Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; Titus 2:13
means the original for the word translated broken in John 10: 35. Jesus everywhere reverences the Old Testament as God's Word (Mark 7: 13; John 10: 35). If it is God's Word, its writers must have been inspired to write it, or it would not be His, but man's word. The Apostles treated it in the same way as Jesus. They expounded it as God's Word; they quoted it as proof for their teachings as being from God, e.g., St. Paul quoted Ps. 2: 7; Is. 55: 3; Ps. 16: 10 in Acts 13: 33-35, to prove Jesus' resurrection, as he quoted Is. 6: 9, 10 in Acts 28: 25-27; to prove that God's Spirit forecast Israel's unbelief, as Jesus also quoted it in Matt. 13: 14, 15 and John, in 12: 39, 40. In Hebrews Paul quoted from the Old Testament repeatedly, assuring us that the things quoted were uttered by the Holy Spirit (Heb. 3: 7; 9: 8; 10: 15). Old Testament sayings are repeatedly spoken of as God's sayings by the Apostles (Heb. 4: 4; Acts 2: 17; 3: 21; 4: 25). Accordingly, we see that Jesus and the Apostles held the same doctrine on inspiration as the Jews held, that the Old Testament was the Word of God, God's speech, God's utterance. Had they not held it, they would have rebuked the Jews thereover, as falsely teaching, as they did as to their real false teachings. Instead of so doing, they endorsed their views, both by their theories and practices. Hence we conclude that the Jews were right in regarding the Old Testament as God's Word. Hence He inspired its writers, or it would not have been His Word, but their word. Our first proof is given.
We present a second argument for the inspiration of the Old Testament. The various names that Jesus and the Apostles called the Old Testament prove its inspiration. It was given by them, first of all, the name, the Scripture, and the Scriptures. Originally the word meant merely writing. But it in time received a nobler meaning—one designating it to be, by preeminence, the writing of all writings, i.e., God's writing, or writings, the Oracles of God, Scripture, or Scriptures (Rom. 3: 2; Acts 7: 38; Heb. 5: 12; 1 Pet. 4: 11).
The New Testament 52 times gives this name to the Old Testament. We will cite some of these occurrences: Mark 12: 10; Luke 4: 21; John 7: 38, 42; Acts 8: 32, 35; Rom. 4: 3; Gal. 3: 8; 1 Tim. 5: 18; Jas. 2: 8; 1 Pet. 2: 6. These are occurrences of the word in the singular, Scripture. A few passages using the plural, Scriptures, are: Matt. 21: 42; Mark 12: 24; Luke 24: 27; John 5: 9; Acts 17: 2, 11; Rom. 1: 2; 1 Cor. 15: 3; 2 Tim. 3: 15; 2 Pet. 3: 16. This name meant to the Jews, to Jesus and the Apostles what the word Bible means to a true Christian—God's inspired message. Frequently they speak of its fulfilment as that of an inspired thing (Mark 15: 28; Luke 4: 21; John 13: 18; 17: 12; 19: 24, 28, 36, 37; Matt. 26: 54, 56). We are to remember that before the New Testament was written this name was given to God's pre-Gospel-Age revelation. A second name they gave it: Moses and the Prophets, or the Law and Prophets (Luke 16: 29, 31; 24: 27; John 1: 45; Acts 26: 22; 28: 23; Matt. 5: 17; 7: 12; 11: 13; 22: 40; Luke 16: 16). Repeatedly the Law, the Pentateuch, is called God's Law (Luke 2: 23, 24, 39). What the name prophet means is very evident from the fact that Moses was made God's prophet and Aaron was made the prophet—mouthpiece—of Moses (Ex. 4: 10-16; 7: 1, 2). Thus in writing the Pentateuch Moses was God's mouth and the prophets, etc., writing the rest of the Old Testament were God's mouth. He spoke through them as His mouth—inspiration! Thus the New Testament calls the Old Testament the Prophets, or Prophecy (Rom. 16: 26; 1 Pet. 1: 10-12; 2 Pet. 1: 19-21). All of this is but a synonym of inspiration. A third name that Jesus and the Apostles give the Old Testament is, the Word, and commandments, of God, which proves that its human writers wrote as God inspired them; for it was not the word of man, but the Word of God. The following are some citations that call the Old Testament the Word of God: Matt. 15: 3, 6, 9; Mark 7: 13; John 10: 35-38; Rom. 10: 17; Eph. 6: 17; 1 Thes. 4: 15; Heb. 4: 12; 1 Pet. 1: 23-25.
