Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13


stood by the two Deborahs and Baraks and were sent out by the latter into the position of chief place in the battle. The groups of antitypical Elisha (Societyites, antitypical Reubenites), Mahlites, in both Parousias had great plans of aggrandizement (v. 15) that raised the question as to why they were amid constant divisions in their aiming to draw disciples after them; and that led to great self-examinations ere they were freed from both Babylons (v. 16). The antitypical Gaddites (inhabitants of Gilead), as antitypical Mushites, in both Parousias occupied themselves with the Lord's people as away from the peoples of great and little Christendom, while the antitypical Shimites (Dan) busied themselves with organizations and the antitypical Libnites (Asher) were nearest the rebellious world and its peoples (v. 17). It was the two Parousias' Little Flock and good Levites who exposed their lives in the two Parousias' battles as against the large and small denominations in the two Christendoms (v. 18).


Now comes the description of the two battles: The leaders of both Christendoms advanced on the two Russells and their supporters, and fought them in their doctrinal fortresses, especially on the teachings as to death as the penalty of real or imagined sin, but they got no gain of Truth (v. 19). Christ and the Church beyond the vail and the Truth teachers of both Parousias fought against the two sets of anti-millennialist clericalists (v. 20). The two Truths, the Parousia and the Epiphany Truths, even the old theology of the Scriptures, swept the two Siseras' armies into symbolic destruction, yea, the very being of both Deborahs crushed victoriously the strength of the armies of the two Siseras (v. 21). Then, indeed, their self-contradictory teachings crushed one another in their activities, set into operation by their strong leaders (v. 22). The two Deborahs and Parousia Messengers charged their supporters to denounce with severe reproofs those who as cowards hid themselves far safety, and came not forth to the help of God's cause, to the help of the Lord's cause against the leaders of great and little



Babylon (v. 23). To be praised above the large and small nominal churches are the two sets of foolish-virgin premillennialists, above the associates of all other foolish virgins, yea, above unorganized sects of both Babylons (v. 24). The anti-millennialist clericalists in their thirst for some truth asked it of them, and these gave them stronger truths than they requested; they set forth still heavier truths in a doctrinal vessel of the two nominal churches (v. 25). They powerfully laid hold on Scripture passages and doctrines on the two sets of pre-millennial doctrines, and strongly laid hold on them controversially. With these controversially they struck both sets of anti-millennialist clericalists; they struck the anti-millennial theories of both of them; again they did this; and their Scripture passages and doctrines completely overthrew their theories (v. 26). Down emphatically they lay between the progressive steps of their arguments, falling and lying down in defeat under their blows. In the position that was overthrown they lay defeated (v. 27).


The two nominal churches, as the mothers of the two Siseras in expectation of their sons' victory, looked forward through their views of the positions to the coming back of their sons in victory and triumph; but as time went on they even cried out in apprehension, as they looked through the openings of their views long and wearily, exclaiming, Why do not their victorious organizations come into sight after so long a delay? Why have the advances of their organizations lingered so long? (v. 28). The leading, most learned nominal churches of the two Parousias replied, yea, the two entire nominal churches gave the same reason to themselves for the long delay (v. 29): Are they not discovering more booty, which takes them a long time to divide, an ecclesia, yea, two for each warrior? Booty of fine characters won for the two Siseras! Yea, booty of characters with especially fine graces, carefully developed, yea, doubly finely developed characters, as ornaments for those who win such captives (v. 30)! Then the real people of God, the two Deborahs,



tell the story, the tale which speaks of the defeat of God's enemies, and declare that thus—by refutation—all opponents of Divine Truth must be overthrown, completely refuted, while God's faithful people—those who love Him supremely—are, like the beautiful, full sunset that gilds the clouds with glory and beauty, unforgettable! So far the poem; and the story ends with the antitypical statement that on the subjects at controversy God's people rest undisturbed, freed from the oppression of the large and small sectarianisms and clericalisms. And let all God's faithful people say, "Praise God from whom this blessing flows!"


