pentecost. Their writings are of the most sublime, logical, ennobling and unsullied character ever produced; and their holy, unselfish and unworldly characters, their self-and-world-denying and uplifting ministries and unblemished teachings, all maintained under crucial trials unto death, are a sure proof of their being good, intelligent, reasonable, sober and practical men, just such agents and only such agents as God would use in ministering a revelation; for they, being what they were and doing what they did, were neither frauds or deceivelings.

 

In principle the same remarks apply to the writers of the Old Testament. By the testimony of the Old Testament prophets and of Jesus and the Apostles, Moses was the writer of the Pentateuch, some prophet supplying the account of his death, though in express words the Pentateuch does not make this claim for him, Moses, the meekest of men, having a real passion for anonymity, concealing his authorship of it. But Israel's acceptance of the Law at his hands during his life and ever afterward can be explained on no other ground than that of his having written the Pentateuch. Certainly his character made him a worthy agent to transmit part of the Divine revelation. He could have easily and, humanly speaking, successfully used his position for his own aggrandizement in power, wealth, honor, luxury and ease and for those of his family, yet not only did he refrain therefrom, but willingly made himself the overworked servant of the whole people, and reduced his direct descendants to a lower position than Aaron's descendants—Levites, not priests. In the fine elements of good character Moses was one of the noblest of men. And when we look at the prophets, beginning with Samuel, the writer of Joshua, Judges, Ruth and parts of 1 Samuel, and ending with Malachi, we find them men of most exemplary characters, holy lives and self-denying service, suffering great rigors for their office, and in some cases suffering martyr deaths. All these things considered, they were certainly of such

 

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characters and only of such characters as God would use to transmit a revelation, as their characters are a guarantee against fraud on their part and their sober intellects a guarantee against their having been deceived as to their message. Hence we conclude that the characters and intellects of the Bible writers are an excellence of it that we should expect to Mark a Divine revelation.

 

A brief review of certain things in the Pentateuch brings to light certain excellences that we should reasonably expect as characterizing a Divine revelation, most of them proving it to be a Divine revelation. One of these things is the Genesis account of the creation, as we have shown in our discussion of Creation in E2. Its readers will recall that we showed that each of the six days of ordering the earth was 7,000 years, and that the prior work of creation could have lasted millions of years, the Bible being silent on its duration. We further saw that man's creation came at the very end of the sixth 7,000-year day. Hence no human eye witnessed the work of the six 7,000-year days of ordering the earth, let alone the creation of the earth from gases into its chaotic condition before the first 7,000-year days of ordering the earth. Science, particularly astronomy and geology, after millennia of studying, has reached conclusions that are highly corroborative of the Genesis record of creation, fitting the, facts, not speculations, harmoniously to the period before the first 7,000-year day began and to the seven periods of 7,000 years each following. Since no human being was a witness of these creative periods, how came it that the Mosaic account of these periods predated by 3,500 years the latest assured findings of science on the creative periods? The only reasonable answer to this question is: It came by Divine revelation. Geology has corroborated the fact of the flood by its findings on the glacial periods, and philology has proved that all our languages are derived from three languages, which, because of the elements common to the three, prove that

 

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these came from one language, which facts corroborate the Bible account of the unity of language before and after the flood, until at the Tower of Babel the then language was divided into three, corresponding to the three families of Noah's sons; and later these three were divided into others, corresponding to the descendants of these three families, even as archeology is furnishing more and more corroborations to the table of nations given in Gen. 10.

 

Passing by the many corroborations of later Genesis and earlier Exodus accounts furnished by archeology, we desire to point out certain excellences of the laws given by Moses, as a direct proof that the Bible is the Divine revelation. His ethical laws, on which much might be said, will on this head first occupy our brief attention. The ten commandments are by Moses, according to Jesus' testimony (Mark 12: 30-33; Luke 10: 27), summed up in the words, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might" (Deut. 6: 5); and "thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself" (Lev. 19: 18). The Mosaic ten commandments so summarized give us the law of justice, duty love, not the law of charity, disinterested love, as the Jews were put under the law of duty, not of disinterested, love, which is the law of Christ, and which sacrifices one's rights and privileges in God's interests. The law of justice so summarized teaches one's whole duty toward God and man. There is not a relation of justice toward God, as to a thought, motive, word or act on the part of man, but is covered by this law Godward. We cannot think of any human relation of justice toward God as to man's thoughts, motives, words and Acts that could be enacted without obligation of fulfilling this law. It is all-permeative and all-penetrative as to such things from the standpoint of justice. Men have sought to set up regulations covering man's duty relations to God, but none of them are all-inclusive. Man lacks the wisdom necessary to form such a law. Only God, who knows all actual

 

