Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; Titus 2:13
ZERUBBABEL AND EZRA—TYPE AND SMALL
THE COMMISSION. SIXTY GREAT COMPANY GROUPS. ALTAR AND FOUNDATION. STOPPAGE OF BUILDING. RENEWAL AND COMPLETION OF BUILDING. TEMPLE MINISTRIES. EZRA'S COMMISSION. HIS FELLOW-TRAVELERS AND JOURNEY. HIS ATTITUDE AND ACTS TOWARD THE SINNING.
TWO other phases of J.'s Epiphany work are presented as a small antitype by Zerubbabel's (born in Babylon) and Ezra's (help) works, as these are presented in the book of Ezra, Zerubbabel and Ezra having their large antitypes in Marsiglio and Wyclif respectively. Whereas Nehemiah types him as the small antitype in the work of his British mission as executive, Ezra in Nehemiah typing him as the small antitype in his British pilgrim work, the antitypical viewpoint of Zerubbabel in the small antitype is J.'s worldwide work as executive for the Epiphany, doing a constructive work for the Little Flock, Great Company and Youthful Worthies as to their being built up into the Epiphany temple of the Lord, in contrast with the Gospel-Age picture of the temple of the Lord; and the antitypical viewpoint of Ezra in the book of Ezra as the small antitype is that of J.'s worldwide work as the Little Flock executive and teacher for the Epiphany, doing a reformatory work for the Little Flock, Great Company and many Youthful Worthies; as the second and third classes just mentioned, while being a consecrated, are more or less a defiled people. While J. as Nehemiah antitype did his executive work in Britain alone, both the Zerubbabel and the Ezra antitypes trace his work as beginning in Britain, progressing in America and reaching its climax throughout the Truth world. The facts given in the preceding chapter prove the first part of the foregoing statement to be true of his work as executive in the small antitype of Nehemiah; and in this chapter the facts will be
given in proof of the other two statements of the preceding sentence. In the preceding chapter the statement was made that the book of Nehemiah was the first set of the peculiarly Epiphany antitypes to become clear to us; and we now make the statement that the second set of the peculiarly Epiphany antitypes to become clear to us were those of the book of Ezra.
Bro. Russell (Jeremiah, v. 1), from the Spring of 1915, which was in the first year wherein our Lord (first year of Cyrus [sun, or lord]) used force to overthrow mystic Babylon, increasingly laid stress on the separation of the Little Flock and the Great Company, and of the latter's appearing separate and distinct from the former. At the same time our Lord removed restraints (i.e., untied Azazel's Goat) from the Great Company, leaders and led ones, as to their having more or less opportunity to come on the stage of manifestation as such. Moreover, during that time He caused the announcement of the smiting of Jordan (i.e., the second one, which the Great Company mistook for the first one) to be made worldwide, inviting those who desired to share in it to indicate their qualifications for various features of the work, unto which the Great Company gave especial heed as desiring it. These three things, especially: forecasting the separation, giving more freedom of action to the Great Company and stressing the desirability of Jordan's (second) smiting, constitute our Lord's giving the proclamation antitypical of that of vs. 1-4. Jehovah aroused Jesus (Lord stirred … Cyrus) while acting as mystic Babylon's conqueror (king of Persia) to make the worldwide proclamation, and to put it in writing through that Servant, as just shown. While at the time the full intent of this proclamation was not understood by His agents this side of the vail, subsequent clarifyings of the Truth caused them to understand, in as different measures as their differing heart's attitudes allowed, that this proclamation called for the development and manifestation of the Great Company and
Youthful Worthies as the Court of the Epiphany and the Epiphany Little Flock as the temple proper (Cyrus … me to build Him an house, v. 2).