Hence those who preached the contents of the Old Testament as it became due in the Jewish Harvest are described as preaching the Word of God (Luke 3: 2; 5: 1; 8: 21; 11: 28; Acts 11: 1; 13: 5, 7, 44-49; 1 Thes. 2: 13; 1 John 2: 14; Rev. 1: 9; 6: 9; 20: 4). These three names used by Jesus and the Apostles of the Old Testament imply its inspiration.
The New Testament gives illustrations of certain Old Testament persons and its parts as inspired. Thus Jesus speaks of David as being inspired, "doth David in Spirit call," "David himself said by the Holy Spirit," when He distinguished between David's Lord (Jesus) and Jehovah and spoke of the Former's exaltation to the Latter's right hand (Matt. 22: 43; Mark 12: 36, compared with Ps. 110: 1). Thus Matthew (1: 22, 23) tells us that God spoke in prophecy by Isaiah of the virgin birth of Jesus (Is. 7: 14). St. Peter tells us that God spoke of the Millennium as times of refreshing and restitution of all things by the mouth of all the holy prophets (Acts 3: 19-21-24). He and the other Apostles tell us that God by the mouth of David spoke of the kings, rulers and people rejecting Christ (Acts 4: 24-27; Ps. 2: 2, 6). St. Paul tells us that God in the Old Testament times spoke through the prophets (Heb. 1: 1). He tells us in Heb. 3: 7 that Ps. 95: 7-11 was spoken by the Holy Spirit, as he also tells us in Heb. 10: 15-17 that Jer. 31: 31-34 was spoken by the Holy Spirit. In fact, there are literally thousands of quotations and allusions in the New Testament to Old Testament passages and personages, whose uses by Jesus and the Apostles prove their inspiration. And they do not make such quotations and allusions by way of limiting inspiration to such quotations and allusions, but as illustrations of their understanding that the entire Old Testament is inspired.
God definitely made promise of inspiration to several Old Testament writers. When Moses in his humility and meekness, shrinking back from undertaking the mission of Israel's deliverance, hesitated to undertake
it, God promised to be His utterance for him, i.e., God promised to inspire him, making him God's mouthpiece. And if God was such to him in his oral addresses for a little while to but one generation of Israel, the last one in Egypt, how much more so when he wrote out the Pentateuch to be instruction to all generations of Israel, as well as to all generations of the Church. This was all the more necessary, because unwritten traditions would be sure in process of time and apostacy to be corrupted, as we see from the pertinent traditions of the Jewish and Romanist teachers. Jeremiah is another illustration of God's promising inspiration to him as a prophet of the Lord in his speeches and writings. This is set forth in Jer. 1: 4-9. Jeremiah, according to these words, was a humble, reticent man, who, therefore, shrank back from undertaking the Divinely proffered mission. Accordingly, the Lord encouraged him very movingly, assuring him that He had given him prenatal help to fit him to undertake the proffered work (v. 5). When he demurred, referring to his inability and immaturity, God gently dissuaded him from so saying, assuring him that he would undertake the mission and that he would speak all that the Lord would charge him to speak. He encouraged him not to fear, since God would be on his side to deliver him. Thereupon God gave him the words that he should speak. And this he did throughout his 40 years' ministry. While we are not expressly told that this was God's procedure with all the prophets, we may be sure that He gave every one of them his needed encouragement and put His words into their mouths, as they all assure us of this last thing; for they delivered their messages as God's messengers, mouthpieces.
Old Testament writers make the distinct claim that they were inspired to write their part of the Bible. Thus David made this claim: "David the son of Jesse said, even the man who was raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, even the sweet psalmist of Israel, said, The Spirit of the Lord spake by me,
and His word was in my tongue" (2 Sam. 23: 1, 2). Isaiah makes the claim that his utterances were God's declarations: "The vision of Isaiah … which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem … Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth; for the Lord hath spoken, I have nourished and brought up children, etc., etc." (Is. 1: 1, 2). These words apply to the first part of his book, chapters 1—39; the following words apply to the second part of his book, chapters 40—66: "The glory of the Lord shall be revealed; and all flesh shall see it together; for the mouth of the Lord [Isaiah] hath spoken it" (Is. 40: 5). Isaiah frequently speaks of himself as the Lord's mouth, the one through whom God spoke (Is. 1: 20; 30: 2; 55: 11; 58: 14; 62: 2). Jeremiah makes the same claim. This is made in a passage that we used in the preceding paragraph, when we pointed him out as an example of one who had been promised inspiration by God (Jer. 1: 4-10). This feature is especially covered in vs. 4 and 9: "The word of the Lord came unto me … Then the Lord put forth His hand, and touched my mouth; and the Lord said unto me, Behold, I have put My words in thy mouth." Ezekiel likewise says the same thing of himself: "The word of the Lord came expressly unto Ezekiel the priest" (Ezek. 1: 3). Repeatedly other prophets declared that God gave them a message to deliver (Hos. 1: 1; Joel 1: 1; Amos 1: 1, 3; Ob. 1; Jonah 1: 1; Mic. 1: 1; Hab. 1: 1; Zeph. 1: 1; Hag. 1: 1; Zech. 1: 1; Mal. 1: 1). This is strong on our point.
