Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; Titus 2:13
THE SIXTH DAY—MAN.
Gen. 1: 26-31; 2: 7, 21-25
"LET US MAKE MAN." GOD'S IMAGE IN MAN. ITS BIBLICAL ASPECTS. GOD'S LIKENESS IN MAN. MALE AND FEMALE. MAN'S BLESSINGS. ADAM FORMED, EVE BUILT CREATIVELY. THE CREATIVE PROCESS USED ON MAN. ADAM'S BODILY CONSTITUENTS. HIS ALIMENTARY SYSTEM. THE BLOOD. THE MUSCLES. THE BONES. THE LUNGS. ELIMINATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS.
AS WE have seen, the first part of the sixth creative day's work was the creation of land animals; and now our study brings us to the crowning creative work of the sixth day, as well as the crown of all God's earthly creations, man. His creation is described, in a summary, in vs. 26-31, and in detail in Gen. 2: 7, 21-25. In v. 26, God said, "Let us make man." Some have used the expression, "Let us make man," to mean that there are more than one God. They use the expression to favor their theory that there are three Gods, which is polytheism, i.e., the doctrine of a plurality of Gods. Such a doctrine is unbiblical, unfactual and unreasonable. While undoubtedly more than one Being is referred to in this passage, these do not constitute God. According to the language here used God is doubtless the Speaker of these words and includes Himself among the Ones who are exhorted to act in man's creation. Who else is included? We answer, the precarnate Lord Jesus. This is taught in John 1: 3; Col. 1: 16. Whether the angels who co-operated in the creative works under the Logos are also included in this term "us" cannot be positively determined from this passage or from other Scriptures. But at least the Father and the Son are therein included, and the wording of the passage, "God said," proves that the Father only is the Speaker, who exhorts at least the Son to co-operate with Him
in man's creation. The relation of the Two in creation is as follows: The Father was the Architect of the creative plans and the Supplier of the materials for creation, while the Son was the Contractor who took the plans and materials and worked them up into the finished product under the direction of the Architect of the universe.
The language, "in our image," is quite meaningful. That a physical image is not here meant is evident from Jesus' statement, "No man hath at any time seen His shape" (John 5: 37); for if a bodily image were meant every time we look upon one another we would be seeing God's shape. According to the Bible the expression, the image of God, refers to the perfection of the original man in his intellectual, artistic, moral and religious faculties as such, and in the capacities of these faculties. This would mean that every one of man's intellectual, artistic, moral and religious faculties was perfect in quantity and quality. In the intellect it would mean that none of the mental faculties was stunted or dulled, but that each one was capable of complete use in quality and quantity for the needs of a perfect human being. This involves the possession of perfect abilities to observe—perceptive faculties—things as objects of man's senses and thoughts. This means that he had perfect ability in regard to language as a vehicle perfectly to express perfect thoughts, that he had perfect ability to determine the weight, color, minutia, size and form of all objects brought to his attention, that he could perfectly determine questions as to time, condition and place of such objects, and that he could perfectly calculate the numerical relations of all things coming under the scope of human observation. Thus his intellectual faculties of observation—perceptive faculties—were perfect in their quality and quantity. So, too, his reproductive faculties, those that deal with matters of memory, were likewise perfect in quantity
and quality, so that having once perceived a matter he had the power never to forget it. This includes thoughts, words and acts of his own and of others insofar as they would come under his cognizance. Finally, in his mental powers his reasoning faculties were perfect in their quantity and quality, i.e., he could reason perfectly both in deductive and inductive matters, draw perfect conclusions from his premises and make perfect generalizations from specific cases. Moreover, in the three forms of his intellectual powers, the perceptive, reproductive and reflective powers, there was a balance that was perfect as to order in both quality and quantity of these powers. These things made him an image of God intellectually.
The original man as made in God's image was perfect in his artistic faculties, which are semi-intellectual and semi-moral powers. Thus he was endowed with perfect imaginative powers enabling him perfectly to originate and to construct physical, mental, moral and religious works. He was additionally created perfectly capable to enjoy, partake in, and originate music, both vocal and instrumental. He was endowed perfectly with the ability of humor and mirthfulness, both to enjoy these in others and to originate them himself. He was perfectly endowed with the ability to love, appreciate and originate the beautiful and the sublime, which with imagination made him capable of becoming a perfect poet, painter, sculptor, composer of music and architect. His endowment with agreeableness gave him the ability perfectly to please and delight and entertain others. And, finally, in his artistic endowment he had the ability to be a perfect orator and actor. Not only was each of these artistic abilities perfect in quality and quantity, but each was as such adjusted to the others so as to produce a balance in the artistic side of the image of God in Him.