We now come to the study of Judg. 6–8, which treats of Gideon. As EE 183-262, treats of Gideon as he in the large picture represents our Lord in Judg. 6–8: 12, and as in P '40, 121, brief comments were added on vs. 13-21, thus covering the large picture up to the place where Gideon ceases to represent our Lord, in this study the small picture only of Judg. 6–8: 21 will be given; thereafter both the large and small pictures will be given to the end of Chapter 8. In Chapter I it was shown that the Gospel Age was enacted in the small Miniature on the scale of a day for a year. From that standpoint the date corresponding with our Lord's birth, Oct., 2 B.C., is May 9, 1915. For the clarifying of the small antitype of the Gideon picture it should here he remarked that the Miniature goes back into the Old Testament a day for a year. And from this standpoint the small Times of the Gentiles, corresponding to the seven years' oppression of the Midianites (Judg. 6: 1), began Sept. 11, 1913. In this small picture J.F.R. corresponded to the heads of the four universal empires and to the heads of papal Rome until the end of the Age, while from the little 962 A.D. to the little 1459, when the reign of the double little papacy was in operation, F.H. McGee acted with J.F.R. as one of the two concurrent little popes. In this small picture H.C. Rockwell acted as the head of the successive main kingdoms in opposition to the small Babylonian, Persian, Grecian and Roman



empires during the small Jewish Age and during part of the small Gospel Age, until I.F. Hoskins superseded him in the little Holy Roman Empire. In this small picture E.W. Brenneisen corresponded to Judah's kings, and J.F.R. to Israel's kings, onward from Rehoboam and Jeroboam, 1,000 B.C., corresponding to Aug. 15, 1912 in the little Jewish Age. The above are the viewpoints of these leaders on matters of practice. On matters of teaching E.W. Brenneisen stands for the priests and Levites as teachers during the period of Judah's kings and after the exile, J.F.R. for the false priesthood and idolatrous priests in Israel, afterward in Babylon, etc., as well as the more strict school of scribes after the exile in Israel, and H.C.R. for the Egyptian priests and for the less strict school of scribes in Israel. During these Old Testament times J. stood for those through whom God spoke, the prophets. During this part of the little Jewish Age Bro. Russell acted as the little Logos.


Understanding the matter in this way, the beginning of the times that the Little Israelites sinned according to v. 1 was concurrent with the beginning of the reigns of the little Rehoboam and Jeroboam, Aug. 15, 1912; and they continued not only until little Israel went into the little Assyrian captivity, April 26, 1913 (corresponding to 739 B.C.), but also until little Judah went into Babylonian captivity, Sept. 11, 1913 (corresponding to 607 B.C.). During this year and 28 days not a few evil qualities manifested themselves executively and doctrinally in the three little leaders above mentioned; and these contaminated their partisan supporters. Among these were envy, power-grasping, rivalry, efforts to checkmate one another, unholy ambition, strife, etc., which acted through the bad part of their double minds; and their many sympathizers more or less showed the same qualities. At Bethel especially these three leaders had their partisan supporters; and naturally this partisanship reached beyond Bethel, not only at New York, but also elsewhere, especially in Photo-Drama matters. The result was that God gave His



little Israel over to afflictions; and, as many did not respond fully, He gave them over to the spoliations of the little Times of the Gentiles at the hands of errorists, especially on lines of theories of practice, as distinct from doctrinal theories (Judg. 6: 1). These policy errorists, at the hand of J.F.R. and his supporters, overcame little Israel; and the latter sought shelter in various secret subterfuges (v. 2). Error, sin, selfishness and worldliness greatly interfered with the spiritual results of their spreading the Word as seed (v. 3), and actually restrained and largely destroyed its fruitage everywhere, even to the bounds of the nominal church, so that they failed to win many to justification, sanctification and the Truth (v. 4). These four great forms of evil increased over little Israel with their possessions and spheres of thought and activity, as devouring and multitudinous errors as to practice came individually and as organized evil and wrought great havoc to the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit (v. 5). Of course, this impoverished spiritually the Lord's people, whose poverty made them cry unto the Lord.


This was the condition until about June 8, 1915 (corresponding to 29 A.D.), when J. as the small John the Baptist began to preach on reformation of conduct, reminding the brethren of God's delivering them out of the dominion of Satan, out of the hands of all having his spirit, from their spiritual enemies, the works of the flesh, giving them the Truth and its Spirit, telling them that the Lord had charged them not to fear the creed idols of the errorists, whose spheres of teaching and spirit they had occupied, and ending his pertinent preaching with the charge that the brethren had failed to obey the Lord in their consecration (vs. 8-10). While he was performing this preaching aspect of his ministry the Lord's Word in immediate connection with this activity attracted his (Gideon's [mighty warrior]) attention in the student aspect of his work as the little Jesus of God's people in God's little embryo kingdom; for as vs. 11-24 in the large Gospel Age describe our Lord's preparation for,



and execution of His ministry in the flesh, so in the small Miniature do they refer to J.'s preparation for and execution of a small corresponding ministry, as he was, unknown to himself, preparing amid trying experiences the Faithful for the Epiphany conditions, while shielding them from the influence of errorists (v. 11).