Over 2,000 times the Old Testament declares that the messages that it gives are God's messages, sayings, utterances, etc. In the Pentateuch alone over 500 times the following and similar expressions occur: "The Lord said unto Moses"; "The Lord spake unto Moses, saying"; "The Lord called unto Moses, and spake to him out of the tabernacle, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel and say unto them"; "God spake all these words, saying." Let us remember over against higher critics, who deny the Mosaic authorship of the
Pentateuch, that he most solemnly warned against one falsely speaking for God and adding or subtracting from His words (Deut. 4: 2). In the historical books and poetical books of the Old Testament expressions like, "The Lord said"; "The Lord spake, saying"; "Thus saith the Lord"; "The word of the Lord came," occur about 300 times; and all of them teach that God gave the pertinent words. In the 16 prophetical books of the A.V. the expressions, "The Lord said unto me"; "Thus saith the Lord God"; "Thus saith the Lord"; "The word of the Lord came"; "Hear the word of the Lord," occur over 1,200 times. In the four brief chapters of Malachi the expression, "Saith the Lord," occurs 24 times. Thus in the Old Testament over 2,500 times expressions occur that teach that what follows these expressions are God's very words. These expressions, of course, prove inspiration.
Some special passages treating of the inspiration of the Old Testament deserve a more detailed discussion than is given to those quoted or cited above. One of the chief of these is 2 Tim. 3: 15-17. Everything considered, the A.V. is the best rendering of this passage. Here St. Paul reminds Timothy that from childhood up he had been taught the Sacred Scriptures, the Old Testament, the New not having been in any part written when Timothy was a child. These he describes as able to make him wise unto salvation through the faith which is in Christ Jesus. Then St. Paul goes on to state several things of the Old Testament of which Timothy had been taught from childhood up. He first says of it that it was inspired by God, literally God-inbreathed, i.e., the Old Testament is inspiration as a product. Then he shows four of its main uses: it is the source of doctrinal Truth, of refutational Truth, of correctional Truth and of character-building Truth, and that consequently its mission is to make God's people as Truth servants complete, thoroughly equipped to do every good work. Devilish ingenuity has sought to set aside this clear proof that the Old Testament is God's
inspired written revelation; but in vain have the efforts of higher critics, rationalists and infidels been thereon. In 1 Pet. 1: 10-12 St. Peter tells that the Prophets searched and inquired diligently into the salvation of the high calling, when they prophesied of this favor coming to the Gospel-Age Elect. The time features of this salvation were a special matter of their study of those things that they wrote by the Spirit of Christ which was in them in its witnessing of the Christ's suffering first and then entering into glory. But their inquiries produced no understanding of these matters; for they were given to understand that the contents of their prophecies were not intended for them, but for the Gospel Church, and were the same things as God's Spirit-empowered servants would preach to the Gospel Church. Here again the Spirit is spoken of as giving the prophets their message reduced to writing. 2 Pet. 1: 19-21 is a powerful proof to the point. Clearer than the vision on the mount of transfiguration are the writings of the prophets (v. 19), to which God's people while walking, not by sight, but by faith, are to give heed, as a light that makes clear the obscurity of the present trial time, until the great day of God comes, with Christ as the then great Enlightener. But in studying the prophetic word of the Old Testament God's people are to remember, first of all, that Scriptural teachings are not of a human's clarifying, since no prophecy, inspired teaching, of the Old Testament originated in man's will; but men spoke from God, borne on by the Holy Spirit. The reasons that this passage gives for no mere human's being able to interpret correctly the inspired Word are that it is not man-originated, but is God-originated through the influence of the Holy Spirit operating upon and controlling its writers. It is for this reason that no Scriptural passage can be abrogated, dissolved, annihilated, but must stand forever! and its interpretation comes, not from man, but from God by Christ through His mouthpieces.
