Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13

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Gen. 2: 7, 21-25




DOUBTLESS the most marvelous part of man's body is his nervous system, having over 10,000 nerves. It consists of two parts—the cerebrospinal or central nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system. The central nervous system centers in the spinal column and in the brain; and because of its delicacy it is protected by the cranium and the vertebrae in which it is imbedded. The sympathetic nervous system has to do with the body's vital processes and thus acts mainly, but not exclusively, in the two cavities of the body, that are separated by the diaphragm. The functions of the nervous system are (1) to give man sensations connecting him with his surroundings; (2) to enable his brain to perform its functions of thinking, feeling and willing; and (3) to make of the body in its varied functions, powers, etc., one united whole, an organism. The chief part of the central nervous system is the brain, from which come out twelve nerve ducts, ten of these functioning exclusively in the head in connection with its various organs, senses, etc., and two of them additionally functioning in the heart, lungs, liver and stomach. Of



the brain there are three divisions; the cerebrum with its two lobes; the cerebellum or little brain, a part of the hind brain; and the pons, connecting the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Out of the spine come 31 pairs of nerve ducts. Of these the seven pairs coming out of the cervicles function: the first in the brain, the second in the face, the next three in the throat and neck and the last two in the shoulders and arms. Those of the first and second dorsals control the heart; of the third and fourth, the lungs and bronchi; of the fifth to eighth, the stomach; of the seventh to ninth, the liver; of the eighth, the diaphragm, spleen and pancreas; of the tenth to twelfth, the kidneys; of the first and second lumbars, the ovaries and bowels; of the second and third lumbars, the appendix; of the third to fifth, the bladder; of the fourth and fifth, the genitals and of the third to fifth the legs; and those of the sacrum and coccyx control the sexual organs and legs. The nerves enable us to exercise our five senses, and are capable of giving us much pain and pleasure.


The organs through which our five senses operate, especially the eyes and ears, are indeed remarkable. The sense of touch is active in every part of our skin, though it is more acute in some members than in others, e.g., in the fingers. Taste is exercised by the nerves of the tongue distinguishing between sweet and sour, bitter and salt: it yields various reactions. The sense of smell is located in the membrane of the upper nasal chambers, and is also capable of various reactions. The organs of hearing are the ears, which use therefore the outer, middle and inner ears, with certain membranes and fluids as the means for audition. But the sense of sight is even more remarkable. This involves the use of the optic nerve, the retina, the lens, the cornea, the iris and the anterior chamber with its vitreous humor. Our senses are our means of contact.


Man in his physical organization as an organism is so vastly superior to the highest member of the brute



creation as proves him to be an animal standing immeasurably apart from all of earth's other animals, which is a sure disproof of evolution. His upright position, with all its implications, physical, mental, moral and religious, and its guarding him from degradation in these four respects, is one of his marked physical differentiations from the brute creation. His external form surpasses in symmetry and beauty the form of any of the brute creation. Note his expressive eye, his winsome smile, his charming voice and his intellectual, benevolent and religious countenance! Where in the brute creation is there anything at all comparable with it? The human skin in complexion, delicacy, softness and informativeness stands head and shoulders above any in the brutes of earth. The keenness of his five senses as a whole surpass those of the brute kingdom though in certain directions, e.g., certain features in the scent of dogs, certain features of some brutes' senses surpass man's, and that because of their need of what man does not need. Above all other external members, the hand of man in its shape, adaptability and achievements shows an almost infinite superiority to anything in the animals lower than man. Contrast this with the fin of the fish, the wing of the bird, the hoof of the horse, cow or sheep, the pedal of the elephant, the paw of the lion, tiger, dog or cat and the combination of the foot-hand of the simian groups, and what a nearly heaven-high difference is brought to light in favor of man's hand. In one of the Bridgewater Treatises the hand of man in its form, powers, adaptabilities and products is made the basis of a remarkable proof of the Creator's existence, wisdom, power, justice and love. Man's body is also in all its parts made over a by far finer last than that of any of the lower animals. Even apart from Adam's being in God's image and likeness, his body stood out as almost infinitely superior to that of any member of the brute world. Surely man's body, apart from his intellectual,



moral and religious endowment, in contrast with the bodies of earth's lower creatures, is a strong disproof of evolution, a strong proof of his being a special creation, and a wonderful tribute to the credit of his Creator's wisdom, power, justice and love. Surely the Psalmist was right when speaking, among other things, of his body he exclaimed, "I will praise Thee; for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; marvelous are Thy works; and that my soul knoweth right well. My substance was not hid from Thee, when I was made in secret and curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the earth. Thine eyes did see my substance, yet being imperfect; and in Thy book all my members were written, which in continuance were fashioned, when as yet there was none of them" (Ps. 139: 14-16).


