Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13

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beasts are contemporaneous (Rev. 17: 12-17), while the fact that three horns were plucked up to make way for the little horn proves that all of the horns of Daniel's beast were not contemporaneous, but successive, just as the seven heads of the Revelation beasts are not contemporaneous, but successive. Again, most of Daniel's ten horns exist no more, while the ten horns of the Revelation beast all now exist. Briefly, we would say that we understand the horns of Daniel's beast to represent successive powers that ruled in Italy, either in or outside of Rome, while the ten horns of the Revelation beasts represent the ten language nations of Europe reigning for the most of the time contemporaneously (Zech. 8: 23). The connection shows this passage to apply at the end of this Age. Europe for centuries has consisted of more than ten nations. There are now over twenty of them there. But for centuries Europe has consisted, and still consists (as Zechariah says) of ten language nations—"ten men of all the languages of the [European] nations," even as Israel, with Hebrew as its national language, though citizened in many nations, is spoken of as an eleventh man in the same verse. These ten language nations are as follows: Greek, Turkish, Slavic, Magyar, Scandinavian, English, Hispanian, French, Germanic and Italian. There is, apart from scattered Israel, no other language group in Europe than these ten. Thus Zech. 8: 23 gives us the key to the ten horns of the three Revelation beasts.

 

(44) But why, one may ask, do we claim a difference between the seven heads of the beasts of Rev. 12 and 13 and the seven heads of the beast of Rev. 17? We reply: From our Pastor's diagram we see that Rome as a republic was the first head of Rev. 12 and 13. This cannot be true of the first head of Rev. 17; for Rome as a republic had ceased to be before our Lord's birth, Augustus being the first Roman Emperor and Tiberius, his successor, being on the throne years

 

436 before our Lord's baptism and death (Luke 2: 1; 3: 1-3), while, according to Rev. 17: 9, 10, the Roman Catholic. Church, which did not arise until nearly three centuries later, sat on all seven of the heads of the Rev. 17 beast, i.e., was supported by all seven of these heads. Hence its first head came after Rome as a republic ceased to exist. Moreover, it was only after the Dioclesian persecution ceased, 313 A. D., that the Roman Catholic Church began to be supported by the Roman Empire, i.e., after Constantine, the first Christian Emperor, came to the throne. Hence the Pagan Roman had changed into the so- called Christian Roman Empire, when the Roman Catholic Church began to sit on the first head on which she sat. Hence, from the standpoint of Rev. 17, we may call the first head of its beast, the so-called Christian Roman Empire. Its next five heads are the following: The Western Empire, the Kingdom of the Heruli, the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths, Papacy and the Kingdom of Italy founded by the house of Savoy in 1870, which, as our Pastor correctly taught, is the seventh head of the beasts of Rev: 12 and 13. A marked difference between the eleven horns of Daniel's beast and the seven heads of the three Revelation beasts is this: all of these heads ruled at Rome; but not all of Daniel's horns ruled at Rome. Some did, others did not, though all ruled in Italy.

 

(45) What is the seventh head of the beast of Rev. 17? It must have come into existence years after 1870; for the angel's statement (Rev. 17: 10) that the sixth head—the Italian Kingdom as the seventh of the Rev. 12 and 13 beast—was in existence, was made from 1891 onward to 1914; and, as we will show that the State of the Vatican recently established is the eighth head, the seventh must have already come. What, then, is it? We reply: It is the Fascist Italian State, which, having overthrown the Italian Constitution adopted under the House of Savoy and having

 

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destroyed parliamentarianism, an essential part of the Italian Kingdom, has organized an entirely different form of government from the limited monarchy established by the House of Savoy. Its establishment followed the Fascist Revolution of late Oct. 1922, whose climax was the Fascists' march to, and occupation of Rome. Hence it is another kingdom and is the seventh head of the Rev. 17 beast. The viewpoints of the pictures of Rev. 12 and 13, beginning with the Roman Republic, when Rome first  came to view in prophecy, and stopping short of the Time of Trouble, 1914, naturally do not contemplate the Fascist Italian State within their scope, while the Rev. 17 viewpoint, embracing exclusively the period of the Roman Catholic Church in its being supported by the Roman State (the woman seated on the seven heads), begins with the time of Constantine, shortly after 313, and ends with the harlot's annihilation in Armageddon. From this last viewpoint, we understand the Fascist Italian State to be the seventh and the Vatican State, recently created, to be the eighth head of the Rev. 17 beast.