We now come to the proof of the New Testament's inspiration. On this point our argument proceeds largely from the less to the greater, a kind of an argument that Jesus used, e.g., "If ye being evil know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more shall your heavenly Father give good gifts [in another passage He said, give the Holy Spirit] to them who ask Him" (Matt. 7: 11; Luke 11: 13)? Other passages using the same kind of arguments are frequent, e.g., Matt. 10: 25; 12: 12; Luke 12: 24, 28. The argument is this: If God inspired the Old Testament, the less important of the two parts of His revelation, how much more would He inspire the New Testament, the more important part of God's revelation? If God inspired Moses and the Prophets, how much more would He inspire Jesus and the Apostles? If God inspired the preaching of Jesus and the Apostles, which were given to a comparatively few persons of their own generation, how much more would He inspire their teachings reduced to writings intended for all generations? If inspiration featured their speeches amid conditions less pervaded by possibilities of misunderstanding, how much more would inspiration feature their thoughts reduced to writing amid conditions decidedly more pervaded by possibilities and actualities of misunderstanding? If we had no other arguments than these to prove the inspiration of the New Testament, they would prove it, with cogency. But we have more than these. The Apostles' speaking and preaching in tongues unknown to them at Pentecost and later proves that they were inspired; how much more were they inspired in writing for the Church throughout the Age the things that they bound upon the Church? And if by inspiration they taught orally that the Church of their day was loosed from the Mosaic Covenant, how much more must their writings on that subject for the Church in all generations have been inspired? Jesus' statement that whatever the Apostles would bind upon or loose from the Church would be bound or loosed
in heaven could only be true, if God inspired them in the things bound or loosed; for fallible humans could have claimed to bind what was actually error and loose what was actually truth, and certainly God would not thereby have been bound to sanction it (Matt. 18: 18).
Peter was filled with the Holy Spirit when he addressed the rulers (Acts 4: 8), how much more so when he wrote for the whole Church in all generations! Paul was filled with the Holy Spirit when he reproved Elymas (Acts 13: 9), how much more so when he wrote for all generations of the Church! Peter was inspired to understand that Gentiles were eligible to the Lord's favor in the case of Cornelius and his friends (Acts 10: 28), how much more so when he wrote binding things on the entire Church! The prophetic gift made to the Apostles and some other brethren proves their inspiration. St. Paul appeals to this fact of their being prophets as showing that he was to be recognized by them as inspired in giving God's commands (1 Cor. 14: 37). Let us not forget that the word prophesy does not simply mean to forecast. It means to teach any feature of the Lord's Word, past, present or future; and when applied to those who had the gift of prophecy it means their inspiration, a thing that all the Apostles had. Hence we conclude that if they used this gift for personal teaching, certainly they had it in their impersonal teaching—written teachings—for the entire Church in all its generations throughout the Age. Certainly, if God inspired individual members of a local church in order to teach it infallibly, as 1 Cor. 14 shows was the case at Corinth, He inspired the Apostles in their official capacity in teaching infallibly the entire Church in all generations through their writings. This was all the more necessary, since, as century after century passed, new and subtle errors arose; and the faithful had to have an infallible standard as a touchstone to demonstrate what was genuine and what was alloy, and thus cleave to the Truth and reject the error. Was it not by an appeal to the inspired
words of the Apostles and Prophets, of Christ and Moses, that the Reformers were able to demonstrate the apostasy of the papacy? And has it not been by the same appeal that God's people have in the Harvest been able to demonstrate the apostasy of sectarian Protestantism and manifested crown-losers?
St. Peter couples St. Paul's epistles as Scripture with and in the same sense as the Old Testament writings, which, of course, were Scripture, which, accordingly, proves their inspiration. Please note the language: "Our beloved brother Paul also [as well as the other Apostles] according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto you, as also in all his [other] epistles, speaking in them of these things, in which [epistles] are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other Scriptures, unto their own destruction." The expression, "also the other Scriptures," at least includes the whole Old Testament. Hence St. Peter puts St. Paul's epistles into the canon as parts of the Bible, hence as inspired. But since St. Peter wrote his second epistle about 65 A. D., very shortly before his death (2 Pet. 1: 13, 14), which is thought to have occurred in 66 or 67 A. D., the first three Gospels, Acts, James, 1 Peter and Jude, as well as all of St. Paul's epistles, except perhaps 2 Timothy, had been written, and we believe are included besides the Old Testament in St. Peter's expression, "the other Scriptures." Hence this passage proves the inspiration of the bulk of the New Testament, as well as the entire Old Testament.