As we look upon the human bodies about us we, of course, see them more or less imperfect by virtue of the fall. Yet even in its fallen condition the human body is a marvel and a miracle so great as to be an irrefutable argument for the existence of God and of the reality of His wondrous wisdom, power, justice and love. But when we remember that as Adam and Eve came from the creative hand of God, they were not only absolutely flawless mentally, morally and religiously, but also physically, we can realize how they must have been thrilled with the exuberance of perfect vitality and health. The elixir of life coursing through the bodies connected with their perfect dispositions must have filled them with ecstasy. Perfect bodies endowed with perfect life! How that must have filled them with joy unspeakable and full of glory! And how they must have praised God, the Giver of such a blessed existence! Surely as we view the perfect man as God's image in disposition and as God's likeness in rulership, possessed of a flawless body in perfect life, we must admit that as the crown of God's earthly creation man so constituted reflected glory



upon God's creative wisdom, power, justice and love; and as we view man in all the marvels of his physical constitution we must cry out, Man, as the work of God's finger, is an impressive proof of the Creator's existence and glorious character!


Having completed our brief description of the first feature of man's creation—making his body—we will now proceed to a study of its second feature—uniting it with the breath of lives (the literal translation of the Hebrew words nishmat chayim, Gen. 2: 7), i.e., with the breath common to all living animals, air. Because of the widespread misunderstanding as to the meaning of the second feature of man's creation, the uniting of the breath of lives with the body, we will first quote the translation of the pertinent words from the Improved Version: "And He [Jehovah] blew into his [Adam's] nostrils the breath of lives." That the expression, breath of lives (nishmat chayim) means the air as received into the nostrils of all breathing creatures, is evident from the following passages, in which we will italicize the words that are given as the translation of the Hebrew word neshamah: (1) All in whose nostrils was the breath of life (literally, the breath of lives' air, Gen. 7: 22). (2) Thou shalt save alive nothing that breatheth (literally, no breath, i.e., no breathing person, Deut. 20: 16). (3) He [Joshua] utterly destroyed all that breathed (literally, all breath, Josh. 10: 40). (4) There was not any left to breathe (literally, no breath, Josh. 11: 11). (5) Neither left they any to breathe (literally, no breath, Josh. 11: 14). (6) At the blast of the breath of His nostrils (literally, at the breath of the air of His nostrils, 2 Sam. 22: 16). (7) He left not to Jeroboam any that breathed (literally, no breath, 1 Kings 15: 29). (8) There was no breath left in him (1 Kings 17: 17). (9) By the blast [breath] of God they perish (Job 4: 9). (10) Whose spirit [breath] came [went forth] from Thee (Job 26: 4)? (11) While my breath is in me (Job 27: 3).



(12) The inspiration [breath] of the Almighty giveth them understanding (maketh them perceive with their five senses, Job 32: 8). (13) The breath of the Almighty hath given me life (Job 33: 4). (14) If He gather unto Himself His spirit [life-principle] and His breath (Job 34: 14). (15) By the breath of God frost is given (Job 37: 10). (16) At the blast [breath] of the breath [air] of Thy nostrils (as in 2 Sam. 22: 16; Ps. 18: 15). (17) Let everything that hath breath praise the Lord (Ps. 150: 6). (18) The spirit [breath] of man is the candle of the Lord, searching [permeating] all the inward parts of the belly [the life-principle in the air that we breathe permeating our bodies reveals as a candle-light the internals of our bodies to the Lord] (Prov. 20: 27). (19) Man, whose breath is in his nostrils (Is. 2: 22). (20) The breath of the Lord [God's Truth, which proceeds from His mouth, is here represented as a figurative breath], like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it [the destruction of the Time of Trouble] (Is. 30: 33). (21) He that giveth breath (Is. 42: 5). (22) And the souls [literally, breaths, i.e., breathing, living people] that I have made (Is. 57: 16). (23) Neither was there breath left in me (Dan. 10: 17). These 24 passages, counting as one of them our text, include every use of the word neshamah in the Bible, and they prove that the word means breath, and only breath, though our A.V. has incorrectly in several places rendered it otherwise. In several of them it is called the breath of God, not, of course, in the sense of His inhalation and exhalation, but in the sense that the air that we breathe is God's; for spirits, like God, Christ and angels, do not breathe, since they are spiritual and breath is material. It is very evident that they do not breathe, because, e.g., in their journeys from heaven to earth they travel thousands of trillions of miles through space that has no atmosphere for breathing purposes. Accordingly, the words of v. 7, describing the second feature of



man's creation, tell us that the Lord caused the breath to enter Adam's body—the breath that is common to all animal life on earth—the breath of lives, the vital breath. The language of v. 7 is plain as meaning this.