Adam as God's image was also perfect in his moral faculties in their quality and quantity. He had two
sets of such faculties, selfish and social, the former enabling him to maintain a proper attitude and to engage in proper activities toward self, and the latter enabling him to maintain a proper attitude and to engage in proper activities toward others, his fellows. Thus he was able to exercise a proper attitude and activity as to a proper self-estimate, as to others' estimate of him, as to his comfort and rest, as to his life, his existence, his health, his safety, his self-defense, his aggressiveness, his concealing disadvantageous things, his gaining and retaining possessions, his food and his drink, etc. All of these abilities were perfect in him in quality and quantity and fitted him to exercise a proper and perfect self-love— natural as distinct from sinful selfishness. These selfish moral faculties existed in a perfectly poised relation to one another in Adam. By the exercise of these selfish powers Adam had the ability to develop a proper self-respect, self-satisfaction, self-confidence, approbativeness, peace, self-preservation, combativeness, secretiveness, carefulness, providence, destructiveness and alimentiveness—all lower primary graces and thus parts of God's image. These embrace his moral powers insofar as they were concerned with self. But the moral powers are also concerned with others, one's fellows, one's neighbors. And as a part of God's image in Adam these were in each case also perfect in their quality and quantity. He was perfect in his adaptation to the opposite sex in the quality and quantity of his amativeness. Then, too, he had perfect ability to be an ideal husband and father. Not only so, but he had the ability to be a perfect friend and home and country lover. These adapted him perfectly to the enjoyment of his social privileges and to the discharge of his social obligations in family, community and state. By the exercise of these social moral powers he could develop the social graces, which are also lower primary graces:
Sexliness, conjugality, paternality, friendship, domesticity, communality and patriotism.
In his religious faculties Adam was perfect as to quality and quantity. His religious faculties were adapted to bring him into a proper attitude and activity toward God primarily, and secondarily toward man, from the standpoint of man's relations to God. His religious powers enabled Adam primarily to exercise faith, hope, self-control, patience (perseverance), piety, brotherly love and charity. Thus he had the ability to believe and hope as to religious matters, the power to be firm (determined) and to be steadfast in a religious course and to exercise conscientiousness, appreciation, sympathy, benevolence and veneration in religious respects. He had these powers as abilities perfectly, i.e., his religious faculties were perfect in their quality and quantity, and properly exercised these gave him proper attitudes and activities toward God, and toward man insofar as he was related to his fellows from the religious standpoint. The qualities that the exercise of Adam's perfect religious organs would have developed in him are those mentioned above, faith, hope, self-control, patience, piety (duty love to God), brotherly love (duty love to the neighbor) and charity (disinterested love to God and one's fellows). These are the higher primary graces. Adam's religious organs were adapted to one another in perfect balance. In addition to the balance that each set of Adam's organs had within itself, these four sets of organs—the intellectual, artistic, moral and religious—were in perfect balance with one another, which implies that the religious organs were the controlling, dominating organs in Adam.
So far we have assumed that the image of God in Adam, consisted in the things mentioned above. Since we have shown above from John 5: 37 that the image of God in Adam was not in the shape of his body, i.e., that the image of God in Adam was not a physical
one, we are by reason forced to conclude that this image was in the faculties of man that are higher than the physical, and hence to conclude that it was in the realm of mind as distinct from the body. And this conclusion of reason the Bible proves to be true; for in the Bible the word image is frequently used to mean character, i.e., the quality of the mind as distinct from the body. Thus the evil disposition of the wicked is described as their image (tzelem, the same word as is used in the Hebrew of Gen. 1: 26 and there translated image) which God here is spoken of as abhorring (Ps. 73: 20). God's faithful people to become joint-heirs with Jesus must be conformed to His image (character, disposition, Rom. 8: 29). So, too, when speaking of the first man St. Paul says (1 Cor. 11: 7) he was the image and glory of God (the one who reflected the disposition of God); for frequently God's character is in the Bible shown to be God's glory, on the principle that as the glory of a good man is his good character, so God's glory is His good character. In 2 Cor. 3: 18 we not only see the glory of God and His image identified, but are told that by devoutly and steadfastly looking at that glory in the Bible as a mirror we are by God's Spirit changed into the same image from the glory of a less near image into the glory of a more near image. In Eph. 4: 24 we are told that the renewal of God's image in us is a renewal of us in the righteousness and holiness of the Truth. In the Greek the expression reads as we have just indicated it—in the righteousness and holiness of the Truth. Here we are shown that the Truth taken through the head into the heart renews us after God's character in righteousness and holiness. In Col 3: 10 we find the same thought expressed, "the new man which is renewed by knowledge (the intellectual hold of the Truth) after the image (character) of Him (God) who created him." The reason given in Gen. 9: 6 against murder is that man had been created in God's image (character
likeness). Thus these scriptures prove that the image of God in Adam was his being like God in disposition—his mental, artistic, moral and religious faculties were like God's in kind and perfection, though, of course, not in range and quality and quantity.