 

(46) There are some contrasted expressions that should be kept in mind while thinking on the subject of the beasts in Revelation. One of these is this: Whereas in Rev. 12, 13 and 16 the Roman Empire as a political power in its various phases is exclusively meant by the dragon, beginning with Rev. 13, and always afterward, the expression, the beast, applies to it as it exists in the papacy, one of its heads. Hence from Rev. 12 onward, the civil power as distinct from the papacy is called the dragon, while in contrast the papacy invariably from Rev. 13 onward is called the beast. This contrast can be seen especially as between chapters 12 and 13 and also in chapter 13, and is very manifest in Rev. 16: 13, as it is also in part seen in Ps. 91: 13. This also applies to chapter 17. Thus the sixth head of the beasts of Rev. 12 and 13 and the fifth and eighth heads of the beast of Rev. 17, are

 

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the papacy; and, while at the same time it thus is meant by certain heads, it also from Rev. 13 onward is called, the beast. Another peculiarity of contrasted expressions that should be kept in mind is the clear cut distinction that Rev. 17 makes between the Roman Catholic Church and the papacy, which most people look upon as the same. The Roman Catholic Church is a denomination. The papacy (in its full sense) is the hierarchy, which has as its head the pope, and which has usurped control of the Catholic Church. The Roman Catholic Church existed before the papacy. This distinction is shown in several ways in Rev. 17. The Roman Catholic Church is the harlot who sits on the beast (Rev. 17: 3), which is the papacy. Again, she is the woman that sits on the seven heads, one of which, as well as the beast, is the papacy (Rev. 17: 9). This proves  the distinction.

 

(47) The seven heads are defined (v. 9) first in a figurative way, as seven mountains, and then, literally, as seven kings, which word in prophecy is frequently used for kingdoms (Dan. 2: 44; 7: 17, 24; 8: 20; 11: 5, 6, etc.), while in many passages the word, mountain, is used figuratively to represent a kingdom (Dan. 2: 35; Is. 2: 2, 3; 11: 9; 25: 6, 7, 10; 30: 29; 56: 7; 57: 7, 13; 65: 11, 25; 66: 20, etc.). The time that God's people began to expound, etc., the message of Vol. III as to the Roman Empire in its various heads was especially from 1891, when Vol. III was published, onward, and since the papal head ceased to be in 1870, the beast from 1891 until just recently could truly be spoken of as having once been, as not longer being and as later coming to be again (vs. 8, 11). This was repeatedly done by them, as all of us know, from 1891 onward. All of us know that they spoke of the beast (papacy) being from 539 until 1870, then of its being out of existence as a temporal power, and then as coming again later into existence as a temporal power. Certainly the papacy originally, when it

 

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became the fifth head, ascended out of the abyss—error (Rev. 11: 7); and in its second time becoming a head—the eighth—it came out of the abyss—the error of its claims to temporal power by Divine right, as an alleged necessity of its office requirements (v. 8); but God says it will shortly go down into destruction.

 

(48) At the time when God's people were expounding the message of, and matters germane to Vol. III, they  taught that the so-called Christian Roman Empire, the Western Empire, the Kingdom of the Heruli, the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths and the Papacy—the five kings—had fallen—ceased to be—and that another (the sixth of the Rev. 17 kings or heads) reigned, viz., the Italian Kingdom of the House of Savoy. They also, without understanding  its character, forecast the coming of another—the seventh—which has proven to be the Fascist Italian State. They did not know exactly the length of the stay of what proved to be the Fascist Italian State, but from v. 10, as well as from the chronology, they knew that its stay would be short. It will probably last until the symbolic earthquake, although it could fall before, and if it should, the papacy would get exclusive power in Rome; for if another power should do this before Armageddon, there would be nine heads—a thing contradictory to the Scriptures (vs. 9-11). They often mistakenly spoke of an eighth beast coming, calling it a headless beast, mistakenly understanding that it would be the form of government following the revolution. Their mistake on this is not shown in the angel's speech. On the contrary, the first time the angel says anything about the eighth (king, i.e., head) he speaks of it as an already existing thing—"The beast … is himself an eighth [king]." This proves that the true interpretation would not be clearly declared by the Lord's people until the beast as the eighth (king, i.e., head) would be here. The fulfillment has finally enabled us to understand its character