The next word used in describing the second step of Adam's creation (uniting the life-principle with the body) to engage our study is naphach, the Hebrew word translated breathed in the text of the A.V. This word means, not to breathe, but to blow. In this passage it evidently does not mean to breathe, because God, a Spirit (John 4: 24), does not breathe; nor is He in any sense dependent on anything to sustain His life. Accordingly, the word here evidently means to blow, as it always means to blow in the Bible:— Ezek. 37: 9, where it should be rendered blow; for the wind does not breathe, it blows; Ezek. 22: 20, 21; Is. 54: 16; Jer. 1: 13 (seething pot, i.e., a pot blowing off steam); Job 41: 20 (the same comment as that just made on Jer. 1: 13); Jer. 15: 9 (literally, she hath blown out her life); Job 20: 26; Hag. 1: 9. With our text, every occurrence of the word naphach in the Bible has been cited above; and none of them uses the word to mean to breathe; they all use it to mean to blow. The thought, therefore, is that God in working out the second feature of Adam's creation caused the air to blow into Adam's nostrils as the vitalizing breath to inflate his lungs, thus to fill his blood with life-principle. This thought is simple enough and is just what was necessary to communicate life to the perfect but lifeless body that lay on the ground. Nor would there likely ever have arisen another thought on the subject, had it not been for Satan's first and triple lie (Gen. 3: 4, 5; John 8: 44), whereby he has deceived almost the whole world into believing that the dead are not dead ("ye shall not surely, really, die") but really live right on, and in death change from humans into spirits ("ye shall be as gods"—angels, good and evil, are about 200 times in the Bible called gods, e.g., Ps. 8: 5



[the word here translated angels is in the Hebrew elohim, gods; compare with Heb. 2: 6-9 for St. Paul's inspired comment]; Ps. 97: 7, compare with Paul's inspired comment thereon in Heb. 1: 6) and then go either to bliss or torment eternal ("knowing [experiencing] good [bliss] and evil [torment]").


Desiring to perpetuate these three falsehoods—three in one and one in three, an unholy trinity—Satan has caused the thought to prevail that, as the second feature of Adam's creation, God breathed a part of Himself into Adam's nostrils. This alleged part of God Satan has caused to be understood to be a spirit being that cannot die. But it will be noted that the word spirit is not used in connection with the second feature of Adam's creation. It is the words, breath of lives, the breath common to all earthly living beings. If the language actually used in Gen. 2: 7 as describing the second feature of Adam's creation be taken in its natural and literal sense, it will at once be seen that Satan's thought thereon is a case of eisegesis, without the slightest basis for it in the text itself. And when we remember that Jesus calls Satan a liar for deceiving Eve with his triple falsehood (John 8: 44, compare with 1 Tim. 2: 14), and that Satan imported his thought into Gen. 2: 7 to provide a plausible basis for his triple falsehood in Gen. 3: 4, 5, we are in a good position to recognize the fraudulent and fell character of his eisegesis into the second clause of Gen. 2: 7; for nowhere do the Scriptures teach that there is in man a spirit being that at death leaves man and lives on consciously either in bliss or torment. Such a thought was invented by Satan as the first lie (in three parts) ever told. This we have on the highest authority, the authority of God Himself, uttered through His dear Son, our Lord Jesus Christ (John 8: 44). Satan has sought to make his thought on this subject plausible by causing his mouthpieces in this matter to quote passages that treat of the Spirit that is in each member



of the Church. But it be noted that such expressions are never used of the world of mankind in general, who never are spoken of as having received the Spirit by being begotten again, but only of the Church's members, who as new creatures in Christ are begotten of the Spirit, and thus have the Spirit of begettal, frequently called the Spirit in the Bible. But this is not a spirit being; much less is it a spirit being as an essential part of the human being; but it is the Divine heart, mind and will, the new creature, in God's people alone. Thus St. Paul (Rom. 8: 10) says: "If Christ [the new creature] be in you [God's people, not sinners of the world of mankind], the body is dead because of sin [sacrificially, Rom. 12: 1; not dead for Adam's sin, as mankind in general are dead (Rom. 5: 12), from which death we have been made alive by faith in Christ (Eph. 2: 5)]; but the Spirit [new creature, which only the Church, not the world, has] is life because of righteousness [because begotten of the Spirit it lives and should live righteously and for righteousness]." This new creature is called "this treasure" in 2 Cor. 4: 7—"We [the Church] have this treasure in earthen vessels.'' The world does not have this treasure at all; nor does the Bible so teach of them. Thus it is by misapplication to the world of mankind in general of Bible statements belonging exclusively to the Church that Satan deceives (2 Cor. 4: 4) the bulk of the world into believing that there is a Biblical basis for his claim that there is in man a spirit being that lives on after death in bliss or torment.