This Word assured him that as a Truth warrior God was with him (v. 12). But God's permitting so many evils among God's people puzzled him as to how the Lord could be the special helper of His evil-oppressed people, as He had been when first bringing them into the Truth (v. 13). The Word then encouraged him to go in his strength to help as a Truth messenger the brethren out of the grasp of errorists in practice (v. 14). J.'s humility suggested that he could not do much to deliver the brethren from their oppressions (v. 15). Thereupon the Lord assured him of His help, and that He would enable him to refute completely the errorists (v. 16). Then J. studied the Truth for a gracious indication that it was really commissioning him to help, the brethren as never before (v. 17). J. then asked that the pertinent Truth remain until he dedicated himself to more zealous efforts on behalf of the brethren, which it assured him it would do (v. 18). Thereupon in his heart silently J. rededicated himself to the Lord for the pertinent work of giving the harder and easier truths through his human powers, and that in connection with his ministry of preaching reformation among the brethren (v. 19). The Word instructed him to make the offering upon the basis of Jesus' sacrificed humanity, in the merit of which his humanity was to be used in serving with hard and easy truths. This he did (v. 20). Then the Word applied its energizing parts to the offering, which quickened J.'s humanity in the service of the pertinent truths. Thereupon the Truth ceased giving this line of instruction to J. (v. 21).


Then J, perceived that this Truth was a sure messenger of God to him; and he greatly feared the severe straits into which it put him, especially on June 12, as a sharp, unfairly reproving, yea, crucifying letter came to him from



C. B. Shull, from Columbus, O. (v. 22). But the Lord comforted him, assuring him that he need not fear, for his New Creature would not die (v. 23). He in that spirit in the little helpful embryo kingdom erected his humanity in the peace of God for sacrificial purposes, for which, praise God, it yet abides (v. 24). The Lord exhorted him to enlist in the reformatory and character-building sacrificial work responsive and mature brethren from among the Lord's people, and to tear down every self-exalting and combinationistic characteristic among the Lord's people, and in its place present the brethren as pure sacrificers to the Lord (v. 25). To fulfill the Lord's pertinent work there charged (v. 26), the fulness of the humanity of brethren needed to do this work was given J. for overcoming these two evil qualities and for their making a pure offering of themselves to the Lord for such reformatory and character-building work, even as the Lord's Word teaches; but he did it quietly, because of enemies (v. 27). When power-grasping, lording and combinationistic characters among the Lord's people saw clearly what was done (v. 28), they inquired of one another as to who had done it; and they learned that J. as supported by God had done it (v. 29). These desired of the brethren to cut off J. from such activities (v. 30). The brethren demanded of these powergraspers and lords and combinationists who were seeking to combine good and evil ways of doing the Lord's work whether they would defend and deliver these two evil qualities. If so, they should be cut off at once from their places as leaders among God's people. They also demanded that these qualities, if strong, should justify themselves, if they were not refuted qualities (v. 31). This characteristic of struggling against power-grasping and combinationism marked J. from that time on, because he had not only in himself overcome these two evil characteristics, but had fought against them on behalf of the brethren (v. 32). This brings us up to the end of the little Jewish Harvest, June 8July 18, 1915. This little Jewish Harvest



had thus two main features: J.'s dedicating himself to the Lord for a new campaign (1) of overcoming as to himself in true character-building and (2) of helping the brethren to do the same, especially against power-grasping, lording and mixing of good and evil.