Certainly, the Apostles claimed inspiration. This is true of St. Paul. His calling on the inspired prophets in the Corinthian Church to recognize his writings as God's commandments proves their inspiration (1 Cor. 14: 37). The same conclusion we draw from the fact that he claimed to be an apostle, special messenger, not of or by man, but by Christ and God, which implies his inspiration (Gal. 1: 1; see also the opening verses of
almost all his other epistles, wherein the same claim is made). His emphatically anathematizing anyone who would preach another gospel implies that his was God-derived—inspired (Gal. 1: 8, 9). In 1 Thes. 2: 13 he emphatically insists that what he preached (how much more what he wrote) was not man's, but God's Word. And in 1 Thes. 4: 13-15 he assures his readers that his message on the resurrection that he was then writing was the Word of God, hence inspired. And what is true of him as an inspired speaker and writer is also true of the rest of the Apostles, whose binding certain things on the Church, which are set forth in writing, is expressly said to have come from the Holy Spirit (Acts 15: 28). In 1 Cor. 2, speaking of himself and the rest of the Apostles ("we"), St. Paul shows that God revealed His hidden mysteries to the Apostles by His Spirit (vs. 1, 10), which were freely given by God to them, for the receiving of which He gave them His Spirit (v. 12), and which they spoke (and wrote) in words given them by the Spirit (verbal inspiration; v. 13), all because they had the mind of Christ (v. 16). It was because the Apostles inspired taught these things to Spirit-filled brethren that the latter could understand and explain these things, as this chapter also teaches.
In certain Scriptures the Apostles are coupled with the Prophets as writers of the Bible. Among other things, the Bible as coming from them is set forth as the foundation of the Church in Eph. 2: 20, with Jesus as the chief corner stone. Such coupling clearly implies the inspiration of the Apostolic writings. This coupling of the Apostles and Prophets as inspired teachers of the Church, with the Apostles as using the power to bind, give inspired "commandments," and the Prophets as giving inspired "words," is another proof of the inspiration of the Apostolic writings. John's Revelation is expressly said to have been given him from God by Christ (Rev. 1: 1-3). God commissioned him to write out the message to be sent to the seven churches—inspiration (vs. 10, 11). The charge to write these Divinely
given things is repeated in v. 19—inspiration. In Rev. 22: 18, 19, the book is several times called prophecy— inspiration being the meaning of the word.
Our Lord Jesus promised the Apostles the Holy Spirit as the Spirit of the Truth to give them the Divine knowledge to exercise their office as His plenipotentiaries. He gave them complete authority under Him to be executives and teachers of the Church unto the end of the Age, which, after their death, must mean them as ministering in their writings, as we read in Mark 3: 14, 15; Matt. 18: 18; 28: 18-20 and Acts 1: 3-9. As their qualification He promised them the Holy Spirit and in due time gave it to them. He began to give them these promises about the middle of His ministry, and elaborated thereon from time to time before His last night with them, as we can see from Matt. 10: 14-20; Luke 12: 11, 12; 21: 12-15; Mark 13: 9-11. But these promises came to a culmination during Jesus' famous discourse delivered on the occasion of the last supper, as given in John 13—16, and in the resurrection history (John 20: 21; Luke 24: 47-49; Acts 1: 4, 5, 8). Especially in John 14: 16-18, 26; 15: 26, 27; 16: 7, 12-14, is the Spirit promised as their Qualifier for their work as teachers. In John 14: 16 the Spirit is promised the Apostles throughout the Age, which after their death early in the Age must mean that the Spirit would abide with them in their ministry through their writings; for that is the only way that they could minister after their death. This implies the inspiration of those writings—the Spirit abiding therein. In v. 17 He calls the Spirit, the Spirit of [the, so the Greek] Truth, which in John 17: 17 He calls God's Word. Hence the Spirit permeated the Word, which implies its inspiration. Thus equipped they were not left by Jesus comfortless, for the Spirit as Comforter was in them and in their writings as Inspirer. In v. 26 He indicates that the Spirit is His representative sent to them by God, and would teach them everything needed by them in their personal ministry and in their impersonal ministry,
i.e., in their writings. This implies their personal and literary inspiration. He further told them in this verse that the Spirit would fecundate, i.e., by inspiration, their memories, so that they would remember everything that He had taught them.
In John 15: 26, 27, calling the Holy Spirit again, the Spirit of the [emphatic in the Greek] Truth, He promises it as God's gift to them by Jesus and as coming to them from God. He told them that that Spirit would bear witness of Jesus to them and make them bear witness. This was done to their own generation partly by their word of mouth and partly by their writings, and to succeeding generations by their writings exclusively. This being the Spirit's witnessing in and through them implies their inspiration. In John 16: 12-14 further elaborations of these promises are given. On account of their not having received the Spirit-begettal while our Lord was yet with them, they could not understand spiritual things, hence Jesus could give them only generalities as to the Truth. He indicates that He had yet much to reveal to them, but their unbegotten condition made these too hard for them to understand (v. 12). However, He assured them (v. 13) that when the Holy Spirit as the Revealer of the deep spiritual things (1 Cor. 2: 10, 12) would come to them in the Spirit-begetting, It would guide them into all the Truth of God's Plan as due. Here the guidance of the Apostles into all due Truth by the Spirit is promised; and this, of course, implies their inspiration. The Spirit would not do this automatically, but only as God would give it to It. And this would cover doctrine as well as prophecy of future things. In this mission the Spirit would glorify Jesus; for It would receive from Him the things of God and show them to the Apostles (v. 14). This language implies the thought expressed in 2 Pet. 1: 21: "No prophecy came by the will of man; but men spake from God, being moved by the Holy Spirit." Strong indeed are these arguments.