Perhaps we can better visualize the image of God in Adam, if we imagine a man who united in his own person in a still higher measure the qualities of the most talented and best of mankind, one who would surpass in the perceptive powers Darwin, in linguistic powers Cardinal Mizzofanti, who spoke upward of 70 languages, in reasoning powers Sir Isaac Newton, in imaginative powers Homer, in powers of memory Dr. Johnson, in powers of humor Rabelais, in powers of poetry Shakespeare, in vocal powers Caruso, in oratorical powers Demosthenes, in architectural powers Michael Angelo, in powers of musical composition Beethoven, in powers of instrumental music Rubenstein, in powers of sculpture Phidias, in powers of painting Raphael, in histrionic powers Booth, in gallantry Galahad, in conjugality Isaac, in fatherliness David, in friendship Damon and Phintias, in domesticity Jacob, in patriotism Leonidas, in combativeness Jashobeam, in aggressiveness Napoleon, in executiveness Caesar, in simplicity Tolstoi, in secretiveness Pinkerton, in providence Rothschild, in love of life Methuselah, in love of rest Joshua, in approbativeness Milton, in benevolence Lincoln, in faith Abraham, in hope Peter, in courage Samson, in love and tenderness John, in faithfulness and wisdom Russell, in patience and zeal Paul, in piety Daniel, in chastity Joseph and in meekness and humility Moses. Add to these capacities of mind and heart more than the physical strength of Samson and more than the physical handsomeness of the most beauteous Greek, and we get a fair idea of the image of God in Adam. His stature must have been large; and his head, with brains perfect in quality and quantity, must have been in the neighborhood of
28 inches in circumference. This we deduce from the fact that the average head is now 22 inches in circumference, while that of the average skull found in Pompeii is 24 inches. If in less than 2000 years the average skull shrank 2 inches, in 6000 years since Adam the shrinkage must have been something like 6 inches. These considerations help us to a better idea of what Adam was as an image of God. And what a contrast does this present, when compared with the average of present humanity! How fallen is man now!
Besides having been created in the image of God, according to v. 26 Adam was also created in the likeness of God and the Logos, i.e., with the capacity to be the king of the earth and of its manifold forms of life, and was given such a rulership. This constituted his likeness to God and the Logos. That such is meant by the expression "after our likeness" is manifest from the proper translation of the pertinent part of v. 26: "After our likeness let him also have dominion over [the wild animals of the earth; so the Septuagint and the Syriac] the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the heavens, and over the tame animals and over all the earth and over every creeping thing creeping upon the earth." The wording of this translation furnishes us with a definition, of God's likeness in Adam—his rulership over this planet and all its manifold forms of life. Thus Adam was constituted king of the earth and of the animal creation. In the immediately preceeding parts of our study of Creation we took a rather rapid glance at the various forms of life in earth's lands, waters and air. Over every form of such life, regardless of whether the sea, air or land was its habitat, Adam was made the ruler, as well as over the earth itself. His rule over this latter sphere of his dominion implies that he had the ability to discover and manipulate in his and in his subjects' interests all the laws and forces of nature connected with the earth, himself and his subjects, as his and
their needs required. This implied inventive and executive ingenuity of the highest order possible to man. We are not to understand that Adam exercised such ingenuity in all directions; rather that he had the ability so to do, and did it, until his fall, as much and as little as his and his subjects' needs called forth such use. Had he not fallen, such use in a decade or two, we doubt not, would have resulted in inventions and other forms of control over nature surpassing those of our day of inventions and use of nature's forces and laws for man's comfort and convenience. His rule over the animal creation was doubtless exerted by a combination of kindness, will power and magnetism, exerted through sight, voice and touch. For the rule of the tame animal creation doubtless kindness and the magnetism of eye, voice and touch were sufficient to make them subject to his will, illustrated by the way kind masters now control their domestic animals. With wild animals there had to be applied more will power, a fearless and steadfast look of the eye and the power of magnetism exerted by a sense of superiority, such as we see exemplified in the trainers of wild animals in circuses, zoos, etc. That Adam used this power over the animals is manifest from his summoning them before him and from his giving them names adapted to their habits, etc. Gen 2: 19, 20; 1: 28; Ps. 8: 4-8; Heb. 2: 6-8 are other Scriptures showing Adam's original rule over the earth and its animate creatures. But as with the image so with the likeness of God in Adam, the fall wrought havoc and ruin. The glory of Heb. 2: 6-8 refers to the image of God in Adam and Jesus as humans, while its honor refers to God's likeness. And the glory and honor of Rom. 2: 7, 10; 1 Pet. 1: 7 refer respectively to the image and likeness of God restored to the faithful Church of Christ.
In v. 26 God's determination to create man in His image and likeness is set forth, while in v. 27 the execution of this determination is described: "And
God created the man in His image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." Here undoubtedly a specialized creation is described. In the repetition of the thought that man was made in God's image this verse emphasizes the thought. Doubtless on account of the image of God being a nobler feature in man than the likeness of God in him was, the former is emphasized by the repetition of the pertinent thought; and the mention of the latter is omitted, in v. 27, though it is given in v. 28. The Lord here gives us His contradiction of evolution; for if the first man had been but one step removed from the monkey, he would have been far removed from being an image of God, and would have been completely unfit to be in God's likeness, the ruler over the earth and its various forms of life. God might, had He so willed, created man sexless like the angels. Had He so willed, to fill the earth (v. 28), as is His ultimate design, He would have had to create billions of our kind directly, either at once or at intervals. This not being His will He arranged to secure the filling of the earth by propagation on the basis of sex distinction. Hence, as v. 27 teaches, He made the human family consist of males and females. According to the detailed account of man's creation in Gen. 2: 7, 18, 21-24, Adam was first made and afterward Eve was made. Since the Chronology as related to God's plan shows that Adam was created two years before sin entered the world, and since he was alone in the garden for a sufficient time to realize that he could not be satisfied in his companionship desires with beasts as companions and came to realize a sense of lonesomeness, he was perhaps not given Eve as his companion until about a year after his creation.