With v. 33 the small Miniature following the little Jewish Harvest sets in. First of all, the little great apostacy is very briefly described: All the errorists, sinners, selfish and worldly ones among God's professed people gathered and entrenched themselves in the condition summed up in the little union of state and church, i.e., combining worldly trickery with Truth ways (v. 33). J., moved by the Spirit, gathered together responsive brethren to combat the four above-mentioned sets of evil-doers among God's people as they expressed themselves in power-grasping, lording and combinationism in the little union of state and church during the Pergamos period of the small Miniature, as well as against these evil qualities themselves (March 22, 1916July 17, 1917, corresponding to the years 317-799). This is typed in v. 34. J. aroused four further movements against these evil-doers and evil qualities. By the first call, with the aid of the four ousted directors and F.H. McGee, J. aroused many brethren against Rutherfordism from July 17 to Oct. 16, 1917, when J. completed his supplement to Harvest Siftings Reviewed, corresponding to the years 799 to 890. By the second call, with the aid of R.H. Hirsh and R.G. Jolly, Mar. 24-Aug. 22, 1918, corresponding to the years 1049-1200, J. aroused a movement against Rutherfordism in the Fort Pitt Committee, to which others joined themselves. Here, again, the same forms of evil were attacked. By the third call, issued through the first five numbers of The Present Truth, J., with the aid of R.H. Hirsh and R.G. Jolly, aroused a third movement against the same forms of evil exercised by the P.B.I., Dec. 9, 1918Mar. 22, 1919, corresponding to the years 1309-1412.


By a fourth call, issued in The Present Truth, Nos. 8 and 9, J., with the aid of R.H. Hirsh and R.G. Jolly, started to



arouse a fourth movement, and that against the Society, May 28-June 16, 1919, corresponding to the years 14791498. These four movements correspond to the four sets of men responding to Gideon's call in v. 35. But J. desired further evidence from the Lord that He would use him to overthrow the main evils of the power-graspers, lords over God's heritage and combinationists, and his acts, not words, asked that the Lord might grant this, first by His giving Truth in the various little sect-like movements of the little Reformation period (July 5, 1919-Mar. 27, 1920, corresponding to 1517-1844, from Luther's beginning the Reformation to Miller's ending it in the Advent movement of 1829 to 1844). These little Reformation truths were given in Truths, Nos. 6, 9-13, and were circulated broadcast among the little sect-like movements. These, but no others, absorbed considerable of these truths, while the water wrung out represents the gathering of these truths into a summary in the small cleansed sanctuary in Truth, No. 18 (vs. 36-38). J.'s course longing for the little Parousia's truths (June 26-Aug. 5, 1920, corresponding to 1874-1914), as set forth in Truths, Nos. 19, 20, was a factual, not a verbal request that the Lord indicate to him by the non-absorption of these truths by the little sect-like movements, but by their acceptance in Truth circles outside of these sect-like movements, that He desired him to overwhelm the power-graspers and the combinationists and their theories. This was granted.


In Judg. 7: 1-8 for the small Miniature the Lord's separation of the Epiphany-enlightened brethren from the good organized and from the good unorganized Levites is typed, as in the large Gospel Age He separated the Little lock from the justified and the crown-losers. Just as throughout the Gospel Age there was in general such a separation, yet in particular it occurred in the period from 1846 to 1914, so in the small Miniature there had been progressively, first with the Gershonites, then with the Merarites, such a separation, and after prior Kohathite separations it came to



a head in the separation from Mar. 29 to Aug. 5, 1920, of the Amramite Kohathites from the Epiphany movement as the priestly movement. J. and his supporters took their position on the Truth which makes for trembling, reverence, for God, while the errorists took their position in the little Babylonian kingdom, where sharp sayings were shot forth by figurative archers (Judg. 7: 1). The number of good organized and unorganized crown-losers who at first sympathized with J. were so many that they would take the glory of victory over the errorists themselves, and not give it to God (v. 2). Hence the Lord allowed fear-inspiring experiences, the shaking experiences in the British Church during J.'s ministry there in 1917, in the Society after J.'s return to America in 1917, in the P.B.I. and in the Standfasts in 1918; and these experiences frightened the bulk of J.'s sympathizers away from him; but there were left with him as sympathizers some, but not many, Sturgeonites, Ritchieites and Olsonites and all Hirshites, as well as real Epiphany-enlightened friends. These together constituted the little 10,000 (v. 3). But by various untoward experiences the Lord gave J. to understand that even these were too many, and that they should be tested by their attitude toward the unfolding Truth by which God would indicate to him who would and who would not go with him to the battle with the errorists (v. 4). J. led them all to the unfolding Truth; and the Lord indicated to J. that those who would show the proper spirit in the study, spread and practice of the Epiphany Truth should be set aside by themselves, and those who would bow down in human servility while partaking of the Truth, not making it their own by a proper study, spread and practice of it, should be set aside by themselves (v. 5). Only the true Epiphanyites stood this test; and the Sturgeonites, Ritchieites, Olsonites and Hirshites fell under it (v. 6).