Various meanings in which the Bible uses the word spirit have likewise been manipulated by Satan to darken the meaning of the word spirit in its use in relation to man, by his foisting on it the sense of a spirit being, especially by his gross misuse of the word ghost as applying to God's Spirit and to man's breath. The Hebrew word ordinarily translated in the A.V. by the word spirit is ruach, which, like our



English word spirit, has many different meanings. The Greek word ordinarily rendered in the A.V. by the word spirit is pneuma, which, like our English word spirit, has many different meanings. That the English word spirit has various meanings can readily be seen by consulting any standard dictionary, like Murray's Oxford, The Century, The Standard, Webster's, the New International, etc. The Hebrew word ruach occurs about 370 times in the Old Testament and the Greek word pneuma occurs about 400 times in the New Testament; and they have at least 12 distinct meanings in the Bible. It would be needless to quote or even to cite these nearly 800 occurrences of these words in proof of our proposition that they have at least 12 distinct meanings in the Bible, but we will cite enough of them on each of these 12 senses to prove our claim to be true. The root idea that appears in all 12 of these senses is that of invisible power, and it is because of this root idea underlying all 12 of these senses that the one word in the Hebrew and the one word in the Greek are used to express all of them. It is due to this basic thought in these two words that they mean (1) power, an invisible thing (Gen. 1: 2; 41: 38; Num. 11: 17, 25, 26, 29; Judg. 3: 10; 1 Kings 18: 12; 2 Kings 2: 9, 15, 16; Job 33: 4; Ps. 76: 12; 139: 7; Is. 4: 4; Ezek. 3: 12, 14, 24; 11: 1, 5 Mic. 2: 7; 3: 8; Matt. 1: 18, 20; 12: 28, 31, 32; Luke 1: 35 [note the parallelism between the expressions, Holy Spirit, (not Ghost, as it is mistranslated in the A.V.) and power of the Most High]; Luke 2: 25-27; John 6: 63; 20: 22; Acts 1: 2; 2: 4; 8: 15, 17-19, 39; 1 Cor. 14: 12 [the word here translated spiritual is pneumaton, of spirits, powers, and there is no word in the Greek corresponding to the word gifts in the A.V., as indicated by its being printed in italics in the A.V.], 32; Heb. 2: 4; Rev. 11: 11).


Because of this root idea of invisible power and because it is invisible, (2) air is the second meaning that these words ruach and pneuma have taken on, as



the following citations prove: Gen. 7: 22 [literally, wherein is the breath of lives' air, ruach]; 2 Sam. 22: 11 [the word ruach, here translated wind, means air; and its figurative wings are the wind, whereby it flies; the A.V. has given the sense of the passage, not a literal translation of it]; Job 15: 2; 16: 3 [vain knowledge and vain words of these two passages are the translation of the word ruach combined with the words for knowledge and words, the word ruach being here applied to them to indicate their vacancy suggested by air]; 41: 16; Ps. 18: 15 [air, ruach, not breath; for the word blast in this verse is a mistranslation of neshamah, breath; thus the phrase should read, at the breath of the air of Thy nostrils]; Prov. 11: 29 [ruach here should be rendered not wind, but air, which more forcibly gives the idea of utter poverty than does wind]; Is. 26: 18 [air as the translation for ruach fits better than the A.V.'s wind]; Jer. 2: 24; 14: 6 [the same remark applies to these two passages]; Jas. 2: 26. Because the wind is air in motion and is an invisible power, ruach and pneuma, because of their basal meaning have assumed the sense of (3) wind. Wind is Biblically one of the most frequent senses of ruach, though it is not one of the most frequent meanings of pneuma Biblically. This sense of these words will appear true from the following citations: Ex. 10: 13, 19; 14: 21; Num. 11: 31; 1 Kings 18: 45; 19: 11; Job 6: 26; 8: 2; 21: 18; Ps. 1: 4; 48: 7; 147: 18; 148: 8; Prov. 25: 14, 23; Eccl. 1: 6; Is. 7: 2; Jer. 18: 17; Ezek. 5: 10, 12; 13: 11, 13; 37: 9 [four winds]; Dan. 8: 8; Jonah 1: 4; 4: 8; Zech. 5: 9; John 3: 8.