 

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and the time of its coming, as we knew and declared beforehand, on the basis of Rev. 17: 9-11, that some kind of an eighth power would come. The angel's statement, therefore, proves that now is the due time for the Lord's people to declare, especially to one another, the presence of its eighth king or head.

 

(49) The beast (v. 11)—the papacy—which was until 1870, and which, at least from 1891 onward until recently, was spoken of by God's people as not being, i.e., not existing as a temporal power, becomes the eighth king. We add the word king after the word ogdoos (masculine), eighth, because the masculine adjective ogdoos requires a masculine noun for completeness; and the connection (vs. 9, 10) shows that the angel is speaking of the heads as representing kings—basileis (plural), basileus (singular). The word beast (therion), being neuter in Greek, cannot be supplied after the word ogdoos, whose masculine form cannot be used with the neuter therion. If therion were to be supplied, the word form for eighth would be ogdoon. Moreover, the facts of the case disprove the reading, eighth beast; for nowhere do the Scriptures speak of such a thing, when treating on this subject. Nor can the word head (though it is the proper symbol for the thing meant—v. 9) be inserted after the word ogdoos; for the Greek word for head (kephale), used in this connection, is feminine, and to agree with it the Greek word for eighth would have to be feminine in form which, therefore, would have to read ogdoe. Hence, properly, the connection shows that  basileus, king, must be supplied after the word ogdoos eighth. Hence the following is the proper translation: "And the beast which was, and is not, himself if also an eighth [king], and is [one] of the seven." The papacy, as the fifth king of the Rev. 17 beast is self-evidently, as the eighth, one of the seven kings—kingdoms. Praise be to God for the next clause: "and he goes down into destruction."

 

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(50) The first sentence of v. 12 refers to explanations of the ten horns already made by God's people, while the second refers to such as are now beginning to be made. The ten language nations of Europe (v. 12) are spoken of as receiving authority (exousia, here used, means authority or authorization, not power, whose Greek equivalent is dynamis). From the papal standpoint, unless recognized by the papacy, these ten kingdoms have no Divine right, exousia, to rule. And by papal recognition they allegedly, from the papal standpoint, are receiving (present tense in the Greek) such authorization, which will last one symbolic hour. We repeat a former statement: if it were not from this verse manifest that the Lord's people were to forecast the duration of such supposed ruling by Divine right, and to forecast the things of vs. 13-17, we would not have written on this subject; but the forecast being due to be made during the time the authorization was being received, as proved by the present tense, the Fascist government being the first to receive it, and the Lord having given us the understanding of the passage, we feel it to be the Lord's will to declare this matter that the rest of the Lord's people may join in with us in making this forecast; for, according to this Scripture, the antitypical angel—the Lord's people declaring, etc., the message of, and germane to Vol. III— forecast the duration of the alleged Divine right rule, after  it had already started, as proved by the present tense: They are receiving authority one hour as kings. This we now proceed to do with the help of the Lord.

 

(51) Of course, the hour of this passage cannot be literal; for how could authority be conferred and exercised unto a completion throughout Europe in so short a time? Moreover, this authorization began with Fascist Italy some months ago; hence lasts more than a literal hour. Further, the fact that the word hour here occurs in a professedly symbolic book (Rev. 1: 1)

 