In the finished picture the Epiphany temple differs from the Gospel-Age temple, as typed by the tabernacle. In both the Most Holy is the Spirit-born condition. In the Gospel-Age picture the Holy is the condition of all embryo New Creatures, regardless of whether they are crown-retainers or crown-losers, while in the Epiphany picture as a finished work the Holy is the condition of crown-retainers only. The Gospel-Age Court is the condition of the faith-justified, and its 60 posts are the 60 groups of the faith-justified, while in the Epiphany picture as a finished work the Court is the condition of the Great Company and Youthful Worthies; and its posts are these two classes combined into 60 groups. The Gospel-Age Camp is the condition of the unjustified people of God, while the Epiphany Camp in the finished picture is the condition of truly repentant and believing, but not consecrated Jews and Gentiles. The foregoing proclamation called upon all who desired to respond (Who … go … build the house, v. 3) to participate in what was a building of the Epiphany temple for the Lord, as it also promised ultimate success on their labor (his God be with him). Those not going at first to the sphere of this work (Jerusalem, v. 4), i.e., the majority of the Little Flock, were encouraged to help this work on with Divine Truth (silver and gold, v. 4) and providential helps (goods … beasts) and self denying service (freewill offering). This invitation was especially a charge to some Little Flock brethren to help the Great Company and Youthful Worthies unto their being properly built into the Court of the Lord's Epiphany sanctuary. As a matter of fact, in the beginnings of each stage of the construction work, regardless of whether they were crown-retainers or crown-losers, the participants were always Little Flock members, i.e., priests, and only later did various of them
become manifested as Great Company members, Levites; for we are not to forget that God counts all New Creatures priests, Little Flock members, until and unless any of them are manifested as Levites, or Great Company members. E.g., those that assisted J. in the British part of the temple building (for, as will be shown, the foundation of the Epiphany temple was built in Britain) were priests, some of whom later became manifested as Levites, e.g., J. Hemery.
Again, the superstructure of the Epiphany temple was built first in America, and then worldwide, starting from shortly after J.'s return from Britain until the 1918 Society election in its first part, and thereafter in its other parts, as these came into it; and those that mainly assisted him in this first phase of the superstructure, the four Directors, Menta Sturgeon and F.H. McGee, were later manifested as Levites. All of those who decided to take part constructively in the good work are the antitypes of the actors of v. 5. And the other Truth people assisted them (all … about them strengthened, v. 6), as was typically charged in v. 4. The Lord Jesus (Cyrus, v. 7) saw to it that J. (Sheshbazzar [honorer of fire, in allusion to J.'s honorably presenting the tribulations, fire, of the Great Company, as atoning for the wilfulness in the world's sins], v. 8) received the charge of the full Truth literature of the Parousia (all the vessels … 5,400, v. 11); for He caused to be put into J.'s credentials the statement, "He is also the fully accredited representative of the Society, to lecture on and teach the Bible and to preach the Gospel in any country of the world," a statement that also shows that the rest of the Bible truths, the Epiphany Truth, were put into his charge. His charge as to the Parousia Truth, as a thing already manifested, was to explain and defend it against attacks, and as to the Epiphany Truth, as a thing yet to be manifested, to reveal and defend it. The Parousia truths (vessels of the house of the Lord, v. 7) onward from the toga scene (Oct. 30, 1916, corresponding in the
Smallest Miniature to 539 A.D.), went into little mystic Babylonian captivity at the hand of Satan (Nebuchadnezzar). The whole Parousia Truth our Lord caused the Board (Mithredath [devoted to the sun, i.e., devoted to our Lord]) in the above quoted language of his credentials to give into J.'s charge, through the Executive Committee's credentials; for in giving these to J. it acted as the agent of the Board, which legally and morally made the Board give them; for what one does through an agent, he does himself.
The description (numbered) that the Lord through the Board gave of the Parousia truths is in the language above quoted. It will be noted that there are four kinds of temple vessels mentioned: (1) chargers (both of gold and silver); (2) knives (used at the altar to cut the sacrifices, and thus to type the same as the cups, doctrines, rightly dividing (cutting) the Word of Truth, v. 9); (3) basins, bowls with covers (of gold and silver) and (4) other vessels (v. 10). Here are typed the four kinds of teachings of the Bible: (1) corrections; (2) doctrines; (3) reproofs, i.e., refutations; and (4) instructions in righteousness (2 Tim. 3: 16, 17). The gold of these vessels symbolizes the Divine, and the silver, Truth, i.e., both combined represent Divine Truth. There is a discrepancy between the totals of the distributed numbers of these vessels given in vs. 9, 10 and the total given in v. 11, due to some errors of copyists, whom to correct we do not have at hand the materials in the form of variant readings. The antitypes of the 5,400 vessels are the number of articles in Bro. Russell's [his own and others' articles] Towers, Volumes, booklets, tracts, sermons, magazine articles, etc. With the exception of a few of the older and less important tracts, four sermons and some of the 1911 Overland Monthly articles, all that Bro. Russell ever published is in J.'s possession. If those that he lacks (which he would be very glad to get) never come to him in the above-mentioned forms, it would mean that they have been reprinted in
something that he has, or that they are not counted among the above. We are inclined to think that he has them printed in some other publication than in their mentioned lacking form, except the missing 1911 Overland Monthly articles. It will be noted that the vessels were given to Sheshbazzar. This is another name for Zerubbabel, given him by the Babylonians in addition to his Hebrew name, even as they gave Daniel and his three companions Babylonian names in addition to their Hebrew names. That Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel are one and the same person is manifest from the fact that under both names the founder of the temple is mentioned (Ezra 5: 16; 3: 8); and under both names the governor is mentioned (Ezra 1: 8; 5: 14, 16; 2: 2; 3: 2, 8; 4: 3; 5: 2).