Since Eve was taken out of Adam (Gen. 2:21, 22; 1 Cor. 11:7-12), not only was a rib with some surrounding flesh taken from Adam, but certain features of his qualities were also removed from him and were
given to Eve as her qualities. This made her the glory— image—of Adam as St. Paul says in 1 Cor. 11: 7. Originally therefore, there resided in Adam all of the qualities that were later divided between Adam and Eve. The stronger features of Adam's qualities remained with him; and his more tender and delicate qualities were given to Eve. The qualities that fitted Adam to be Eve's head remained in Adam, and those that fitted Eve to be his complement or counterpart were given to her. It is these differences that make the sexes appreciate each other more than each sex does those of its own sex; for the real man appreciates the tender and delicate qualities of the true woman, while the true woman admires the strength, courage and executiveness of the real man. Each appreciates and loves in the other what the other has and it lacks. Of course each has all the fundamental qualities, but in different degrees. In making humans male and female, God gave each sex great ability to increase one another's happiness, usefulness and adaptability. As Rotherham renders Gen. 2: 20, each found in the other a helper as his or her counterpart. Implied in this married relation are the joys of companionship, trust, love, helpfulness, parenthood, with all the joys possible in the home and family. As man was made the head of the woman and of the future family, so this implies on his part, the responsibility of direction, support, protection and cherishment, and on her part helpfulness, obedience, endearment and co-operation. Had sin not entered the world, the husbandly and wifely relationship would have proven, next to the relationship between God and sinless man, to be the source of humanity's greatest happiness and usefulness. But sin has only too often made that relationship the source of humanity's greatest misery and undoing. But happy beyond our present powers to realize must have been the year of companionship that Adam and Eve had in their state of sinlessness.
God did indeed bless them (v. 28) with one another, with their godlike dispositions, with their Edenic home and with their dominion over the earth and its animate creatures. The charge to multiply (v. 28) given them in their sinless state, proves that sexual intercourse was not eating of the fruit of the tree of experience with good and evil, as many have believed and yet believe. Such a thought not only lacks all corroboration from the Scripture, but it directly contradicts the charge to multiply given them in their sinless estate. The A. V. rendering, "replenish," is not only a false translation, but implies an error, as though the earth had once been filled with people, and is to be filled again. The rendering should be, "fill." Thus God arranged that the Millennial and post-Millennial earth will be well populated with perfected humans. The charge to subdue the earth meant that as the perfect race would increase Paradise might ever be enlarged, until the whole earth would become Paradise. And this was to be from the standpoint that the race would remain perfect. Even in man's fallen condition he has done much toward subduing the earth, though he has, of course, not made it perfect, which will be done in the Millennium. The exercise of the powers implied in the "likeness of God," as explained above in the comments on v. 26 and repeated in the rest of v. 28, call for no further comment here. V. 29 shows that the perfect man was not to live on flesh, permission to eat which, coming only after the flood (Gen. 9: 3, 4), was granted because of the great change of climate due to the fall of the last of earth's engirdling canopies, making it cease to be a sort of hot-house. This made man need a more concentrated nourishment. According to v. 29 man's food was to consist of vegetables, grains (every herb bearing seed), fruits and nuts (every tree in which is fruit of a tree yielding seed), while according to v. 30 all animals were to be vegetarians. Hence the so-called carnivorous beasts
were not such by nature. Man's fall caused his subjects to degenerate; and one form of this degeneration is animals' preying and feeding on one another. No wonder when God looked upon all that He had made respecting man (v. 31), He pronounced it "very good." Thus closed the work of creation—day sixth.
With the preceding discussion we have finished our study of God's Works—Creation, in so far as these are described in Gen. 1. It will be noted that only a general description of man's creation is given us in Gen. 1: 26-31. A few details of man's creation are given in Gen. 2: 7, 21-25, which for those details will now engage our attention. There are two very significant words used in describing the creation of Adam and Eve which in a general way describe the creative process. As to the creation of Adam the Hebrew word yatzar, he formed, is used; and as to the creation of Eve the Hebrew word banah, he built (see margin), is used. These give in a general way a description of the creative process. It will be noted that none of the creative processes are given in much detail in Gen. 1 and 2. But these two words used in connection with the creation of Adam and Eve are detailed enough as thoroughly to disagree with the doctrine of man's evolution from the lower animal creation; for they describe it as a special creation. Not only so, but they imply the use of materials worked up into various forms and then built up into the bodies of Adam and Eve. The former process is the one emphasized in Adam's creation; and the latter process is the one emphasized in Eve's creation. Such emphasis implies in neither case the exclusion of the other process where it is not expressly stated. Rather, as the creation of Adam began with no previously existing form as a foundation, it was the natural thing to emphasize the forming of the parts of Adam in describing his creative process; while the rib used in Eve's creation was already a form, and therefore
erecting about it as a foundation the body of Eve would naturally require the emphasis to be laid upon the building process.