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implies that it is symbolic. In some Scriptures the word hour is used for the Gospel Age (John 5: 25; 1 John 2: 18), which sense cannot here apply. In some passages the word hour means a 24th of a year-day (Rev. 9: 15) and, as such, stands for 15 literal days. This length of time has already been more than passed since the papacy gave Fascist Italy the recognition here referred to, so the hour of this verse cannot be a 15-days period. From the standpoint of the Millennial Day (1000 years) a symbolic hour is 41 2/3 years, as we have seen in Chapter II and above in this chapter in the case of the hour of temptation (Rev. 3: 10), of the hour of reaping (Rev. 14: 15, A.R.V.), and of the hour of her judgment, wasting and destruction (Rev. 18: 10, 17, 19). But this period is entirely too long; for it would put off Armageddon until the middle of 1970, whereas the Scriptures place the anarchy at about 1954. There is another period called in some passages a day and in others a night, e.g., the 155 years from 1799 to 1954, which would give us hours of twelve years and eleven months. This, too, is too long a period, when we keep in mind the large eight wonderful days. The Gospel and Jewish Ages as days would, of course, be inapplicable here. In Matt. 20: 1-16, we have the reaping period—the day working time of 12 symbolic hours—set forth as a period of 40 years (Chapter II). Of such a day, an hour is three years and four months. This, we believe, is the period meant in Rev. 17: 12.

 

(52) Where will we begin this hour? With the general agreement of the papal and Fascist negotiators on the terms of the recent treaty and concordat between the Fascist government and the papacy, and with their signing of these documents; because the agreement on them and the signing of them were the essential thing. We know that the signing of these documents occurred Feb. 11, 1929. It has since leaked out that the agreement was reached before

 

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the American election of Nov. 6, 1928, and after Al Smith's nomination about July 1, 1928, and the fact was designedly left unconfirmed, though time and again rumored, as our Signs of the Times in our Sept. 15, 1928, Nov. 15, 1928, and Jan. 15, 1929, Heralds prove. The reason that this fact was not confirmed before the election is the pope's fear of its unfavorable effects on Al Smith's candidacy for the presidency: Hence we can now no more than approximate the date when this agreement was made—the agreement that made the pope, as a temporal sovereign and as Christ's alleged vicar, recognize Fascist Italy in a union of Church and State as ruling by Divine right. But with the act of signing the treaty and concordat the ten language nations of Europe in their Italian representative began to get the alleged Divine authorization to rule with the beast; and God says that this authorization to rule will last an hour (three years and four months, as we understand it). Parenthetically we remark that the fact of Fascist Italy being the first to be offered this authorization implies that the hour will end for her first, i.e., that Armageddon will begin there, as our Pastor taught it would. Doubtless the date for this agreement will yet be made known; but it seems to have taken place between July 1 and Nov. 1, 1928—which was before the U. S. election of that year. The signing of the Vatican treaty and the concordat occurred Feb. 11, 1929 and it is from this time that the hour of authority with the beast begins. Hence its period was from Feb. 11, 1929 to June 11, 1932. The hour beginning Feb. 11, 1929, it ends June 11, 1932. We set this forth not positively, nor dogmatically, but only suggestively as a likely view of the subject.

 

(53) That this period is approximately correct we infer also from the large eight wonderful days. Our Lord's death day types the ten years from Oct. 1924, to Oct. 1934 (see above). According to the setting

 

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just referred to, the ninth hour (2 to 3 P.M.), the one during which our Lord died, corresponds to the period of five months from Feb. to July, 1933, during which the Little Flock will begin to be deprived from mouthpieceship, to the public, typed by our Lord's death. The type does not tell us at just what minute of the ninth hour our Lord died. Hence we can say nothing more definite as to the time of this cutting off than that it will be sometime between Feb. and July, 1933. We have also given it as our thought that the earthquake following our Lord's death quite likely represents the symbolic earthquake—Armageddon—in America, not in Europe, which begins earlier in Europe than in America (2 Kings 9: 22-26, 27). It will be noted that the Bible (Matt. 27: 51) does not tell us whether this earthquake occurred in the ninth hour or afterward; therefore we cannot say whether the symbolic earthquake will set in America between Feb. and July, 1933, or afterward, if it is typed by the earthquake of Matt. 27: 51, as we think it likely is. Hence we cannot say definitely just when in relation to the antitypical ninth hour—Feb. to July, 1933—the antitypical earthquake in America will set in.