Chapter 2 treats of the main leaders, of the families of those who returned from Babylon and of their offerings for the temple, typing the coming out from little Babylonian captivity of crown-retainers, of the main leaders, of the 60 divisions of the Levites and of the offerings that these would make. At the time of such comings out all the New Creatures were priests; only later the Levites appeared as such. V. 1 sets forth these matters, apart from the offering, in a summary, as the finished picture. The rest of the chapter gives the details, which we will now proceed to elucidate. It will be noted that v. 2 gives us 11 names, while Neh. 7: 7 contains another, Nahamani, which the antitype proves to be correct. Zerubbabel, the governor, types J. as executive (e.g., as typed by Ithamar, the son of Aaron) as to Merarites and Gershonites, who as a whole, and that as distinct from the Little Flock, are the first and second groups of the 60 Levite groups, as we have seen in Vol. VIII, Chapter II. Jeshua, the high priest, represents J. as chief of the lecturers, or preachers (pilgrims), and writers, who as such is over the Kohathites. The other ten mentioned are Nehemiah (comfort of Jehovah, Menta Sturgeon), Seraiah (head, leader, of Jehovah, A.I. Ritchie),
Nahamani (my comforted one, J. Hemery), Reelaiah (a reeling of Jehovah, H.J. Shearn), Mordecai (worshipper of Mars, J.F. Rutherford), Bilshan (talkative, I.F. Hoskins), Mizpar (number, C.E. Heard), Bigvai (gardener, Carl Olson), Rehum (merciful, R.H. Hirsh) and Baanah (son of affliction, R.G. Jolly). Of these ten, eight have been leaders of the eight subdivisions of the three Levitical groups; one, J. Hemery, of the British Societyites; and one, R.G. Jolly, of the good Levites. So far we note that the leaders of ten of the Levite groups and the executive and leading lecturer (pilgrim) and writer are mentioned.
Moreover, in vs. 3-35 and Neh. 7: 15, 24, 25, 28, are 45 other groups. The four sets of priests (vs. 36-39) representing the main leaders in various groups, the ten sets of Levites (vs. 40-42) representing the subordinate leaders in various groups, the 35 sets of Nethinim (vs. 43-54) representing auxiliary pilgrims and the 10 sets (vs. 55-57) of Solomon's servants representing the 10 groups of Epiphany friends, distributed in four continents, do not count as so many groups among the Great Company, but vs. 59, 60 give its three other groups. The following groups cannot, but individuals of them will show their Truth pedigree: Truth people Concordant Versionists, Rutherfordites, as distinct from antitypical Elishaites, and Kuehno-Sadlackites; for individuals of them will leave their reprobate leaders and movements controlled by these leaders. Thus 60 groups of Great Companyites or Levites are here indicated: 12 (v. 2)+41 (vs. 3-35)+4 (Neh. 7: 15, 24, 25, 28)+3 (vs. 59, 60)=60. The three sets of unfrocked priests (vs. 61, 62) type the three sets of pilgrims, etc., that have been the leaders of the three groups of vs. 59, 60. These three sets of leaders will be cast off from leadership in these three respective groups. It will be noted that Ezra gives one group (Magbish) that Nehemiah does not give, and Nehemiah gives four that Ezra does not give. Some have tried to make these four different
Nehemiah names the equivalent of four names in the Ezra list, because three of the two sets have the same numbers in them. This does not cover the difference in the numbers of the fourth set; moreover, two that are certainly different, "Elam" and "the other Elam," have the same number, 1254. Our view we believe to be better, because it shows 60 groups, which is in harmony with the pertinent Scriptures quoted in Vol. VIII, Chap. II, on this point. The totals in Ezra are: Of the men of Israel, 24,144; of priests, 4,289; of Levites, 341; of Nethinim and Solomon's servants, 392; of polluted priests, 652; all together, 29,818; according to Nehemiah: 25,406; 4,289; 360; 392; 642; totaling 31,089. These differences and that as stated by them as a whole, 42,360, are to be accounted for in part by adding to them the unnamed totals of the 12 leaders' followers (v. 2), by Ezra having a group not given by Nehemiah, the latter four not given by the former, and by copyists' mistakes.