Because breath is air inhaled and exhaled, and is an invisible power, the words ruach and pneuma have taken on the sense (4) of breath, as the following passages show: Gen. 6: 17; 7: 15; 2 Sam. 22: 16; Job 15: 30; Jer. 10: 14; 51: 17; Lam. 4: 20; Ezek. 37: 5, 6, 8, 9 [breath in three of the four occurrences



of ruach in this verse], 10; Hab. 2: 19; Matt. 27: 50 [not ghost, but breath; Mark 15: 37, 39; Luke 23: 46 are similarly and worse misrendered; for the verb, expneusen, from the same root as the noun pneuma, has been rendered, "gave up the ghost," whereas it should have been given, breathed out, expired]; John 19: 30 [not ghost, but breath]; Jas. 2: 26 [the word pneuma here means air, as shown under (2), and breath]. Because breath is an invisible power, and because the life-principle, an invisible power, was originally derived from the air's oxygen which Adam absorbed from the breath that God caused to enter his breathing system, and because this life-principle is maintained by a continuance of the breathing process, the words ruach and pneuma have taken on the meaning (5) of life-principle, i.e., the spark of life, as the following passages show: Job 6: 4; 10: 12; Eccl. 3: 19, 21 [twice]; 8: 8 [twice]; 11: 5; Is. 42: 5; 57: 16; Jas. 2: 26 [not only does the word pneuma here mean air and breath, but it also means life-principle]; Rev. 13: 15 [pneuma, here translated life, means life-principle here]. Since our energy, which is an invisible power, is largely the product of our life-principle, the words ruach and pneuma have taken on the meaning (6) of vitality, vigor, animation, an invisible power, as the following passages prove: Gen. 45: 27 [the word ruach, here rendered spirit, means vigor, animation]; Josh. 2: 11 [the word ruach, here translated courage, means vigor, animation]; 5: 1; Judg. 15: 19; 1 Sam. 30: 12; 1 Kings 10: 5; 2 Chron. 9: 4; Acts 17: 16; Rev. 13: 15 [in addition to meaning life-principle here, pneuma also here means vitality, vigor, animation].


Because the privilege to live, an invisible power, is closely connected with the life-principle, the words ruach and pneuma have taken on the meaning (7) of the privilege to live, as the following passages show: Num. 16: 22; 27: 16 [the Lord is in these two passages spoken of as the God of the spirits of all flesh, because



He controls as to every human being his privilege of living]; Eccl. 12: 7; Luke 8: 55; Rev. 13: 15 [the word pneuma here not only means life-principle and vitality, but it also means the privilege to live, which the two-horned beast gave the image of the beast].


Because the life-principle is closely connected with the right to live in those who have that right—God, Christ, the good angels and new creatures—the words ruach and pneuma have taken on the meaning (8) of the right to live. The race of Adam in him lost the right to live, though those of his race who have not yet succumbed fully to the dying process have a temporary privilege to live, without the right to live. Since the death of Christ won the right to give back to the lost race the right to live on certain conditions, and does give it back to those who fulfill those conditions, the right to life was not given any human being in the Old Testament times, seeing that Christ had not then yet died for mankind. This accounts for the fact that the word ruach was not in the Old Testament used in the sense of the right to live, except as prophetically of Jesus and the Church. The following passages prove these thoughts: Ps. 31: 5; Luke 23: 46; Acts 7: 59.


Because the disposition—the mind, heart and will—is an invisible power, the words ruach and pneuma have come to mean (9) disposition, regardless of whether thereby God's, Christ's, angels' or men's dispositions are meant. The following passages use these words in the sense of disposition: Gen. 26: 35; 41: 8; Ex. 6: 9; 28: 3; 35: 21; Num. 5: 14; Deut. 2: 30; Judg. 8: 3; 1 Sam. 1: 15; 16: 14; 1 Kings 21: 5; 1 Chron. 5: 26 [twice]; 2 Chron. 21: 16; 36: 22; Neh. 9: 20; Job 7: 11; 15: 13; 32: 18; 34: 14; Ps. 32: 2; 34: 18; 51: 10-12, 17; 106: 33; 142: 3; Prov. 11: 13; 14: 29;15: 13;16: 2, 18, 19, 32; 17: 27; 18: 14 [twice]; Prov. 25: 28; 29: 11, 23; Eccl. 1: 14, 17; 7: 8, 9; Is. 11: 2 [four times]; Is. 19: 3, 14; 54: 6; 57: 15 [twice]; Is. 63: 10; 65: 14; Jer. 51: 11; Ezek. 11: 5, 19; 36: 26;