It was in the Amramite sifting, which set in, in June and July (corresponding to the Parousia's five siftings), that the Lord indicated to J. who were the little 300 that would



overcome the errorists and who were the little 9,700; for that shaking thoroughly shook away from sympathy with the Epiphany movement not only all the Hirshites, but also all the Sturgeonites, Ritchieites and Olsonites (v. 7). Thus all the Epiphanyites took powerful hold on the Truth as their symbolic food, also as their means of proclamation, while the others by the sifting were sent each one fixedly to his place: some as Sturgeonites, some as Ritchieites, some as Olsonites and the rest as Hirshites. J. by the power of the Truth kept with him the little 300, while the theoretical position of the errorists was below him, in the condition of error (v. 8). The Lord by His providences charged J. in secrecy to go mentally on a scouting expedition among the errorists, assuring him that He had delivered their position into his power (v. 9), but assured him that if he feared to do this alone he should take with him R.G. Jolly, his special helper (v. 10). The Lord charged him to study the viewpoint of the errorists and assured him that this would strengthen his power against them. Accordingly, J. and R.G.J. went mentally among the Amramites, who were now a part of the errorists, but the part nearest the Epiphanyites (v. 11). The errorists, the sinners and the selfish and worldly were spread out in a low condition of heart and mind, everywhere contaminated with innumerable errors and multitudinous combinations of organized evils of heart and mind, and seemed numberless, like the fallen race (v. 12). As J, studied the position of the errorists, particularly that of their Amramite section, he heard the Kittingerite section of these explaining and discussing their fears of the opposition that the errorists were meeting in Truths, Nos. 18-20, and that seemed fraught with threats to the errorist position. The Hirshite section of the Amramites answered that the Truth in those three issues was nothing less than the controversial arguments of J., a servant of God, who had delivered into his power the errorists (vs. 13, 14).


On hearing this discussion and the interpretation placed



upon it, J. thanked and praised God and returning to his position and co-laborers, encouraged them to arise to the fray, asserting that the Lord had surely delivered the errorists into their hand (v. 15). The time was the afternoon of Aug. 5, 1920, which corresponds to Oct., 1914, for early that afternoon Truth, No. 21, which contains the Evil Servant article and the second and more trenchant part of the Shearno-Crawfordism article, was delivered by the printer to the Bible House; and J. immediately gave copies of it to the Bible House staff and some Truth visitors, and then the work of wrapping and mailing the first copies of it occurred already that afternoon, including mailing that afternoon a copy of it to each member of the Society's Board of judgment that Bro. Russell had appointed to try evil teaching and doing editors, i.e., excluding J.F.R., he mailed copies of it to the other six directors, the other four Tower editors and the Sisters' committee which held Bro. Russell's voting shares. This started the little antitypical Gideon's First Battle. Note the date and the hour! They correspond to Oct., 1914, when antitypical Gideon's First Battle began. J. then arranged the participants of this little battle into three companies: speakers, Truth distributors and conversationalists, equipped all of them with the pertinent message, which was one of Truth in their earthen vessels, emptied of controlling sin, error, selfishness and worldliness (v. 16). He exhorted them to watch how he presented the matters and imitate him, and as he would do, when they would reach the enemy's position, so should they do (v. 17).


Finally, and when he and all with him in his company would sound forth the message then all the rest of the other two companies everywhere among the errorists should sound forth the message, and should act out the battle's motto: For God and J., the latter since the peculiar circumstances of little antitypical Gideon's First Battle required a vindication of J. to be made (v. 18). When J. and the pilgrims and lecturing elders, as the first set of warriors, reached the position



of the errorists, it was just at the end of the little Parousia and the beginning of the little Epiphany, when a change of watchers was due the errorists; and they began to proclaim the message, even by their power sacrificing their humanity, which caused the fight of Truth to shine out amid the darkness against the little Divine right of executives, of teachers and of the assistants of these, i.e., they exposed the evils of the Merarite and Gershonite executives, pilgrims and elders and the assistants of both of these; for they were claiming that their powers were of Divine right; and by pointing out their many evils, as, e.g., the two above-mentioned articles do, the Epiphanyites disproved their Divine-right claims (v. 19). Yea, all three sets of warriors sounded out the same message, sacrificed their humanity and with their lesser powers held up the pertinent Truth, their greater powers sounding forth the factual exposures of wrong-doing, all of them announcing the pertinent controversial arguments of the Bible and the facts that J. adduced (v. 20).