 

(54) In question meetings at conventions and at various ecclesias during pilgrim visits, we have suggested that the darkness that covered the land of Palestine from the sixth to the ninth hour, on the day of our Lord's death, quite likely types the shadow that the European Armageddon or pre- Armageddon events will cast over America. We know that the European War cast a shadow of trouble over America long before the latter entered the war; yea, almost immediately on its start was this so. It is, therefore, to be expected that the European Armageddon or pre- Armageddon events will do the same, and that in a greatly magnified form, inasmuch as America is now more closely related politically, economically, socially

 

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and financially to Europe than before the war. According to our setting of the sixth large wonderful day (Oct., 1924, to Oct., 1934), each hour of the 24 symbolizing 5 months, the sixth hour (11 A.M. to 12 M.) would be from Nov., 1931, to April, 1932; the seventh hour from April, 1932, to Sept., 1932; the eighth hour from Sept., 1932, to Feb., 1933. If our thought is correct on the darkness and the earthquake, then we are to expect Europe's Armageddon or pre- Armageddon events to commence during the antitypical sixth hour—sometime between Nov. 1931, and April,  1932. This, we note, is a period within which our time for the end of the hour of Rev. 17: 12, given above, falls; for that time is from Nov. 1931, to March, 1932. It will thus be seen that the data that we derive from the large eight wonderful days and that we derive from Rev. 17: 9-12, probably dovetail into one another. And the fact that the Lord's people are to know before the hour is ended, its general time, so as to announce it, is, we believe, the reason that moved the Lord to enlighten us on this subject, so as to enable us to give them the information necessary for them to tell it to one another before it happens, and thus fulfill the prophecy of the angel giving the symbolic explanation to John. At least the foundation seems strong enough for faith.

 

(55) It will be noted that the statements of vs. 13, 14, 16 and 17, may in part apply to the yet more distant future  than those made in v. 12. This fact has likewise influenced us to write on Rev. 17. Therefore they require treatment here, which we will give briefly: The one will that the ten language nations of Europe will have, despite their many conflicting interests, is explained in v. 13: "and they will give their power [dynamis] and authority [exousia] to the beast." This can be done by these nations acting individually or in concert, e.g., in the League of Nations, or in both ways. We would not understand this passage to

 

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mean, e.g., that they will do as King John Lackland, of England, did, when he gave Innocent III the power and authority to be the actual sovereign of England and himself thereupon received the kingdom as a fief from the pope; but rather that the European language nations will back with their power and authority the papacy in its advocacy and work of supporting the European order of affairs against the radicals, by accepting and putting into operation papacy's autocratic theories on governmental control of the nations. This will be, perhaps, only a part of the ten kings' giving to the beast their power and authority. The present and future stress in Europe will make this seem the thing to do, as the only means of averting communism and revolutionism.

 

(56) These European nations will make war with the Lamb (v. 14). Our Lord is now engaged in giving such truths as are more and more shaping matters toward the overthrow of Satan's empire, which will be accomplished by Armageddon. Additionally, He is also shaping the course of events and the general conditions so as to lead to the same result. The European nations are seeking now, and will increasingly seek to suppress, divert, distort and misrepresent such truths, and will send out contrary propaganda, with the view of maintaining the present state of affairs. Moreover, they will seek to suppress, divert, distort and neutralize the movements and events that tend toward bringing about the destruction of what actually is Satan's empire by Armageddon. Stricter laws and more violent prohibitions and enforcements will be set into operation to keep down the radical movements, which will be increasingly energized by the above-mentioned truths, events and movements. Suppression will become more and more active against the participants in such truth disseminations and their consequent movements and events. Thus, taking their stand against the Lamb's work in

 

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leading up matters to the overthrow of Satan's empire in Armageddon, they will be warring against the Lamb. But ineffectual will be their efforts, however arbitrary and liberty-curbing they may be; for the Lamb will overcome them, giving such vast and influential truths inimical to Satan's empire, and in consequence arousing such movements with their resultant events, disconcerting and frustrating and nonplussing to the European nations, that their every counter blow will only bring nearer the disaster upon their own heads and will force them to Armageddon. The faithful Little Flock—"the called, chosen and faithful"—on this and the other side of the vail, co-operate with the Lamb in this fight, and will be with Him victorious, though the faithful on this side of the vail will by the suppression of their mouthpieceship to the public seem to mankind to fail in the fight, even as our Lord in the type seemed to man to fail in His fight with the clergy of His day. But this will be only a seeming defeat. Their victory will be manifest in two ways: (1) they will maintain the Lord's Spirit through it all; and (2) they will scatter such truths as are Divinely intended to lead Satan's empire to Armageddon.