 Dan. 2: 1, 3; Hos. 4: 12; Joel 2: 28; Hab. 1: 11; Zech. 12: 1, 10; Mal. 2: 15 [twice]; Mal. 2: 16; Matt. 4: 1; 5: 3; Mark 8: 12; Luke 1: 17, 47, 80; 2: 40; 4: 14; 9: 55; John 4: 24 [second occurrence]; John 11: 33; 13: 21; 14: 17; Acts 2: 4; 6: 10; 20: 28; Rom. 1: 4, 9; 8: 9 [second and third uses]; Rom. 1: 14, 15 [twice]; Rom. 1: 16 [second use]; Rom. 11: 8; 12: 11; 1 Cor. 2: 10-14 [eight uses]; 1 Cor. 3: 16; 4: 21; 5: 3, 4; 6: 17, 19, 20; 7: 34, 40; 12: 3 [twice]; 1 Cor. 12: 4, 7-11 [seven times]; 1 Cor. 12: 13 [twice]; 1 Cor. 14: 14-16 [three times]; 2 Cor. 2: 13; 4: 13; 7: 1, 13; 11: 4; 12: 18; 13: 14; Gal. 4: 6; Eph. 1: 13, 17; 3: 16; 4: 23, 30; 6: 18; Phil. 1: 19, 27; 3: 3; Col. 2: 5; 1 Thes. 5: 19, 23; 1 Tim. 3: 16; 2 Tim. 1: 7; 4: 22; Phile. 25; Heb. 6: 4; 9: 14; 10: 15; Jas. 4: 5; 1 Pet. 3: 4; 4: 14; I John 3: 24; Jude 20; Rev. 1: 10; 4: 2; 17: 3. The ninth sense, disposition, is one of the most frequently occurring of the twelve Bible senses of the words ruach and pneuma.


Because the new creature—that which is begotten in the Church, and that which the world in no sense has—is an invisible power and is very closely related to the preceding sense, disposition, as this sense is used of God's, Christ's and the good angels' spirit, the words ruach and pneuma are used to mean (10) the new creature, often in this sense connected with the word holy. And since Jesus was the first to receive it in this sense, and since it was not given to any of Adam's fallen descendants until Pentecost (John 7: 39; Acts 2: 1-4), this sense of the word does not occur in the Old Testament, except in such passages as prophesy it as coming upon Christ and the Church. The following passages will show ruach and pneuma to mean the new creature: Is. 26: 9; 42: 1; Joel 2: 29; Matt. 3: 11, 16; 10: 20; 26: 41; Mark 1: 8, 10; Luke 11: 13; John 1: 33 [twice]; Acts 1: 8; 2: 33, 38; 5: 32; 10: 38, 44, 45, 47; 15: 8; 19: 2 [twice]; Acts 19: 6; Rom. 5: 5; 8: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 [literally, the mind of the spirit]; Rom. 8: 9 [first and second uses]; Rom. 8: 10, 11 [twice]; Rom. 8: 16, 23, 26 [twice],



Rom. 8: 27; 1 Cor. 5: 5; 2 Cor. 1: 22; Gal. 3: 2, 3, 14; 4: 29; 5: 16, 17 [twice]; Gal. 5: 18, 22, 25 [twice]; Gal. 6: 8 [twice]; Eph. 2: 18, 22; 4: 3, 4; 5: 9; 6: 17; Phil. 2: 1; Col. 1: 8; 1 Thes. 4: 8; 2 Thes. 2: 13; 2 Tim. 1: 14; Tit. 3: 5; Heb. 12: 9; 1 Pet. 1: 2, 12; 4: 6; 1 John 5: 8; Jude 19. It is this sense and some of the occurrences of the preceding sense that Satan has so grossly misapplied to all of Adam's race, and then perverted their senses to mean that a spirit being is in, and is a part of man.


Because spirit beings are invisible and powerful the words ruach and pneuma are in the Bible used to mean (11) spirits, i.e., spirit beings. It is in this sense of these words that Satan through almost all religions, denominations and sects has deceived the bulk of mankind to believe that they have spirits within themselves. The following occurrences use these words in this sense; but it will be observed that no passage uses this sense of the word to describe man's ruach, pneuma: 1 Kings 22: 21-24 [four uses]; 2 Chro. 18: 20-22 [three uses];Job 4: 15; Ps. 104: 4; Matt. 8: 16; 10: 1; 12: 43, 45; Mark 1: 23, 26, 27; 3: 11, 30; 5: 2, 8, 13; 6: 7; 7: 25; 9: 17, 20, 25 [twice]; Luke 4: 33, 36; 6: 18; 7: 21; 8: 2, 29; 9: 39, 42; 10: 20; 11: 24, 26; 24: 37, 39; John 3: 6 [second use]; John 4: 24; Acts 8: 7; 16: 18; 19: 12, 13, 15, 16; 23: 8, 9; 1 Cor. 15: 45; 2 Cor. 3: 17; Eph. 2: 2; Heb. 1: 7, 14; 1 Pet. 3: 18, 19.