While the Scriptures contain hints on the angels' cooperating with the Logos in the creation of the universe, a thing implied in its immensity and complexity, they give no hint as to their cooperation with Him in man's creation. Indeed, as we saw when commenting on Gen. 1: 26, the "us" of that verse seems to imply that only God and the Logos are therein included. While human architects use elaborate plans, specifications and detailed drawings put down on paper to be followed in erecting edifices, the perfection and almost unlimited scope of the Logos' intellectual powers made these unnecessary for God to draw up, either in the creation of the universe or in that of man. God simply told Him what, how and with what to do, and He did it. Therefore God described verbally, not in writing and drawings, to the Logos every detail as to the kinds and proportions and manner of composition of the materials to be used in Adam's creation, as well as told Him every detail of shape, size and function of each part of his body. Thus the Logos knew before beginning to create Adam just what substances to use, in what proportion to use them; how to compound them in each organ and part; and what size, shape and function He was to give each part of Adam's and Eve's bodies. In a word, God gave Him perfect knowledge of what He was to do, with what He was to do it, how He was to do it and why He was to do it. All this is implied in the words of Gen. 1: 26; 2: 7, 21-25, as we shall see.
Accordingly, the Logos set about to bring man into existence. First of all, He assembled the materials that were to be worked up, formed and built into Adam's and Eve's bodies. Chemistry shows that now the average human body of 150 lbs. contains the following substances of approximately the following
bulks: about 90 lbs. of water (about 11 gallons), about 24 lbs. of carbon, about 7 lbs. of lime, about 2 lbs. of phosphorus, about 2 oz. of salt, about ¼ oz. of iron, about 4/5 oz. of sugar, and less amounts of potassium, sulphur, magnesium, calcium, aluminum, arsenic, manganese, copper, sodium, chlorine, silicon, fluorine and iodine, about 5 lbs. of nitrogen and about 13 lbs. of hydrogen and oxygen in addition to what is contained in the body's water. The rest of the body's weight consists of air and wastes. The mineral salts above mentioned are combined in such ways as to produce the 12 cell-salts of the body. Counting these 12 cell-salts and the water, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen in the body, we see that it is compounded from 17 different substances. To assemble these in proper proportion was the Logos' first work in creating man. There is some reason to believe that Adam was probably about eight feet tall; for under the curse not only has man's skull shrunk on an average from 28 in. to 22 in., but the rest of his body has correspondingly shrunk. E.g., the Napoleonic wars killed off almost all of France's tall men, so that the average Frenchman is now about 5 feet 6 inches tall, whereas the average height before those wars was about 5 feet 10 inches. Perhaps Adam's weight was between 250 and 300 lbs. Accordingly, more materials than the above-mentioned amounts, perhaps twice as much, were used in making his body. This is all the more probable, when we consider the imperfection, among other ways, that impoverishes our fallen bodies.
Just in what order the Logos created the various parts of man's body is not revealed; hence we cannot be dogmatic on that feature of his creation. There are several probable ways that suggest themselves to the mind that reflects on the meaning of the words to form and to build as perhaps revealing the creative process used with man: (1) Beginning at one end, e.g., the toes and feet, and making in consecutive order every
successive part of the body in its bones, flesh, muscles, tendons, ligaments, arteries, veins, capillaries, lymphatic system, nerves, glands, skin, organs, brain, skull, etc., until the whole body as an organism was completed, then infusing the blood into the body. (2) Making first the skeleton, the brain and its twelve nerve ducts and the eyes preceding the making of the skull, which was closed about them, the spinal-cord being inserted into each part of the vertebral column as made, all the vital organs, with their nerve, artery, vein and capillary connections, being then placed into their respective cavities, which were then closed about them, with the diaphragm separating the lungs and heart in the higher cavity from the lower cavity where the stomach, liver, pancreas, spleen, gall-bladder, small and large intestines, kidneys, bladder, etc., were placed. Thereafter in one piece of many parts the rest of the body may have been made and drawn over the skeleton, somewhat as a lady's gloves are pulled on over her hands and as a union suit of underwear is put on; then the connection made between the nerves, arteries, veins, capillaries, etc., that were put into the skeleton and those that belonged outside the skeleton, so that the body might be made a one united whole, an organism; and finally, the blood put into the circulatory system. This would complete the body according to the second possible order of the creative process. A third order might have been a combination of various features of the two preceding methods. Or there may have been still other processes and ways used. We do not know this unrevealed thing. But whatever the order was, it was brought to a completion in the perfection of a physical organism by whose union with another creative feature a human soul, a human being, was produced. Spirits, being able to penetrate material substances, as is evidenced by our Lord's resurrection body passing through the walls of the upper room
where the disciples assembled, by evil spirits inhabiting the bodies of demoniacs and by evil spirits injecting themselves into our minds and then injecting thoughts into them in such ways as to make us think we are originating these thoughts, the objection to various features of the above-described probable ways of man's creation, as requiring the creative Spirit to act within the body, is seen to fall to the ground. The above-cited Scriptures on forming and building and the possible order in which the creative processes were worked, are what Herbert Spencer ridiculed as the carpenter theory of man's creation, to which he preferred evolution as the process of man's creation.