In addition to the 15 antitypical groups mentioned in the preceding paragraph, 12 in connection with their 12 leaders and the three whose pedigree is now in doubt, there are, as between Ezra and Nehemiah, 45 others mentioned. We now submit a list of 45 that we tentatively suggest as the antitypes of these 45 typical groups. This list may need some slight changes, but in the main it is, we believe, substantially correct: (1) The Thompsonites (the group that has recently usurped control of the P.B.I. organization); (2) the Dawnites; (3) Watchers of the Morning (Hoskinsites); (4) Bible Student Committeeites; (5) Berean Bible Instituteites (Australia); (6) Bolgerites; (7) Old Pathites (W. Crawford); (8) Lardentites; (9) Saphoreites; (10) Dagningenites or Basunenites (of Sweden); (11) Zion's Watch Towerites (of Denmark); (12) Kuehno-Sadlackites; (13) Lauperites (of Germany and Switzerland); (14) Freitagites (of France); (15) Kostynites; (16) Vorsteherites (Germany, etc.); (17) Zion's Messengerites; (18) Riemerites;
(19) Heardites; (20) Edwardsites; (21) Elijah Voiceites; (22) Clemonsites; (23) Korahites (1908-1911 siftlings, etc.); (24) Harvest Bulletinites; (25) Logosites (Greek brethren); (26) Iconoclast Bible Students; (27) Universal School of Prophets; (28) Hawesites (England); (29) Anti-Sectarian Societyites (of Mexico); (30) Sacred Service Bureauites; (31) Oleszynskiites; (32) Kasprzykowskiites (of Poland); (33) Chomiakites; (34) Zabarowskiites; (35) Adam Rutherfordites; (36) Olson Olsonites; (37) Offstad Olsonites; (38) Gunther Olsonites; (39) Madras Tamil Bible Students; (40) Free Brethren (of Germany and Switzerland); (41) Senorites; (42) Kittingerites; (43) Brickerites; (44) Eagleites; and (45) Isolated Independent Ecclesias. We are as yet not able to identify all typical and antitypical groups as type and antitype with one another.
In an address given Dec. 24, 1916, to the London Tabernacle ecclesia, J. (Tirshatha, v. 63), while speaking against speculating and accepting speculations as to new views, cautioned speculators and others not to partake (not eat) of new lines of thought until the Lord (Priest with Urim and Thummim) would speak through another special mouthpiece priest, and thus make known new things. The entirety of the Truth section of the Great Company and Youthful Worthies is typed by the 42,360 returned Israelites with priests intermingling in each group (v. 64). Mingling with these were also some who were tentatively justified and some not even tentatively justified (servants … maids … 7,337, v. 65). Some of these (200) have been zealous to tell (singing) out the Parousia Truth especially. The beasts of burden mentioned in vs. 66, 67 seem to type the providential helps that the Lord places at the service of the brethren who return from little Babylonian captivity. Their large numbers type the great number of such providential helps. The difference in the amounts of drams, darics, between the Ezra and Nehemiah accounts is to be harmonized as
follows: the words, twenty thousand and, fell out before the words, one thousand, in Neh. 7: 70. The right translation of the last part of Neh. 7: 70, as the present Hebrew text reads, is: 500 pounds of silver and 33 priests' garments; but the pure text evidently had 800 pounds of silver, which harmonizes the two accounts on the amount of silver, 5,000 pounds, given by all. That Zerubbabel did not give 530 priests' garments is evident from the fact that he and all the rest gave only 100 of them. The reading ought to be that he gave 33 priests' garments, which harmonizes the two accounts on the number of priests' garments as being 100 in all. Certainly, in the figures of Ezra 2 and Neh. 7 the copyists have made a considerable number of mistakes, which doubtless was due to decay and faded ink in the MSS. J. as executive (Tirshatha, Neh. 7: 70) will have given 21 books or the equivalents of some of the 21 books not printed as books (21,000 darics), 800 magazine articles (800 pounds of silver), a refutation of the errors of 50 of the 60 Levite groups (50 basins) and 33 pilgrim authorizations (33 priests' garments) toward the Epiphany temple by the time his ministry is over. By that time all the rest of the leaders and certain nonleader individuals will have given 40 books or the equivalent of some of the 40 books not printed in book form (20,000 darics, 20,000 darics, Neh. 7: 71, 72), 4,200 articles, including tracts, etc. (2,200, 2,000 pounds of silver) and 67 pilgrim authorizations (67 priests' garments) toward the Epiphany temple. And the main leaders (priests, v. 70), the subordinate leaders (Levites), meeting leaders (singers), workers toward outsiders (porters) and auxiliary pilgrims (Nethinim) will have been in their spheres of service (cities) and all the rest of the crown-losers and Youthful Worthies will have been in their sphere of service.