Each of these warriors under J.'s direction kept himself active in his form of fighting all about the errorists, with the result that, as errorists and evil-doers or as supporters of such, the Merarites and Gershonites ran about in confusion, cried out in dread and terror and fled in complete rout, unable to answer the charges brought against them (v. 21). But the little three hundred kept emphasizing the disproofs of the little Divine right ("the channel" was one of these!) and the Lord set the controversial arguments of the two sets of Divine-rightist executives, teachers and their assistants against one another, the Merarite spokesmen refuting the Gershonite spokesmen and vice versa; and then dividing into radicals and conservatives throughout the whole host, the entire host fled in these two divisions of radicals and conservatives from the field of controversy (v. 22). Then the Kohathites, especially in the Olsonites, Kittingerites and Hirshites, joined in the pursuit of the retreating errorists, Merarites and Gershonites (v. 23). J. sent messengers to



all the recently-won Youthful Worthies to join in the pursuit and to take the ways of escape that the errorists would seek to reach in order to evacuate the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. These brave Youthful Worthies responded, and cut off the two ways of retreat that the errorists were taking (v. 24). And thereby they overthrew the sectarianism and clericalism of little Babylon by argument, as well as overcame the spirit of these two evils in their own hearts. They refuted little Babylon's sectarianism by its own arguments and refuted little Babylon's clericalism amid its trying experiences by Biblical arguments and continued perseveringly the fight against the errorists. The refuted theories of little Babylon's sectarianism and clericalism they brought to J. as they described to him the ways in which they accomplished the refutation, and that, when he was getting ready to pass the peoples of little Christendom in his pursuit of the king errors of little Babylon: the dread threats of the Second Death and the thereunder conscience torments of these which the little Babylonians were constantly holding over their opponents, especially over the Epiphany-enlightened brethren (v. 25). Thus we have finished the study of the small Miniature of Judg. 7.


Now we will take up the same viewpoint of Judg. 8, i.e., its application to the small Miniature. Remembering that in this Miniature the Youthful Worthies spoken of in Judg. 7: 24, 25, were those who had but recently been called as such into the Epiphany movement, we are prepared to see how, shortly after seeing the Epiphany teaching that it was too late to become of the little 300, and thus take part in the little antitypical Gideon's First Battle, they came to blame J. very severely for not having called them in time therefore (v. 1). But he praised their belated work above his timely work, and showed them that he had not yet overthrown so great systems of error as they had, which calmed them (vs. 2, 3). Thereupon J. and the Epiphanyites, Aug. 11, 1920, started in pursuit of little Zebah and Zalmunna, going beyond the



peoples of little Christendom (v. 4). J.'s attack on J.F.R. and his supporters and upon H. J. S. and W. C. and their supporters, reaching in Truth, No. 21, Aug. 11, the Hirshites and Kittingerites, was a request for them to help in the little antitypical Gideon's Second Battle; but both groups refused the request made by this act (vs. 5, 6 and 8). Thereupon J. declared that after he would finish with the Merarites and Gershonites in their leaders and ledlings he would chastise the Hirshite and Kittingerite leaders and refute their entire position (vs. 7, 9). Some Merarites and Gershonites, particularly the former, the bulk of their followers having been refuted by the thoughts of Truth, No. 21, used their expressed sentence of the Second Death upon the Epiphanyite leaders and some of their supporters and the conscience torment of such against them while under the supposed Second Death sentence as their two main doctrines as fortresses to keep by fear their supporters in subjection to them, pivoting both of them on error as to the New Creature (v. 10).


J. and the little 300 passed by without the support of the disapproving friends of the Epiphany movement and attacked in little antitypical Gideon's Second Battle the two named doctrines, that seemed safe, and that were just mentioned as the means of subjecting by fear the adherents of these (v. 11). Their believers were scattered abroad; and these two false doctrines were captured in their flight from the controversy. Early after this controversy J. returned, and in the article on Amramism Revealed by Scriptural principles and facts gave a thorough chastisement to the two branches of Amramism, especially in their leaders, and leveled the position of the Kittingerites, as well as refuted their leaders, several of the Jersey City brethren describing to J. R.H. Hirsh's sifting activities there and his leading supporters therein (vs. 13-17). The character-murdering effects on new creatures of little Zebah and Zalmunna having been learned by J., and after J.'s supporters showed insufficient development to destroy them, J, did it himself, taking away



all of the misapplied passages with which they had decked their organizations (vs. 18-21). Thus the Truth errorists were subdued and peace prevailed for the Epiphanyites, among whom J. remained (vs. 28, 29).