 

(57) V. 15 we pass by as already made clear above, and as not especially calling for treatment for our present purpose. The hating of v. 16 we take in the sense of: doing evil to. The reason we give it this meaning is because the original of v. 16 says, not only that the ten horns will hate the harlot (the Roman Catholic Church), but that the beast (see the A.R.V.) will do it also. How could the papacy be brought to hate, do evil to, the Catholic Church which it controls? On this we can now only surmise: Perhaps the stress to which that church will be exposed by the European nations turning against her, will move her to make such concessions to these nations as will oppose the papacy's theories and

 

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plans and thus anger it against her, and make it spitefully forsake her to the spoliations that she will suffer from them. Or the papacy may make such blunders in dealing with the European language nations as will induce them to devastate the Romanist Church in their lands in reprisals on the papacy, which would mean that the papacy's course will bring on that church the same results as would come, if it would deliberately plan to bring them about. It is enough; however, for our present purpose to know and declare that such hatred as is above described will fall to her lot from both the ten horns and the beast. The ten horns will make her desolate in the sense of withdrawing their support from her, thus leaving her a symbolic widow. They will make her naked in the sense of so exposing her wrong doings as to make her shameful character known and despised. They will eat her flesh in the sense of taking away all her prerogatives and severing their union with her, thus depriving her of all advantages coming from a union of state and church. They will burn her utterly with fire in the sense of annihilating her. At least the last one of these evils will be reserved until Armageddon for these ten horns to inflict upon her, and will be brought upon her by the ten horns in their transition to the Jehu aspect of these ten horns; for antitypical Jezebel is to be destroyed by antitypical Jehu (2 Kings 9: 30-37; Rev. 2: 20-23).

 

(58) V: 17, in its first clause, shows that these ten horns will be manipulated by Divine providence into a willingness to become God's agents in the fulfillment of His decree that the Roman Catholic Church be annihilated. This is also implied typically in Elisha's arranging, in accord with the Divine will, for the anointing of Jehu for the corresponding typical purpose (2 Kings 9: 1-10). At least on one subject these ten kings will have one will before Armageddon, that is: to favor such a policy—"to agree" literally, to execute one volition—even "to give their kingdom"

 

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—the deciding voice in their policy. Why will the Divine providence effect this result? Because in the stress of the conditions leading up to Armageddon papacy will impress these nations with the thought that her principles acted out will be the only thing that can enable the ship of state to weather the storm and to reach the haven of peace and prosperity. They will, therefore, accept the papal view of controlling the situation. But its dark-ages principles  will be an anachronism amid modern conditions and peoples, enlightened out of the obscurity of the dark ages by the dawn of the Millennial Day, and accustomed to a large degree of liberty. Instead of controlling the situation, the application of papacy's repressive principles will make the dissatisfaction all the greater; and as a result the conservative labor group in great resentment will revolutionize, bringing Satan's empire to Armageddon for destruction. To manipulate such a situation into being, God will providentially influence the ten horns into the adoption of the above-mentioned policy—to execute one purpose. And this end will be pursued by God until His words as to the harlot's destruction will come to pass, "until the words of God shall be fulfilled," i.e., on this subject.

 

(59) Our understanding on these points of Rev. 17 given above, implies that the fulfillment of vs. 13-17 is, in part, as yet future. We will here comment no further on this chapter, our present design, by the above comments, being accomplished. For details we refer the brethren to the future, when, D. v., we hope to set them forth. We trust the study will be a blessing to all. We caution the brethren against being dogmatic on the above matters, and advise that they speak of these things as nearly as possible in a discreet manner to the Lord's people, mentioning only the more simple of them to non-Truth people.