We now will take up the study of Ezra 3. Just as the Parousia in its lapping into the Epiphany had ended and the Epiphany apart from its lapping into the Parousia had set
in, i.e., early in the Epiphany as such (seventh month, v. 1), the Lord's people came to the sphere of service as to the Truth and its arrangements (gathered … Jerusalem) to build the Epiphany temple. In point of time this was from Oct. 16, 1916, the day that Bro. Russell left Bethel for the last time, to Nov. 21, 1916, the day of J.'s first meeting with the British managers, when arrangements were made by J. (stood up Jeshua [savior, i.e., deliverer of the Great Company], Jozadak [Jehovah is righteous], v. 2) and the three managers (priests) as to his British pilgrim work, and of his first acting in Britain as the Society's special representative, executive (Zerubbabel … Shealtiel, [asked of God]), in conjunction with the three managers (brethren) who had certain executive functions in their separate offices. At the time all four of these were priests in the wilderness tabernacle sense of that word (though later three of these were revealed as Levites) and, therefore, were qualified to set up and did set up in teaching (builded) Jesus and the Church, as viewed in their humanity by non-priests, as the Altar of the Epiphany temple, for only upon that Altar is any sacrifice acceptable and manifested as burnt offerings acceptable to God (to offer burnt offerings), according to the Lord's Word (law of Moses). This Altar was built (set, v. 3) upon the fourfold foundation (bases) of the Word, Spirit, arrangements and providences of the Lord. And this was done in carefulness (fear), because enemies of the four principles (people of those countries) sought to work injury to that Altar and to that for which it stood, i.e., sacrifice.
But in the previous chapter what the machinations of such enemies were was to some extent described. Upon that Altar the Lord's people did offer (offered) as executives, pilgrims, auxiliary pilgrims, evangelists, colporteurs, volunteers, sharpshooters, newspaper workers, extension workers, elders, deacons, meeting advertisers, conversationalists, etc.,
their regular sacrifices, upon which God by Christ's merit manifested His acceptance (burnt offerings). This they did by faith in Jesus' sacrifice (morning, Num. 28: 3-8) and in works of their own sacrifice (evening). In the sifting that occurred in connection with J.'s British building work, as shown in the preceding chapter, all the British brethren took their places as members of either the Little Flock, the Great Company, the Youthful Worthies, the tentatively justified or the Second Deathers, thus dwelt in antitypical booths during the antitypical Feast of Tabernacles (kept … feast of tabernacles, v. 4). During that antitypical Feast of Tabernacles (as in every other one) there was an ever decreasing amount (daily … by number … custom … every day required) of acceptableness manifested by God for Jesus' merit in the offerings of the people, as increasingly more of the people were manifested as in one or another of the non-Little Flock four classes mentioned in the preceding sentence. This is typed by a daily decrease by one in the number of the burnt-offering bullocks sacrificed during the 7 days of the typical feast of tabernacles (Num. 29: 13, 17, 20, 23, 26, 29, 32). During J.'s British trip there was a continuing of the sacrifices manifesting Jehovah's acceptance of Jesus' sacrifice (continual burnt offering, v. 5) connected with cultivating the 12 chief graces (new moons) and all other features of Christian faith and practice (set feasts … consecrated), especially in matters of consecration (freewill offering).
On Nov. 21, 1916, at J.'s first meeting with the British managers (first day … month, v. 6), such sacrifices (burnt offerings) as manifested Jehovah's acceptance of Jesus' merit were begun, and from then on were continued. But at that time the foundation of the Epiphany temple was not yet laid, i.e., the truths and their arrangements and the servants loyal to these of the Epiphany temple as such, especially in its Court aspects, were not established. These truths were the Parousia truths, and these arrangements
were the ways and means whereby God through that Servant ordained that His work should be done. No stressing of these two things and their loyal servants, especially not in contrast with revolutionisms against them, was made on Nov. 21, 1916, when J. and the three British managers began to arrange for J.'s pilgrim service toward the public and toward the brethren. Thus the sacrifices manifesting God's acceptance of Jesus' sacrifice began to be offered before any work at all was done as to the Great Company in the Epiphany temple. The brethren gave support (gave money, v. 7) to all laboring on the work (masons and carpenters). This support consisted, especially, of local ecclesias' arranging for public and parlor meetings, providing for the necessary meeting places, their announcement and advertisement, etc. In the public meetings more or less of hard (meat) and easy (wine) teachings, presented in the Holy Spirit of understanding (oil), were given to consecrated or consecratable outsiders (Zidon [fishers] … Tyre [rock]), to win them as such (cedar trees) from among the justified (Lebanon [white]) and the sinful rebellious world (sea) to come among God's people (Joppa [beautiful, or famous city]). This was done according to the word of our Lord (according … Cyrus), who at the time was in that phase of His kingdom which by force was displacing mystic Babylon's ways (Persia [horse sphere]). The second stage of the work of building the Epiphany temple was reached when (second year … month, v. 8) the time came for selecting new officers (Levites from 20 years …) for the London Bethel and the Tabernacle. This work was arranged for by J. as executive (Zerubbabel) and pilgrim (Jeshua) and by his main (priests) and subordinate (Levites) leader supporters, as well as by the rest of the qualified brethren (all … come … Jerusalem). Their election was, of course, though unknown to them, to advance the good work of building the Epiphany temple for and by the Lord (set forward … house of the Lord).