From Judg. 8: 22-27, 30–9: 57 a wholly different type sets in, which has had a large and a small antitype. We will very briefly sketch the large antitype, whose details can be seen from our more detailed explanation of the small antitype, to be given after that antitype is given. The large Gideon of this section represents the twelve Apostles, whom the Jewish Harvest brethren desired to rule over them as a composite king, and after them the subsequent leaders as such, which the former refused to do, pointing out to them that the Lord through the principles of His Word was their Ruler (vs. 22, 23); but they asked that the Jewish Harvest brethren put at their disposal certain booty of their campaigns, which included especially their converts. Of these the Apostles constructed the order of the Church, general and local, insofar as the leaders were concerned. But soon the Lord's people, while yet some of the Apostles lived, perverted these leaders into lords over God's heritage (2 Thes. 2: 7; 3 John 9, 10), which became a sore hindrance to the Apostles and a trap to the Church (vs. 24-27). By the Apostles' teachings arose the 70 general teachers of the Gospel Age, the 35 star-members and their 35 special helpers (v. 30). But the Apostolic contacts with some leaders became through the latters' abuses the occasion of their misdeveloping themselves into the falling away (2 Thes. 2: 7), until out of this falling away the popes as a succession of false teachers and practicers developed (v. 31), after the Apostles fell asleep in the best repute in the Church (v. 32). Then developed the falling away rapidly marked by power-grasping and lording ones becoming the bond of the Church's unity (v. 33), when the Truth that reminds of God became lost, and the true God and His Apostles and their delivering works were forgotten (vs. 33-35). The popes by intrigue and the support of



erroneous partisans got control of matters by false teachings gotten from the power-grasping apostacy, whereby they cut off the star-members and their special helpers from influence in the Church, except only one of these, John the Apostle (Judg. 9: 1-5). This falling away in time enabled the apostates to make the pope supreme in the Church, which reached its full in 539; then they gave him full power in the state by 799 (v. 6).


John's teachings speaking through the Thyatira star-members on this subject characterized the process as a degeneracy from (1) star-members to (2) the episcopate, (3) the patriarchate and (4) the papacy (vs. 7-14), the papacy as a devourer of all opponents (v. 15), and the whole trend, especially the popedom, as opposed to Apostolic teaching and practice (vs. 16-18). If this was right, they declared, good would come to all concerned thereby (v. 19), but if not, evil would proceed from the popes to church and state and from state and church leaders to the popes (v. 20). This said, the star-members, speaking by John, retreated to the Lord's Word for fear of the popes (v. 21). The popes thus reigned from the sixth into the eighth century more or less unmolested (v. 22). In the late eighth century strife arose between certain state leaders and the popes, which God manipulated to punish the popes and such leaders. The latter sought to take from the former their powers; and the king of Lombardy joined them in this purpose while they worked to make it succeed (vs. 23-27). The Lombard king repudiated the pope's and his state supporters', especially Charlemagne's, claims and advocated the cause of their opponents, hoping himself to rule all Italy, and by his conduct challenged the pope to battle (vs. 28, 29). Charlemagne learned of this, became angry and betrayed the matter to the pope, telling him to work secretly and attack his opponents by surprise (vs. 30-33), which the pope did, by the four sets of forces sent him by Charlemagne (v. 34). The Lombard king arose to battle and, seeing these companies, was by Charlemagne deceived as to their intention until they had



surrounded him, when Charlemagne turned openly against him as a reviler of the pope, and in the ensuing battle the Lombard king was defeated, while the pope seemed detached from the matter (vs. 35-41).