Whatever the order in creating man's body was, the Biblical processes of forming and building applied in man's creation resulted in the production of a perfect human organism, a perfect human body, whose divers powers, parts and functions enabled it, when vitalized, to work as a united harmonious whole. All of these capabilities were worked into their pertinent parts in the creative process. This we know to be true because, despite the depraving of the body introduced by sin, it still has these powers and functions, though in an imperfect condition. A brief glance at the main features and functions of the body will demonstrate to us some marvels of God's wisdom, power, justice and love, as they stand revealed in man as a creation of God's inventive ingenuity. One of these features and functions of the human body is its adaptation to use food to produce growth, to replace depleted cells and to provide energy. These foods consist of carbonates (sugars and starches [carbohydrates] and fats [hydrocarbons]), nitrates (lean meats, gluten of bread, eggs, cheese, etc. [proteids]), mineral salts (the twelve cell-salts) and water. From the carbonates our bodies derive the needed energy and lubrication; from the nitrates they derive muscle-building food for the cells, which gives them strength; from the cell-salts they
derive the nerve substance and certain blood substances and the body builders; and from water the fluid parts of the blood and of the tissues and the moisture needed to promote the removal of wastes from the body. How necessary water is for the body appears from the fact that it constitutes slightly less than ⅔ of the body's weight. While individuals differ, the average adult requires about four times as much carbonates as nitrates and about eight times as much nitrates as mineral salts, with about as much waste as he needs of nitrates, [e.g., a grain of wheat is a balanced food, containing about 66⅓ % carbonates, 16⅔% nitrates, 2% mineral salts, about 15% waste food (for bulk)] and about 2 quarts of water (daily). The science of chemistry has given us these facts.
In creating Adam's alimentary system perfect God performed a miracle of invention! The tongue to taste and thus to pass on the food's appetitiveness, the teeth to grind it, the salivary glands to help fit it for digestion, the gullet to direct it to the stomach, the stomach partially to digest it, the stomach glands and the spleen to provide the gastric juices as digestive fluids to further digestion, the liver to purify the blood, to store glycogen and to furnish bile, another digestive fluid, the pancreas to furnish still another digestive fluid, the bile partially to emulsify fats and make them pass through the intestinal walls as lubricants for the body, to carry off waste and to prevent fermentation in the intestines, the pancreatic fluid to change starches into sugar, to change nitrates (proteids) into peptones and to emulsify fats and cause them to pass through the intestinal walls as lubricants for the body! The liver has a still more important office, that of forming glycogen, animal sugar, which assists in oxidation, as it also prepares the peptones for assimilation. So far the food stuffs are only partially digested. The digestive process is completed in the over 20 feet length of the small intestine, where by means of the villi and
their connected glands, present in vast numbers, the digestive process is finished and most of the absorption of food takes place, though a small amount of it occurs in the stomach, and some occurs through the walls of the large intestine. And as a prevention of disease from the waste substances undigested and unassimilated the appendix and the gall-bladder contribute to the colon's emptying its contents through the rectum. By the operation of the alimentary system God provided for the permanence of Adam's body; for its product, plus what the blood supplied from the lungs, replaced all its waste cells, and gave it all the energy it needed for its various parts and functions.
This leads us to a brief discussion of the blood, in relation to assimilation, to body building, energizing and cleansing and to circulation. The blood receives the elements of food, absorbing them mainly from the villi in the small intestine, though also in small quantities from the stomach and colon, through minute capillaries. It then flows into what is known as the portal circulation, thence into the liver. From the liver this nourishment-laden blood goes to the heart, thence to the lungs, then back again into the heart, whence it is pumped to those parts of the body where the food elements are needed for replacing depleted cells, forming new cells and imparting energy. In addition to the above-described functions of the blood, it has several other functions, the main ones being to discharge surplus water and waste nitrogen (urea) through the kidneys and surplus water and waste carbon (carbon dioxide) through the sweat pores. In doing these things it partially purifies itself and prevents disease. Another of its functions is to remove carbon-dioxide by carrying it to the lungs, whence it is expired as a poisonous gas. Its chief function—that of permeating the body with life-principle derived from the oxygen that it receives from the air in the lungs—we will discuss in another connection. The blood consists of
about 90% water; it also contains some nitrates, carbonates (sugar and fat) and mineral salts, as on returning to the lungs it carries with it about 50 cubic centimeters of carbon-dioxide to every 100 cubic centimeters of its solids, of which it rids itself when it reaches the lungs. Thus blood consists of serum, a fluid portion, and fibrin, which while in the blood vessels is in a fluid state, but coagulates when removed from the body, becoming clot.