In John 20: 21 Jesus shows that as He was God's special Messenger and Plenipotentiary, so the Apostles were His special messengers and plenipotentiaries, which implies that the Spirit of Christ inspired them (1 Pet. 1: 11), as the Father's Spirit had inspired Jesus. In Luke 24: 47-49 Jesus shows that the Apostles as Jesus' witnesses were to preach the gospel among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem; and He promised to send them as their qualification therefore God's promise, the Holy Spirit, as the power that would make them able thereto. While the Apostles preached to everyone under the Jewish symbolic heavens (Col. 1: 23), they evidently did not visit and preach to every nation, let alone to every individual in them, while in the flesh, since nations like Japan, those in America and in Oceania were not yet discovered. Hence to fulfill Jesus' command given here and in Matt. 28: 18-20; Mark 16: 15; Acts 1: 8, they had to put into writing the inspired Gospel, which then as carried to all nations became the Apostolic preaching and witnessing in all nations; for only through their writings were they to preach to those nations and generations inaccessible to them; and if their oral presentations to their own contemporaries were inspired, how much more would their written presentations to all nations and generations be inspired? In Acts 1: 4 they are again told by Jesus to wait for the promise of the Father, the Holy Spirit, as their qualification and power to witness, which they did by word and writing. In v. 5 they are expressly told that they would receive the Holy Spirit, and that by a baptism of It, an outpouring of It upon them. Again, in v. 8 Jesus stresses the Spirit's coming as their power to perform their Apostolic work, which we see was done through witnessing by preaching, teaching and writing. Thus as upon Jesus, the Head, so upon the Apostles was the Spirit to rest. The Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles, the Gospels and Revelation are a living proof that the promise of the Father was given them—even the Holy Spirit, their Inspirer in
teaching, preaching and writing. Surely to Bible believers the above considerations prove the inspiration of the Old Testament and the New Testament. How firm a foundation, ye saints of the Lord, is laid for your faith in His excellent Word!
So far on the subject of the Bible's inspiration there have been presented certain general considerations on the subject and two lines of proof thereof—general Bible proofs and specific Bible proofs founded on Bible passages. There remains a third line of proof for the Bible's inspiration— facts in the form of Biblical numerics. Lest we appear wiser than we are, the remark is here appropriate that we have gotten the most of the facts that will be presented on Biblical numerics, and that we have very carefully examined and proved, from Messrs. Ivan Panin and R. McCormack. God has two books of revelation: Creation and the Bible; and we find that He as the Author of both has interwoven the number 7 in both of these books. And it is not to be unexpected from the same Author that He use a common key number as a sign of His authorship in both. We will note the various branches of nature as revealing His Authorship of the material-creation by the number 7. The rainbow and light have 7 colors; music has 7 notes; the human, male and female, voices have 7 ranges: bass, baritone, tenor, alto, contralto, mezzo-soprano and soprano. Arithmetic shows some peculiar things about 7 and its fractions. Please note the following, wherein the same figures occur in the same order, following one another with the first taking the last place after each example: 1/7 =.142857; 3/7=.428571; 2/7=.285714; 6/7=.857142; 4/7=.571428; 5/7=.714285. If we take the decimal value of 1/7 and treat it as a non-decimal, 142857, and multiply it by 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, we get the same figures but differently ordered: 142,857xl=142,857; x2=285,714; x3=428,571; x4=571,428; x5=714,285; x6=857,142. It is singular that the 360 degrees in a circle are divisible by the nine digits without remainders,
except 7. The area of a circle is obtained by multiplying the square of the diameter by.7854. Undecimaled this number is obtained as follows: 7x1,000 (7,000) +7x100 (700) +2x7x10 (140) +2x7 (14) = 7854. The appearance of sevens in various features of chemistry is too numerous to note in this article. In the three kingdoms of nature— animal, vegetable and mineral—sevens constantly appear, e.g., species, genus, family, order, class, sub-kingdoms and kingdoms: mammalia, birds, reptiles, fish, radiata, crustaceans, and articulates. So, too, are invertebrates and vertebrates each of seven classes.