We have just cited every passage of the Bible in which the word ruach and pneuma occur in the sense of a spirit being, and in none of them is the word used as referring to man's having a spirit being in him that at death leaves the body and lives on consciously in bliss or torment. The reason for this is that man has no such thing within him.


Because teachings, whether true or false, are invisible powers, the Bible as the last sense of the word uses the words ruach and pneuma to mean (12) teaching, doctrine, true or false, true ones often being modified by the word holy, as the following passages



prove: Gen. 6: 3; Is. 30: 28; 31: 3; 33: 11; 34: 16; Ezek. 13: 3; Hos. 9: 7 [see the margin]; Mic. 2: 11; Zech. 6: 8; 13: 2; Acts 20: 23; Rom. 8: 16 [first use]; 1 Cor. 2: 9; 12: 10; Eph. 3: 5; 2 Thes. 2: 2, 8; 1 Tim. 4: 1 [twice]; Heb. 3: 7; 9: 8; 10: 15; 1 John 4: 1 [twice]; John 4: 2 [twice]; John 4: 3, 6 [twice]; John 5: 6 [twice]; Rev. 1: 4; 2: 7, 11, 17, 29; 3: 1, 6, 13, 22; 4: 5; 5: 6; 14: 13; 16: 13, 14; 18: 2; 19: 10; 22: 17. Every passage using these words to mean teaching, doctrine is here cited.


Thus we have proved that the Bible uses the words ruach and pneuma in at least twelve different senses. We have been perhaps too liberal as to certain senses in the number of our citations; for we have cited an abundant sufficiency of the approximately 800 occurrences of these two words to give conclusive proof of the pertinent twelve senses. For about six of these senses we did cite every occurrence of the pertinent passages. In the other senses they were too numerous to cite in their entirety; but in all cases we cited at least enough to prove abundantly our twelve points thereon. In the cases where the citations were not complete we did cite every passage that Satan has used through sectarian errorists in his attempts to palm off as Biblical his false doctrine that there is a spirit being in man that is the real man, and that after death lives on in bliss or torture; and we have in these cases shown the true sense of the words to exclude Satan's error. Some of the more important of these we will explain somewhat more. This is especially true of the misuse that he has made of various passages in which the fifth sense of the word occurs, life-principle, spark of life, and which he has perverted to mean spirit beings, as a proof that there is in man a spirit being. E.g., Eccl. 8: 8 twice uses the word ruach in the sense of the life-principle, or the spark of life that we get out of the air taken into our nostrils as breath. This passage teaches that we have no power to retain at will this spark of life. But Satan has induced false



teachers to use the term to mean a spirit being, a thing that no Scripture teaches to be in the natural man. James 2: 26 is another passage so perverted; but in this passage undoubtedly the word spirit means air, breath and life-principle, or spark of life.


We proceed to study other pertinent verses: Ps. 31: 5 and Luke 23: 46, passages that apply to Jesus' last words on the cross, Satan has similarly perverted. Ps. 31: 5 is a prophecy of our Lord, describing how He would yield up in death His human right to life as the ransom-price. That this does not mean Christ's commending an alleged spirit being of His to the Father's care, is evident from the Greek word mistranslated commend in the A.V. of Luke 23: 46. The Greek word is paratithemai, the middle voice, and means to deposit for oneself, as, e.g., money is deposited for oneself in a bank. See Thayer, 486, col. 2, under 2, Mid[dle voice]. The following is the translation of the Improved Version: "Father, into Thy hands I deposit for myself [middle voice] My right to life." The language here used is that of a business transaction, and is such, because Jesus is here stating the fact that He was depositing with the Father for His future use on behalf of the Church and the world (1 John 2: 2) His right to life, which is the ransom-price, the corresponding price for Adam and the race that died in his loins. Accordingly, these passages have no reference whatever to an alleged spirit being in Jesus which He allegedly at death commended to the Father's care. Eccl. 12: 7 is another passage so misused by Satan, whereas the passage teaches us that in death the body returns to the dust whence it was taken (Gen. 2: 7) and the privilege of living, the ruach of this verse, to which the death sentenced race has no right, since Adam by sin forfeited the right to life for himself and his race, reverts to God, its Giver (Gen. 2: 7). Thus in this passage death is shown to undo what God did when He created



man, reducing man to what he was before his creation (Gen. 2: 7)—God takes away his privilege to live and makes his body dissolve into its native elements. There is nothing in this passage to imply that there is a spirit being in man that at death leaves the body and lives on either in bliss or in torment.