In the blood are two kinds of corpuscles—red and white. About 35% of each red corpuscle, which is in the form of a disk, consist of hemoglobin, containing a large amount of iron. It readily unites with oxygen, which it imparts to the various parts of the body. This is the chief function of the red corpuscles, which, when worn out, are replaced by new ones manufactured in the red marrow of bones. The white corpuscles are irregular and changeable in shape. They are in number as to the red ones in the proportion of 1 to 300. Their function seems to be to change food elements into protoplasm in the body and to destroy bacteria in the blood, which they do by engulfing and digesting them; but if the bacteria are present in too great numbers for this to be done to them, the bacteria kill these white corpuscles and disease sets in. These corpuscles are formed by the lymphatic glands. Also the spleen and the marrow of bones manufacture them. The blood by weight forms about a thirteenth of the body. Its distribution as to amount varies, being mainly in the stomach when food is there, unless one does physical or mental work, when it is largely withdrawn therefrom. Normally half of the blood is in the body's cavity below the diaphragm, about a fourth of it in the muscles and the rest in the heart, lungs, arteries, veins and capillaries outside of the body's cavity. Its normal temperature is 98.4° Fahrenheit; it is usually at its highest at about 5 P.M. and at its lowest at 4 A.M. In fevers it rises much higher; usually at 107° one
dies. To keep it at its best, wholesome food in moderation, fresh air, good sleep, moderate exercise and cheerfulness are necessary. Iron is especially necessary, the deficiency in which makes one weak and anaemic. "The life of all flesh is the blood thereof" (Lev. 17: 14; Deut. 12: 23). This indicates its chief function, i.e., to impart life-principle to every part of the body and to keep it there.
Another marvel about the blood is its circulation. This is produced by the heart's pumping the blood throughout the body. The heart, the body's powerhouse, is a conical muscular organ above the diaphragm and lies so that its downward-pointing muscular apex moves in expanding and contracting against the fifth and sixth ribs, just a little left of the body's midline. It is surrounded by a loose membranous sac called the pericardium, filled with fluid, in which the heart lies, and by which it is protected against jars. It is divided into two separate and unconnected parts, each of these is again divided into two parts, the upper called the auricle and the lower the ventricle. The right auricle receives the blood from the veins, whose office is to return the blood from its trip around the body to the heart and the right ventricle sends it, when received from the right auricle, to the lungs where it rids itself of its carbon-dioxide and some water and receives new supplies of oxygen. Thereupon it returns to the left auricle, whence it is sent out into the left ventricle, which by way of the aorta pumps it into the arteries and through them it circulates all over the body. The arteries and veins thus are differentiated: the arteries take the blood away from the heart, while, after it has gone to the body's various parts, the veins return it to the heart. The capillaries' function is to receive the blood from the arteries, bring it into contact with all the bodily parts and functions and then discharge it into the veins, which then return it to the right auricle and ventricle, whence it is expelled as
above. The heart is a great power-house: the two ventricles at each pulsation expel about ¾ of a pint of blood into the arteries. Its beats average 70 a minute. In a single day the ventricles exercise enough power to lift 193 tons a foot high, or do as much work as a man of 200 lbs. would perform in climbing a mountain 3,600 feet high. The heart is thus powerful.
Though separated and unconnected, the two parts of the heart handle every drop of blood in the body and control its three forms of circulation: (1) That from the right auricle and ventricle to the lungs and back to the left auricle and ventricle; (2) that from the left ventricle by the aorta through the arteries throughout the body, except the digestive organs, spleen, pancreas, liver and gall-bladder, and back again to the right auricle and ventricle; and (3) the portal circulation, which takes the blood from the left ventricle by the aorta through certain arteries to certain organs in the body's lower cavity, i.e., the digestive organs, spleen, pancreas, liver and gall-bladder. The second of these systems of circulation is the farthest flung and most detailed, carrying as it does the blood to the legs and feet, arms and hands, bronchi, throat, head, brain, spinal column, nerves, intestines, kidneys, bladder and sexual organs. The second is the least far-flung, traveling but from the heart's right auricle and ventricle to the lungs and back to the heart—to its left auricle and ventricle. But in making these three circuits the blood gets and brings the life-principle and needed nourishment to every bodily part, extracts the nourishment from food and drink, and discharges the body's waste nitrogens as urea and some waste water through the kidneys and bladder, some more waste water and a little carbon-dioxide through the sweat pores, fecal matter through the bowels and rectum and some more waste water and the bulk of the carbon-dioxide through the lungs. And to do this the blood and the heart now perform almost perpetual
motion, and were in Adam capable of performing such, and would have been doing it, had sin not entered the world. Lymph is semi-blood. Its function is to take the blood's food materials and give them up to the tissues as it bathes them. It therefore acts as the medium of exchange between the blood proper and the cells in the body's tissues. In its course it passes through the lymphatic glands, which remove impurities from it, as it also removes many impurities, like carbon-dioxide, urea, etc. The blood vessels, the heart, the lymphatic system and many organs are controlled by the sympathetic nervous system.