In botany the two orders, flowerless and flowering plants, are summed up into 7 kinds; thallogens, acrogens, rhizogens, endogens, dictyogens, gumnogens and exogens. A complete flower has 7 parts: sepals, petals, stamens, anthers, ovary, pistil, and stigma. There are 7 cereals: wheat, oats, barley, maize, rice, rye and millet. In geology there are 7 ages, which are subdivided into 14 (a multiple of 7) systems. There are 7 general kinds of crystals, which are subdivided into multiples of 7. There are 14 types of minerals, 7 kinds of rocks, 7 kinds of tastes to soluble minerals and 7 colors in precious stones. Winds are of 7 kinds as to velocity: almost calm, light, moderate, strong, galey, stormy and hurricaneous; so, too, are clouds and optical phenomena of 7 kinds, ranging in the former from curl to rain clouds and in the latter from halos to mountain spectres. The earth's land surface consists of 7 continents: Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South America, Australia and Antarctica. It has 7 oceans, called the Seven Seas: Arctic, Antarctic, North and South Atlantic, North and South Pacific and the Indian Ocean. There are 7 zones: northern frigid, semi-frigid, temperate, torrid, southern temperate, semi-frigid and frigid. The human body shows many heptads, e.g., 7 cervicals; 7 subdorsal vertebrae; each vertebra has 7 processes; 7 holes in man's head; 7 depressed surfaces on the breastbone for joining with
7 ribs; 14 face bones; 7 parts to each arm: arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, hand, fingers and knuckles; 7 parts to each leg: main leg or thigh, knee, lower leg, ankle, foot, toes and toe joints; 7 bones in the ankle; 7 parts to the brain; 7 accessory tongue muscles; 7 fibres of the heart's ventricles; 238 (7x34) voluntary muscles in the body; the interosseous muscles are 7 in the hand and 7 in the foot; 7 distinct kinds of eyes as to color; 7 kinds of tissues in the body, which consists of 7 parts: brain, nerve, bone, muscle, blood, flesh and hair; 7 are the main ingredients of living matter: native and derived albumens, globulins, fibrin, proteids, peptones, lardadin; 7 ages of humans: infancy, childhood, youth, adolescence, manhood, decline and senility; 7 years fully change the body's elements.
There are 1400 vibrations between the lowest and highest human tone; 35 phrenological brain organs, 21 of the affections and 14 of the intellect; 7 swellings of the hand and 7 kinds of hands; 7 groups of finger prints; 7 races of man; 7 relations of the first degree; father, mother, brother, sister, spouse, son and daughter; 7 kinds of coloring matter in bird's eggs; 7 higher primary graces; 7 social graces; 7 departments of the science of physics: mechanico-dynamics, light, heat, sound, electricity, radio (or electronics) and magnetism; 7 circumstances of the actions of men: who, what, where, by what means, why, how and when. There are 7 points in a lobster's pincers, 14 are the nautis shrimp's legs; 28 are the teeth of the kangaroo; 7 are the molars of very many animals; the hare and the rabbit have each 28 teeth, and the tapir 42; most fish have 7 rays in their gills, 7 are the artificial motions of the horse; rabbits breed 7 times a year; 7 are the parts of a typical solitary coral; 7 are the years of an oyster's growth, then he takes a fresh growth for 7 years more, which is followed by another kind of growth for 7 years; for 7 years horses betray their age. A human develops through 7 stages: sensibility, will, consciousness, intelligence, reason, conscience, religion.
There are 7 magnitudes of the stars visible to the naked eye; no more than 7 eclipses of the sun and moon can occur in a year; 7 are the motions of the earth; multiples of 7 are the periods of most animal gestations, e.g., 21 days for the mouse, 28 for the hare, rabbit and squirrel; 35 for the dormouse and weasel, 49 for the hedgehog, 56 for the cat and the marten, 63 for the dog, wolf, fox, lynx, polecat, otter, 98 for the lion, 119 for the pig, 147 for the sheep, 280 for the cow and many other mammals; as to birds: 21 days for the hen and raven, 28 for the duck, turkey, pheasant, guinea fowl, 42 for the ostrich, swan, etc. In the elephant it is 21 months, or 630 days; in humans 280 days. All the above-given day periods are in multiples of 7. The above-given facts, and many times more, prove that in the book of nature God has widely inscribed the Divine number of 7, to indicate Him to be nature's Author. Hence we should expect Him to have done the same in His other book, the Bible. And this we find to be true.