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and possible human relations Godward so far as justice is concerned, could make such a law; and to have put it in its all-embracing applications as to man's duty toward God in so few words as Deut. 6: 5 and Mark 12: 30 do is a most powerful proof of its being a part of the Divine revelation; and this remark includes all the ramified applications of this law as given in the Bible. Of equal probative power is the second statement of the Divine law of justice as between man and man: "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself," which Jesus explains as meaning that "all things whatsoever ye would that men should do [in thought, motive, word and act] to you, do ye even so to them" (Matt. 7: 12). We cannot think of a human relation or situation as to justice that cannot be governed by this law. To think out a law that is all-embracing in its application to thought, motive, word and act so far as justice, duty love, is concerned in the actual or possible relations and situations of man to man, requires a super-human yea even a super-angelic wisdom, i.e., Divine wisdom. Hence the giving of such a law with all its ramifications in the Bible is an irrefutable argument that at least that much of it and its ramified Biblical applications are a Divine revelation.

 

Moses' political laws, in so far as these laws and their varied Biblical applications are concerned, are likewise a proof that the Bible is a Divine revelation. From one standpoint Israel's political organization and laws are features of a Divine autocracy, a theocracy; for they were the political constitution of that nation which admitted of no revision on the part of the people. And this, of course, would not be in line with their being a part of the Divine revelation. But from another standpoint Israel's government was a democracy in which the tribally chosen leaders, called elders and judges, were interpreters and administrators of a government for the people and by the people. For Moses at God's command charged the people to select their elders and judges and to make them leaders of tens,

 

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fifties, hundreds and thousands, so that they might act as the civil rulers, as representatives of the people, to try their cases and to render Divinely pleasing decisions (Ex. 18: 13-26; Num. 11: 16, 17, 24-30; Deut. 1: 9, 12-18). Moses was to act as a court of appeals in the cases that these judges considered too hard for them; but they, not Moses, were to decide which cases were to be referred to him; and after his death such cases were brought to the high priest for a direct decision by God through the Urim and Thummim. This democratic form of government remained in Israel for about 490 years, until at the people's and elders' insistence, against God's expressed preference, it was set aside for a monarchy. Thus God, a thousand years before man, established a democracy on earth; and this shows that God's preference of the form of government for the people who are fit for it is a democracy, and not a monarchy, especially not an absolute monarchy. Thus the political laws of Moses prove for their part that the Bible is a Divine revelation. In line with this thought is the fact that this democracy existed a thousand years before the first beginnings of democracy appeared in any other nation.

Next the dietary laws of the Bible are a proof of their being a part of the Divine revelation. It is recalled that Moses forbade the people's eating certain meats, insects, fowl, fish and other aqueous animals as unclean; and certain ones as clean he sanctioned as their food. Such foods are enumerated in Lev. 11: 230; Deut. 14: 3-20. The general rule governing land animal food as clean was that it should both part the hoof and chew the cud; otherwise it was unclean; and the general rule governing aqueous food as clean was that it should have both scales and fins; otherwise it was unclean. Some of these unclean foods, e.g., swine, oyster, rabbit, are quite savory. Why did God sanction Israel's eating the clean foods and forbid their eating the unclean, without giving them a reason therefore, except that it was His will? We answer that, first of

 

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all, since they were a house of servants whom He had selected to enact types, without their understanding that such uses were made of them, in the interests of His prospective house of sons, there was a typical significance in these sanctions and dissanctions; for the unclean foods were used by Him to type erroneous teachings and practices that the house of sons should not accept; and the clean foods were by Him used to type the pure teachings and practices that the house of sons were to accept; thus they are a part of a Divine revelation.

 

But why did God designate certain foods as clean and others as unclean? E.g., why did He not designate unclean what He had called clean and vice versa? Our answer is: He designed a dietetic blessing to come upon those who observed His pertinent charges and a dietetic evil to come upon those who disobeyed His pertinent charges; for those that He called clean are wholesome for humans and those that He called unclean are unwholesome for humans. God, the greatest of all chemists, of course, knew the chemical elements in each one of such foods; and He knew that those which contained chemical elements foreign to the 16 main ones that are in human bodies would poison such bodies if assimilated; hence He forbade as unclean such animal food. In Moses' day no human understood chemistry; but God did. Hence no human gave those laws so exact chemically as good or harmful for the human body. Only of late was it discovered by chemical analysis that the Mosaically designated unclean foods contain elements harmful to human bodies and that the clean foods contain no such elements. Hence those dietetic laws, in the absence of chemical knowledge in contemporaneous man, must have come from God, which proves that they are a Divine revelation. The Israelites were forbidden to eat young animal food as long as such young were yet suckled (Ex. 23: 19). The expression, "seethe a kid in his [its] mother's milk," does not forbid milk to be the liquid used in