A. Kirkwood (Jeshua, v. 9; not the high priest, but the head of a Levite group), after being appointed assistant manager and secretary, and his supporters (sons) did their part to forward their charge in this work of erecting the true foundation, the Truth and its arrangements and their loyal servants. So did E. Housden (Kadmiel), as assistant manager and treasurer, and his supporters (sons). Their sphere of service was at Bethel for the general work there and throughout Britain. The six of the non-signatory elders (sons of Judah [praised], i.e., Hodaviah [praise Jehovah], of 2: 40; J. Hemery is counted among the priests, main leaders, of v. 8) were the first of the Tabernacle elders to begin to work on the foundation, the Truth and its arrangements and their loyal servants, in the Tabernacle, in connection with the election of the ecclesia's officers (set forward the workmen). Later the six repentant elders (sons of Henadad [grace of the Mighty One]) and their supporters (sons … brethren) joined in this good work of laying as a foundation of the Epiphany temple the Truth and its arrangements and their loyal servants. Great insistence was laid upon everything about Bethel and the Tabernacle, and impliedly in all the other British churches, being done and on everyone being in harmony with the Truth and its arrangements. These principles and servants were on all sides stressed as the foundation of the building in Britain (builders … foundation … temple of the Lord, v. 10).
Upon this foundation the elders (priests) were as such by their election invested with their powers (apparel) and the message of the high calling and restitution (trumpets), and subordinate meeting leaders (sons of Asaph [gatherer], singing Levites) were furnished with Berean studies (for the antitypical singing) and the Manna (cymbals) for testimony meetings, even as Bro. Russell had arranged (after … David). These led their meetings (sang, v. 11) in the order designated by the ecclesia (by course), in holding up
(praising) the attributes of God and in gratitude (giving thanks) for His continual goodness and mercy (good … mercy … ever) toward His people (Israel). This course of founding the Epiphany temple (that it was the foundation of a new temple was not understood by the participants) upon the Truth and its arrangements and their loyal servants, and of conducting the services by those in harmony therewith (praised … foundation … was laid) won the hearty approval of the brethren (all … shouted). However, not all rejoiced. The enemies of this work, some of the British leaders (priests … chief … fathers … ancient men; literally, ancients, i.e., elders, v. 12) who desired the old corrupt ways (the first house, i.e., when corrupted in its later times), saw the work go on (foundation … laid before their eyes) with sorrow, e.g., H.J. Shearn, W. Crawford, F.G. Guard, Sr., etc. (wept with a loud voice), while the great bulk (many) of the brethren greatly rejoiced (shouted … joy). But the joy (noise [literally, voice] … joy, v. 13) over the victory of the Lord's Truth and arrangements and loyal servants as a foundation of the Lord's people was so great that the sorrow of some could not be heard as a separate thing from it, i.e., the bulk heeded not this sorrow (not discern … shout … from … weeping). The declarations of the faithful were heard throughout Britain (shouted … loud … noise [voice] was heard afar), where comparatively slight heed was given the sad claims of the clericalists. This symbolic voice of joy was especially heard at the conclusion of J.'s address on the clericalists' evils, Feb. 18, 1917, and, among other things, expressed itself in a unanimous vote of thanks, appreciation and confidence for his work, as its import was reported from church to church.