Informed by his supporters, the pope assaulted the Italian civil powers, by means of ecclesiastical, civil and military parties, and by the aid of Charlemagne got possession of a large part of Italy as a gift from Charlemagne after the latter had defeated the Lombard king (vs. 42-45). But the civil rulers of the pertinent parts of Italy took refuge in their ancient prerogatives as firm state arrangements. This was told the pope (vs. 46, 47), who armed himself and his followers with false legal points, and told them to use them as he did, by which he overthrew his opponents and their prerogatives in 799 and 800, through Charlemagne's help (vs. 48, 49). Then the pope waged war to bring into subjection to him the opposing parts of the Holy Roman Empire that Charlemagne had organized and in a more-than-century fight subdued the bulk of it to his influence (v. 50). But the papal degradation of the pornocracy period, 904-963, was fatal to the popes, for the strong position of some of the papal opponents in Germany gave them a vantage point upon whose pinnacle they stood (v. 51), which the pope sought to destroy (v. 52); but the German Church, standing back of the Emperor, Otto I (936-973), broke up this phase of the papacy, which for a long time afterward subjected the pope to the empire; and thus ended a very evil phase of the papacy, which, under the wounds that the German Church, in cooperation with the emperor, gave it, had its own theologians invent a doctrine that implied the subjection of the pope to the emperor. This brought peace to all for a while (vs. 53-55). In this way the Lord punished the favorers of the popes and the popes also, for their evils against the star-members and their helpers (vs. 56, 57).


The above very concise interpretation of the large picture of Judg. 8: 22-27, 29–9: 57 will serve as a foundation of making clear the small Miniature application; for the



events just briefly given will be found in both applications to be those given in the parallels of the Gospel Age and its small Miniature in Chapter I. As the basis for the small Miniature we would remark that Bro. Russell is the antitype of Gideon in Judg. 8: 22-27, 29–9: 57. By his and his associates' Parousia victories over the errors of the Divine right and over eternal torment and the consciousness of the dead, he and they got much spoil from the errorists, which, among other things, was the embryo organization of the Church in the Parousia and its lapping into the Epiphany, and this includes the pilgrims and elders as a teaching staff. His victories moved the brethren to desire to make him, and after him the pilgrims, symbolic kings over the Church (v. 22). This he positively declined for himself and them, assuring them that only the Lord should be their Ruler (v. 23). But this Bro. Russell by his acts and teachings did ask that the pilgrims and elders, who were won by them from the errorists, should be made the teaching staff of the Church, this, among other things, being done by his appointing the pilgrims to their service in the Church and by his arranging for the classes to elect elders in their midst (v. 24), to which request the brethren heartily acceded (v. 25). Bro. Russell, therefore, arranged for these to be the teachers, some in the general Church and some for the local churches.


But these, the teaching staff in the general Church and local churches, became a sore trial to Bro. Russell and the pilgrims, e.g., the experiences that led Bro. Russell to write the article on The Hour of Temptation, in Z '16, 327-331, and the experiences that the pilgrims had with one another, and that the elders had with one another and the ecclesias; and by the brethren the resultant conditions became a great trial, even as all trialsome experiences present snares to God's people (v. 27). The seventy pilgrims were in a special sense Bro. Russell's symbolic sons, developed by his many Truth teachings (v. 30). But his corporational work involved secular law, by which he developed a legalistically-minded



pilgrim, J.F.R., one who later claimed the powers of a symbolic king, allegedly derived from his supposed possession of all of Bro. Russell's powers in the work (Abimelech [my father is a king], v. 31). But as soon as Bro. Russell went beyond the vail, in the full respect of the Church, the brethren went after the strange gods of power-grasping, lording and combinationism and made lording by agreement, or covenant, their real god (vs. 32, 33). The bulk of the brethren forgot the Lord's past deliverances, nor did they remember our Pastor's sacrifices on their behalf, to the degree of following his teachings (vs. 34, 35).


J.F.R. suggested to various legalistically-minded brethren in the Society, e.g., A.H.M. and W. E. V. and some other voting shareholders (Judg. 9: 1), that they agitate the question with the Board members as to which would be better: to have all the pilgrims direct the general work or one of them to do it, reminding them that they should have him as very close to them therefore, and that they induce the Board to favor his directing the general work of the Society (v. 2). His supporters, especially in the voting shareholders' meeting on Jan. 7, 1917, by passing as by-laws the self-exalting and power-grasping resolutions that J.F.R. had begun to prepare, Dec. 28, 1916, to lodge executive and managerial powers in the Society in the new president, which he knew he would be, induced the directors to stand for him, because they considered him a genuine brother of theirs (v. 3). Surrendering their charter-powers, they put these coveted powers into his hands; and by these powers he won over certain vain supporters as thorough partisans of his, e.g., A.H.M., W. E. V., W. F. Hudgings, R. J. Martin, C.J. Woodworth, etc. (v. 4). Then, armed with these powers, he subjected to his authority his 70 pilgrim equals, and thus voided their equal powers as such, upon the basis of the powers conferred by the Board, except the most guileless one of them, J., who by virtue of his Board-given powers was as the Board's special representative outside of his