 

(60) When first we wrote the above, especially on Rev. 17: 9-12 [written in Feb., 1929], most of the

 

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things in that passage were clear to us. We correctly understood the seven heads of the beast to represent the seven forms of the Roman government since the days of Constantine, with one of them, the fifth, the papacy, becoming the eighth. So, too, we correctly understood the ten horns to represent the ten language nations of modern Europe (Zech. 8: 23). The duration of the hour as a period of three years and four months was also rightly apprehended by us at the time we wrote on these verses. We also saw aright the five fallen kings, the sixth existing and the seventh coming one; and we also correctly understood the beast that was, is not and shall be, as being the papacy. Thus the main things in this section were clear to us when we wrote on Rev. 17: 9-12. But there were two things about the hour of Rev. 17: 12 that were not clear to us. The first of these was positiveness as to the date at which the hour began and consequently the date of its end, as stated above, the treaty and concordat between  Mussolini and the papacy. Therefore we suggested tentatively that, for definiteness of time, the date, Feb. 11, 1929, be taken as that by which the hour began, and that it would accordingly end on June 11, 1932, when Armageddon would set in, not in its narrow sense of fighting, but in its broad sense of embracing its conspiracy and following events up to and including its fighting. Further on we will set forth the factual proof that the hour ended June 11, 1932. The Lord let us see the truth as due  on the beginning and ending of the hour before it ended. In 1917 He gave us the light on the duration of the hour, a fact that we told no one before Feb., 1929, when we wrote, as given above, on some thoughts on Rev. 17, for the May, 1929, Truth.

 

(61) The other point on the hour that was not clear to us; and that because not yet due when we wrote that article, was the thing that would end the hour.

 

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When we wrote that article, we thought that it would be the fighting part of the European Armageddon that would come shortly after the end of the hour and sometime before the American Armageddon, which we expected before Oct. 1934. We came to this conclusion by thinking in the terms of the A.V. on Rev. 17: 12. The A.V. renders the pertinent clause as follows: "The … ten kings … receive power as kings one hour with the beast." With the meaning of the word power in mind, we asked ourself the question, What will take away the power to reign from the ten language nations of Europe? The answer, of course, is, Armageddon's fighting (Rev. 16: 18-20; 2 Kings 9: 24-26). But the hour ended June 11, 1932, and Armageddon's fighting has not yet come [written in Oct., 1933]. Why did Armageddon's fighting not begin shortly after June 11? Because the verse in the Greek does not teach that the ten kings' power would last but one hour. It teaches that their authority, not their power, would last but one hour. The difference between the authority to reign and the power to reign is the following: the former means the right to rule as a king and the latter means the active ability to rule as a king. Ordinarily both the authority and the power to reign are in turn received, used and relinquished simultaneously. But there are cases in which one has the authority, but not the power to reign, and there are other cases in which one has the power, but not the authority to reign.

 

(62) God confers the authority to act as a priest or as a king by an anointing. Thus God conferred the right to act as Israel's priests upon Aaron and his sons by their anointing (Ex. 40: 13-15; Lev. 8: 12; Num. 3: 2-4). Similarly, God bestows the right to act as the world's Kings and Priests on Jesus and the Church by Their anointing (Is. 61: 1-3; Ps. 45: 7; Matt. 3: 16; Acts 10: 38; 2 Cor. 1: 21; 1 John 2: 20, 27). That

 

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God by their anointing conferred authority on certain persons to act as kings in Israel can be seen from the cases of Saul (1 Sam. 10: 1), David (1 Sam. 16: 13), Solomon (1 Kings 1: 39), Jehu (1 Kings 19: 16; 2 Kings 9: 3, 6, 12) and