Ezra 4 will now engage our attention in the small antitype. In the large antitype, as proven by the Parallel Dispensations and suggested above, Zerubbabel types and parallels Marsiglio, both of whom did parallel things exactly
1845 years apart; 537 B.C. and 1309 A.D. and 522-518 B.C. and 1324-1328 A.D. Apart from the parallel Zerubbabel as the temple builder in the largest sense of the type represents our Lord, the Builder of the Church as God's Temple. But our study passes these large antitypes by and concentrates itself on the small antitype. Those who opposed the work of conforming the foundation of the Epiphany temple to the Parousia Truth and arrangements and their loyal servants were enemies (adversaries, v. 1) of the leading brethren (Judah) and the led brethren (Benjamin). These at first were H.J. Shearn, W. Crawford, F.G. Guard, Sr., and their supporters. On learning (heard) what was going on in this work, they desired to cooperate therein (let us build with you, v. 2), but according to their ideas as to how the work should be done (we seek your God … sacrifice unto Him). Their acts, not words, showed that Satan (Esar-haddon [sharp restrainer]) set them into a sphere antagonistic to the Truth and its arrangements and their loyal servants (brought us up hither). Their request they made to J. and his main supporters (Zerubbabel … chief of the fathers, v. 3). Seeing that they desired other than the Truth and its arrangements and their loyal servants as a foundation to the Epiphany temple, J. as executive and pilgrim (Zerubbabel and Jeshua) and his main supporters (chief of the fathers) in the work of God's true people (Israel) declined by word and act (nothing … to build). This declining stretched over a considerable period of time, as is evident from the description given of it from another standpoint in the preceding chapter. Had the above-mentioned been in harmony with the proper building as the Lord directed (as Cyrus … commanded us), their cooperation would have been welcome; but they set themselves against such building, and wanted their own kind done. Hence by word and act they were informed that only builders in harmony with the Divine purpose therein would be
permitted to participate (ourselves … build). Then those dominated by clericalism, textbookism, sectarianism, absolutism, etc., in their leaders (people of the land, v. 4) put all sorts of obstacles in the way of the leading brethren (weakened … Judah) and caused them much trouble in their work (troubled … building). They engaged advisers (hired counsellors, v. 5) to undo or impede the work, which continued a long while (all the days of Cyrus … until … Darius).
Some explanations are here needed on the Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes of vs. 6, 7. Nominal-church writers claim that the Ahasuerus of v. 6 is the Xerxes who reigned over Persia from 484 to 474 B.C. and that the Artaxerxes of v. 7 is the Artaxerxes who reigned over Persia from 474 to 425 B.C., and who commissioned Ezra and Nehemiah in 468 and 455 B.C. respectively. This cannot be true, for the letter of the Artaxerxes (vs. 23, 24), which stopped the building on the temple shortly after its foundation was laid, and just as the Jews were about to start work on the superstructure, was written about 13 years before 522 B.C., when Darius commanded that the work on the temple be renewed (Ezra 6: 1-12). Hence this letter was written about 40 years before the Artaxerxes who reigned from 474 to 425 B.C. was born, who, accordingly, is not the Artaxerxes of vs. 7-24. The Artaxerxes who reigned from 474 to 425 B.C. did command Ezra, 468 B.C., to do some building, i.e., repairs, on the temple (Ezra 7: 27), for which reason his name in Ezra 6: 14 is associated with that of Cyrus and Darius as commanding the temple to be built. A word on the Ahasuerus of v. 6: That the Ahasuerus of Esther is not the ten-years reigning Xerxes (484 to 474 B.C.), despite the nominal-church writers' claim, is evident from the fact that Ahasuerus, Esther's husband, reigned at least 13 years, yea, much longer (Esth. 3: 7, 13; 9: 15–10: 1-3). Hence he was not the Xerxes of 484-474 B.C., who reigned but ten years. He was doubtless the
Artaxerxes of 474-425 B.C., who had Esther as his wife and Mordecai as his prime minister, which will account for his friendliness to the Jews, among other ways, in sending Ezra and Nehemiah as governors to Judah to prosper the Jews.
That the Ahasuerus of v. 6 cannot be the ten-years reigning Xerxes (484-474 B.C.) is evident from the fact that the latter was born 519 B.C., three years after the rebuilding of the temple set in, while the Ahasuerus of v. 6 received the letter there spoken of before the work on the temple was stopped, which was about 536 or 535 B.C. Accordingly, this Ahasuerus and the Artaxerxes of vs. 7-24 received their letters from about 536 to about 535 B.C., while Cyrus was yet king of Persia. How, then, can they be called kings of Persia? Perhaps the following is the explanation: Inasmuch as Belshazzar is called king of Babylon (Dan. 5) while acting as the vicegerent of Nabonidus, his father, the real king, and Darius the Mede (Dan. 5: 31; 6; 9: 1) is called king of Persia while acting as Cyrus' vicegerent, and inasmuch as Cyrus, the real king, was frequently absent in war, he likely appointed each one of these two as vicegerent during his absences on two of his many military campaigns. Indeed, there is reason for believing that the Ahasuerus of v. 6 is Darius the Median, or Mede, of Dan. 5: 31; 9: 1, and that Ahasuerus was his family name, while Darius was his first name. These things will harmonize all the involved facts of the case.