In a variety of ways in the Bible in matters pertaining to God the number 7 and its multiples appear. He indicated it in the 7 epochs of His creative and rest periods, in the 7,000 years of each creative day and in His rest day, in the 7,000 years that He devoted to the curse and restitution from the curse, in the 49,000 years of the creative and rest periods, in the 7 days of the week, in the 7 weeks leading up to the jubilee of weeks (Pentecost), in the 7 years of the sabbath of years, in the 49 years as completing the 7 sabbaths of years, leading up to the jubilee of years, in the 7 times of the Gentiles, in the 7 days of Passover and Tabernacles, in the many other 7-day periods connected with events pertaining to Divine things (Gen. 7: 14; 8: 10, 12; 21: 28-30; 9: 18, 20, 27, 30; 41: 2-7, 18-27, 29, 30, 34, 36, 47, 48, 53, 54; Ex. 37: 23; Lev. 4: 6, 17; 8: 11, 33, 35; 13: 4, 5, 21, 31, 33, 50, 54; 14: 7, 8, 16, 27; 16: 14, 19, etc., etc., etc.). The heptadic structure of the Scriptures is seen in Revelation, in its 7 stars,
angels, churches, messengers, spirits (teachings) of God, horns, eyes, thunders, seals, trumpets, bowls with their angels, plagues, 3½ times (7 half-times), 42 months, 1260 days and in 7 visions of each Revelation period. In the genealogy of Jesus through Mary (Luke 4: 23-34) from Abraham 56 generations are given, and in that of Jesus through Joseph's ancestors (Matt. 1: 1-17) from Abraham onward 42 generations are given. Actually, according to certain Old Testament data there were 47 generations in this line. Why this seeming discrepancy? We believe it was done by God to set forth for the purposes of numerics a hint of its Biblical existence. Moreover, it was to give to the Matthew genealogy the multitudinous occurrences of sevens that will later be pointed out, and that would have been spoiled by giving the full genealogy in Matt. 1: 1-17. For the same reason God caused many grammatical mistakes to be made, e.g., in the Greek of the book of Revelation, in order to preserve the numerics in all its sentences, paragraphs, sections and in itself as a whole. The above examples, a few from among many, give a broad hint that the heptad plays a very important part in the Bible. This occurs, not only in the surface of the Bible in vast detail, but also in the numerics of the Bible's words, sentences, paragraphs, sections, books and in it as a whole. This is possible because the letters of the Hebrew and Greek alphabets are also numerals; hence each word of the Bible is the sum of the numeric values of its letters. This numeric structure is so varied and detailed as to make it the strongest factual proof of the Bible's inspiration. Additionally, a scheme of elevens is apparent in the generalities of its books, their order place, divisions and their anonymous and non-anonymous writers. These will be presented first, before its heptads are presented. The following is the list of Bible books as found in the Hebrew and Greek Bible, with the order number of each book prefixed:
OLD TESTAMENT BOOKS
1 Genesis 14 Ezekiel 28 Proverbs
2 Exodus 15 Hosea 29 Job
3 Leviticus 16 Joel 30 Song of
4 Numbers 17 Amos Songs
5 Deuteron- 18 Obadiah 31 Ruth
omy 19 Jonah 32 Lamenta-
6 Joshua 20 Micah tions
7 Judges 21 Nahum 33 Ecclesiastes
8 1 Samuel 22 Habakkuk 34 Esther
9 2 Samuel 23 Zephaniah 35 Daniel
10 1 Kings 24 Haggai 36 Ezra
11 2 Kings 25 Zechariah 37 Nehemiah
12 Isaiah 26 Malachi 38 1 Chronicles
13 Jeremiah 27 Psalms 39 2 Chronicles
NEW TESTAMENT BOOKS
40 Matthew 51 Jude 59 1 Thessalo-
41 Mark 52 Romans nians
42 Luke 53 1 Corinthi- 60 2 Thessalo-
43 John ans nians
44 Acts 54 2 Corinthi- 61 Hebrews
45 James ans 62 1 Timothy
46 1 Peter
47 2 Peter 55 Galatians 63 2 Timothy
48 1 John 56 Ephesians 64 Titus
49 2 John 57 Philippians 65 Philemon
50 3 John 58 Colossians 66 Revelation
The sum of the order numbers is 2,211. One-third of these books is anonymous, e.g., the Bible nowhere tells who wrote Genesis, Lamentations, Matthew, Mark, Luke, Acts, John, 1, 2, 3 John and Hebrews, though there is good reason for ascribing them in the order named to Moses, Jeremiah, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John and Paul. The Bible ascribes the Psalms (mainly) to David, and Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy to Moses. The following books were written by the persons whose names they bear: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, the 12 Minor Prophets, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, James, 1, 2 Peter, Jude; and there is good