Another marvelous feature of the human body is its muscular system. The muscles are constituted so as to contract and expand. They are fastened by tendons and ligaments to the bones, which thus act as levers and supports for the muscles. They are of two kinds: voluntary, which act under the direction of the will, and involuntary, which act, apart from the exercise of will power, by the control of the sympathetic nervous system. Muscles usually exist in pairs: extensor, which straighten the joints, and flexor, which bend the joints. They contract to exercise strength; they relax when they cease to exercise strength. They are biceps or triceps, dependent on whether there are two or three tendons at their heads. The involuntary muscles have to do mainly with our vital functions, i.e., brain, spinal-cord, heart, lungs, stomach, liver, gall-bladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, intestines and sexual organs, though there is also partial voluntary muscular activity connected with the brain, lungs, bladder, intestines and sexual organs. It is a great blessing that our vital organs are under control of involuntary muscles, made to work by the sympathetic nervous system; for if these would have to depend on the activity of our voluntary muscles we would soon die, e.g., the moment we would fall asleep or give our attention to other matters, these vital
functions would cease acting, and death would at once set in. Our muscles constitute half of our weight. We have over 500 of them, varying in size from that of a pin head to about two feet in length; and our movements, of course, depend upon them. They also have to do with the body's form; and they protect our more delicate organs and blood vessels, especially those within them. They enable us to do all physical and some mental work. They expend an immense amount of energy, especially the involuntary ones, e.g., the muscles of the heart expend each day enough energy to raise a pound 434,112 feet high. Their exercise is promotive of health, warmth and the utilities of life.
There is very much of the marvelous displayed in man's skeleton. There are (depending on various methods of classification) from 206 to 245 bones in the human body. They make a most substantial foundation for the body, as well as a protection for various of its parts, e.g., the brain, spinal-cord, lungs, heart, sense of hearing, etc. It would be impossible to improve on them by change, addition or subtraction. If the spinal column with its 26 bones, in an adult, is considered, its wonderful adaptation to its purposes is seen in its maintaining the body erect, in its protecting the spinal cord and part of the main central nervous system, in its supporting the ribs in their protection of the heart and lungs, in its flexibility for bodily bending, in its protecting the 31 pairs of nerve ducts that leave it to perform their functions toward various bodily organs and in its support of the head. How finely the humerus (upper arm bone) and the scapula (shoulder blade) fit together by their ball and socket joint! How well the femur (thigh bone) and the pelvic girdle fit into one another by their ball and socket joint! How well our hinge joints, e.g., those at the knee, elbow and ankle, fit together! How well do the cartilage and the lubrication fluid in these joints perform their functions! What shall be said of the wonderful adaptability
of our fingers, due, among other things, to their bones and joints? The bones' utility in working, walking and running are apparent at first sight. And perhaps most wonderful of all are our skulls, from the standpoint of their formation. As the cover of our brains, they do a most needed protective work. The skull's sockets are indispensable for sight, its nares for breathing and scent, its separate three little bones in the auditory channel of each ear for hearing. Its jaws and teeth are finely adjusted for chewing and for certain articulations. Its pivot joints, e.g., the atlas, the topmost bone of the vertebral column, and axis next to it, perform wonders. The gliding joints as seen in the spinal column, have varied useful functions, e.g., bending. And certain of our bones help to form levers in our bodies, i.e., of three kinds, according to the position of the fulcrum: (1) the atlas for nodding the head; (2) the toes for raising the body and (3) the lower arm and leg for flexing them. Truly the bones are among the body's marvels!
The lungs certainly give us some more bodily marvels to consider. These by respiration perform a series of wonders. Their power of expansion and contraction serves for their performing their work of breathing, which in turn performs marvels. Their inhalations give us oxygen, so necessary for the oxidation of foods and tissue in order to release energy used in growth. Oxygen also burns up dead cells and helps us rid ourselves of the resultant carbon-dioxide, which would kill us by poisoning, if it remained in our bodies. Above all, the lungs constantly replenish our supply of life-principle, which they extract from the oxygen, and thus they serve to keep us alive. By the oxygen they enrich the blood and help to cast off its impurities by exhalation. The lungs are wonderfully constructed to accomplish their work. The air passages attached to the bronchial tubes are well adapted to receive the air and bring it into contact with the
blood in the lungs. Their cilia drive back to the bronchial tubes and into the throat foreign matters that would otherwise remain in the lungs. The pleura, covering the lungs, form a protective bag in which the lungs lie, having a covering of lymph between them and the pleura. Our respiration is mainly under the control of involuntary muscles, though we can make it be measurably controlled by the voluntary muscles. The lungs expire 540 cubic inches of air a minute and 770,000 a day. The amount of water evaporated by the lungs daily is thought to be a half-pint. By the oxygen that they give to, and the carbon-dioxide, etc., that they take from the blood, they change its color from a dark crimson to a bright red color. They should be given plenty of fresh air, deeply inspired and as fully expired as possible.
The body's organs of elimination are likewise marvels. These are the lungs, the sweat pores, the kidneys, the bladder and the intestines. Their proper functioning is indispensable; if they all were to cease from functioning, we would soon die from autotoxication. Each of the organs is remarkably constructed and finely adapted to perform its excretory function. What marvels of construction are found in the kidneys, with their ten million tiny tubes or filters, the sweat pores, the excretory features of the lungs and the bowels, with their operating glands and tissues! Wonderful are the sexual organs' function of reproduction!