That this is not the writer's thought can be seen in Eccl. 3: 19, where he directly states that both man and beast have the same ruach, incorrectly here translated breath, the connection (Eccl. 3: 19-21) showing that it means life-principle, the spark of life. Here evidently the idea of spirit being does not fit; for it would imply that beasts have such. But please note that in v. 21 he argues against the idea that man's spirit [spark of life] ascends to heaven, and the beast's spirit [spark of life] descends to the earth. The A.V. very incorrectly translates v. 21; for the right translation we quote that of the A.R.V.—"Who knoweth the spirit of man, whether it goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast, whether it goeth downward to the earth?" The Israelites did not believe that there was any difference between the ruach of man, as the spark of life, and that of beast, as Solomon shows in v. 19; but the heathen, deceived by Satan's first lie, believed that man's ruach, pneuma, was a spirit being, and that the beast's was not. Hence Solomon challenges their doctrine in v. 21, as well as denies it, which being done by Divine inspiration, proves the erroneousness of the heathen, and the veracity of the Israelitish doctrine on the subject. The doctrine that each man has a spirit being in himself that after death lives on consciously, in bliss or in torture, is without any real Biblical foundation. Some of its proponents claim that their alleged human spirit being descends from the parents as a part of the act of human begettal, others that God at the birth of each one intervenes and puts a part of His own substance into each babe as a spirit being. Both doctrines grossly violate God's character



and the Bible teachings on man's nature. On the contrary, as we showed above, Gen. 2: 7 teaches that the first creative process produced a perfect human body and that the second creative process caused the vitalized air to enter Adam's nostrils. In the following pages we will point out the third creative process—the production of man as a human soul.


It must be said that nowhere in the Bible, except in Satan's first falsehood (Gen. 3: 4, 5; John 8: 44), is it taught that a human being on dying becomes a spirit being, i.e., becomes like the gods, the angels, who are spirits (Ps. 8: 5; 97: 7; Heb. 2: 7; 1: 6, 7, 14.). This doctrine is one of the thoughts of the first series of errors ever taught, and its author being Satan is the guarantee that it is an error. According to this doctrine man is a mixture of natures, one an animal, the other a spirit, and man's death is the separation of these; while according to the Bible man is a soul, who springs into being by a union of his body and life-principle, and who ceases to exist, i.e., dies, by a separation of the body and the life-principle. The following questions rightly answered will disprove Satan's error and prove God's Truth on this subject: If death is the separation of the body and soul, how could putting one under water a half hour drive a spirit being out of his body any more than putting him under the same water in a properly equipped diving suit or submarine would drive the same spirit out of him? But if death is the separation of the body and the life-principle, which we derive from the air, we at once see how the former experience does, but the latter experience does not, produce death; for the former, but not the latter, experience separates the life-principle from the body.


If death is a separation of body and soul—a spirit—why should putting one in a vacuum for a half hour cause the spirit to leave the body any more than putting one in a well-ventilated room should drive a spirit out of the body? But if death is the separation of the body



and the life-principle, derived from the air, we at once see why the former experience does, and why the latter experience does not, produce death. If death is the separation of the body and soul—a spirit—why does squeezing a person's throat tightly for a half hour drive a spirit out of his body any more than squeezing a finger tip a half hour should drive the same spirit out of his body? But if death is the separation of the body and the life-principle, derived from the air, we can readily see how the former experience, by severing one from the air from which he sustains his life, should produce death, while the latter experience will not so do. Again, if death is the separation of body and soul—a spirit—why should putting one in an airtight box drive a spirit out of him any more than putting him in a spacious, well-ventilated room? But if death is the separation of the body and life-principle, derived from the air, we readily see why the former experience does, and why the latter experience does not, produce death. If death is the separation of body and soul—a spirit—why should burying one alive in due time drive a spirit out of one's body any more than one's going into a spacious cave? But if death is the separation of the body and life-principle, derived from the air, we can readily see why the former experience does, and why the latter experience does not, produce death. If death is the separation of the body and soul—a spirit—why should the simultaneous closing of the nostrils and mouth by one's hands for a half hour drive a spirit out of one's body any more than the simultaneous closing of one's eyes and stopping of one's ears by one's hands for a half hour? But if death is a separation of the body and life-principle, derived from the air, we can readily see how the former experience does, and the latter does not, produce death.


If death is the separation of body and soul—a spirit— why should one's being in a room full of gas drive a spirit out of his body any more than his being



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