Joash (2 Kings 11: 2, 12). As we consider some of these kings, we see that they had the authority to reign for awhile without having the power to reign. Thus Saul had the authority to reign, some time before he had the power to reign (1 Sam. 10: 1, 24-26). Again, David had the right; the authority, to reign years before he had the power to reign (1 Sam. 16: 13; 2 Sam. 5: 4, 5). So, too, Solomon obtained the authority to rule as king before his father died, but did not exercise the power of reigning until after his father died (1 Kings 1: 39; 2: 10-12). Thus in each of these three cases the authority to reign was possessed some time before the power to reign set in. On the other hand, the cases of Saul and David are examples of kings who exercised the power to reign some time after they had lost the authority, the right, to reign. For years after David had obtained the authority to reign over Israel, he was without the power to reign, which power Saul continued to use years after he had through David's anointing lost to David the authority to reign. Thus, too, David, after losing to Solomon, by the latter's anointing, his authority to reign, continued to have the power to reign. These examples prove that not always are the authority and the power to reign held simultaneously by those who possess them.

 

(63) When first we wrote on Rev. 17: 9-12 we saw and called attention to the distinction between the authority and the power to rule as kings (see above); for the Greek uses two distinct words to represent the word for authority and the word for power, the Greek word exousia standing for authority and the Greek word dynamis standing for power. Despite the fact that in the paragraph just referred to we pointed

 

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out that verse 12 in the Greek uses the word exousia (authority) and not the word dynamis (power); while treating of how the papacy conferred an alleged authority that God, but not the papacy; limited to an hour, when thinking of what would end the hour we forgot the Greek word here used and thought of the matter in the terms of the A.V., i.e., "ten kings … receive power as kings one hour with the beast." And this caused us to  make the mistake that it would be Armageddon's fighting that would come shortly after the end of the hour. Such would have been the case had the word dynamis been used in this verse; for without any doubt, as proven above, Armageddon's fighting will take the power to reign from the ten language nations. Apart from the thought of our fallibility, the only way that we can account for our making this mistake when knowing and in this very connection calling attention to the distinction between the words exousia and dynamis, is that the Lord designed to withhold the Truth for a while on  what would end the hour in order to test the Church and us—us as to whether we would be humble enough to acknowledge a mistake, and the Church as to whether it would stumble over the mistake, or whether it would wait upon the Lord until the due time would come to clarify the matter. Please note exactly what the mistake was. It was not as to the length of the hour: on that we saw the Truth since the early Fall of 1917. It was on what would come, came very shortly after the end of the hour. The hour was not to end by taking the power to reign from the ten kings, which the A.V. teaches, and which will be done by Armageddon's fighting; but the hour was to end, as the Greek teaches, by taking the authority to reign from them. And their papally alleged authority to reign God in every sense of the word took away from them by anointing another to have the real authority to reign, which falsely and counterfeitedly the papacy claimed to give

 

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the ten kings—an authority that God tolerated, but did not own during the hour.

 

(64) How do we know this? Because the passage says that their papally alleged authority (not their power) to reign, which, we repeat, God only tolerated, would last but an hour; and that authority God completely annulled by anointing His choice to take the real authority, which was usurpatorially claimed for them by the pope, and which was for the hour tolerated, but not recognized by God. And how do we know this? We reply, the type of Jehoram of Israel and Jehu proves it. Jehoram of Israel typing Allianced Europe types, generally speaking, the same thing as the ten horns represent. But God by Jehu's anointing took away from Jehoram the authority to reign and gave that authority to Jehu, which types the fact that God would take away every semblance of authority to reign from antitypical Jehoram, the ten language nations of Europe, and give the real authority to antitypical Jehu, Conservative Labor, by the latter's anointing. Accordingly, we see that the anointing of antitypical Jehu ended the hour of Rev. 17: 12.

 

(65) Despite the fact that we never put the matter of Armageddon's fighting as coming between Nov., 1931, and March, 1932, as more than a probable thing, and repeatedly by word and writing cautioned the brethren that it was a doubtful matter and was not to be presented dogmatically as a certainty, the Levite leaders have continually misrepresented us as putting it forth as a certainty. Some of them, like A. Stahn, did not even conceal their intention of waiting for the pertinent period to pass in order to pounce upon us as an alleged false prophet (Ps. 10: 7-10; 71: 10, 11; Prov. 24: 15, 16).

 

(66) By way of emphasis it should be repeated that no actuality mistake on time was made on the matter in hand; it was a probability mistake on time. What we suggested as a probability did not materialize at