The mischief-makers in Britain wrote to J.F.R. (Ahasuerus [lion-king, or king of heroes], v. 6), who was at that time a special representative of the Board, which was Jesus' (Cyrus) representative in the Society, very soon after his election as president (beginning of his reign), which resulted in J.F.R.'s cautioning J. and through him his supporters (Judah and Jerusalem) to move carefully, but which indicated no dissent from his work. Accordingly, Ahasuerus types J.F.R. as friendly to J. and his work. Artaxerxes (son
of the great king, v. 7) represents him as becoming and being inimical to J. and his supporters, and that while J.F.R. was a special representative of the Board as the representative of Jesus. At the instigation of their supporters (their companions, or societies—margin) F.G. Guard, Sr. (Bishlam [in peace]), W. Crawford (Mithredath [consecrated to the sun's sons, i.e., stars]) and H.J. Shearn (Tabeel [goodness of God, same in meaning as Tobiah, goodness of Jehovah, his equivalent type in Nehemiah]) wrote letters, which were not Little Flocklike, true (Hebrew), but Great Companylike, false (Syrian), and which were falsely (Syrian) interpreted. It was through these letters that J.F.R.'s opposition was first stirred up. But it was greatly increased by the letters of J. Hemery, the chief manager (Rehum [merciful], the chancellor, v. 8), two of which appeared in Harvest Siftings, which, while seeming to be merciful (Rehum), contained 71 falsehoods, and the I.B.S.A. secretary, H.J. Shearn (Shimshai [sunny], the scribe). Just as the typical letter was full of falsehoods, e.g., that the Israelites were building the city of Jerusalem, whereas they merely built the temple, so was the antitypical letter—the totality of the managers' pertinent communications.
Their Great Companyish falsehoods are typed by the fact that the letter was written in Syriac, i.e., Aramaic, not in Hebrew. These were supported by nine classes, of whose course the Lord disapproved: Dinaites (judges, v. 9), those of the members of the investigative committee who, in spite of finding in J.'s favor, at J.F.R.'s and J. Hemery's denouncing J. as a fraud, took the side of those two, as their letters in Harvest Siftings show; Apharsathchites (dividers), those who worked divisions in the British Church; Tarpelites (large ones), those pilgrims and auxiliary pilgrims who partisanly took the side of J.F.R. and J. Hemery after they learned of their opposition to J.; Apharsites (renders), the sifters; Archevites (delayers), J.F.R.'s
and J. Hemery's British lawyers, who delayed matters, to win the suit; Babylonians (confusionists), those who mixed Truth and error, as not a few did in Britain, especially along the line of textbookism; Susanchites (lily ones), the Bethelites; Dehavites (villagers), sectarians; and the Elamites (age, elders), clericalists. Supported in their misrepresentations by these nine classes, who were disapproved by God, J. Hemery and H.J. Shearn wrote the grossly misleading pen products of which J. Hemery's two pieces in Harvest Siftings are samples. These and other associates (rest of the nations, v. 10) were put into the condition (Samaria) of opposing the Lord's priestly work on the Epiphany temple by Azazel (Asnapper [great prince], the same as Esarhaddon). They professed great loyalty (thy servants, v. 11) to J.F.R. (Artaxerxes).
They misrepresented the temple building work as the building of a separate religious government (city, v. 12), e.g., that J. plotted to seize control of the British work and to publish an oppositional English Tower (building the rebellious and bad city), and was making considerable progress therein (walls … foundations), which misrepresentation they set forth as being intended to break away from the headquarters at Brooklyn (not pay toll … revenue, v. 13). The two (with W. Crawford cooperating), who were caught redhanded as concocting the scheme (see Vol. VI, Chap. I) that was a rebellion of the character which they misrepresented J.'s and his colaborers' work to be, then with hypocritical unctuousness represented themselves in this matter to be animated by loyalty to the Society, to which they claimed to be indebted for its supporting them (v. 14). They referred to real past siftings as of the same character as the work of J. and his supporters, asking J.F.R. to examine and compare them with it (v. 15). They then indicated that if J.'s and his supporters' work were not stopped, the Society would lose its British field (v. 16). We are not