Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13

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in a well-ventilated room? But if death is a separation of the body and life-principle, derived from air, we can readily see why the former experience does, and why the latter experience does not, produce death. If death is the separation of the body and soul—a spirit—why does the opening of an artery, resulting in the loss of an immense amount of blood, produce death any more than the opening of one's mouth and expectorating? But if death is the separation of the body and life-principle, between which two the blood, as the absorber of life-principle from the air and as its carrier to every part of the body is the connecting link, we can readily see how, the absorber of the life-principle from the air, its carrier to every part of the body and the connecting link between the body and life-principle being removed, i.e., the separation between the body and life-principle having set in, the opening of a mouth does not, while the opening of an artery does, cause death. In every case given above, and others could be cited, we see that death is the separation, not of the soul, but of the life from the body. These facts are perfectly in harmony with the Scriptures, which teach that death is a separation of the body and the life-principle, resulting in the extinction of the soul, until the awakening of the dead, as can clearly be seen in Ps. 146: 4: "His breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth; in that very day his thoughts perish," i.e., he becomes unconscious in death.

 

So far in describing man's creation we have treated (1) of God's forming man's body and (2) of His blowing into man's nostrils the breath of lives, the life-principle. As the result of the latter act there occurred a union of the body and the life-principle. How did this occur? By means of the blood, whose red corpuscles, having an affinity for the life-principle, absorbed it, as a sponge, having affinity for water, absorbs it. In creating the blood God, among other things, imparted to its red corpuscles this affinity and absorbing

 

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propensity toward life-principle, as in creating the bodily organs He imparted to them the capacity and adaptability to perform their several functions, if life-principle from the blood would pervade them. In describing the circulation of the blood we pointed out how the heart, by its right auricle and ventricle, through the pulmonary artery, pumps the blood to the lungs, where the blood discharges some of its carbon dioxide and absorbs the life-principle-laden oxygen from the air in the lungs, and then described how the blood returns to the heart, i.e., to its left auricle and ventricle, by which it is pumped through the aorta into the arteries, which carry it throughout the body, whence it returns through the veins to the heart's right auricle and ventricle to be again pumped to the lungs, which entire process is repeated as long as one lives. Thus we have two kinds of circulation: the pulmonary and the systemic. Both of these must be understood, if the way the body and life-principle become united is to be understood. Of course, there was no circulation going on in Adam's body before the life-principle entered it. We may assume that while there was some blood distributed throughout that body, a goodly amount of it was especially in its organs belonging to the pulmonary system of circulation, particularly in the part touching the lungs themselves. Again, in describing the breathing process we pointed out how the oxygen in the air reaches the lungs and the blood in it through the nares, glottis, windpipe, bronchi, bronchial tubes and air cells. It is in the air cells that the air is brought into contact with the lungs and the blood.

 

The breath of lives—the air as breath, instinct with life-principle, blown by God into Adam's nose—found its way, through the respiratory organs just mentioned, to the blood which was in contact with Adam's lungs. This blood through its red corpuscles absorbed this life-principle, which by the contact of corpuscle with corpuscle traveled from one to the other very quickly

 

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and was by each one in turn passed on to others, even as electricity is passed on quickly through a wire or another conductor from atom to atom. In so penetrating and permeating the corpuscles the life-principle imparted motion to the blood, which as a result began to travel toward and into the left side of the heart, filling its auricle, then its ventricle, which, when fully distended, according to its nature contracted and thereby pumped the blood out of the heart, through the aorta, into the arteries, whence it went to every part of Adam's body; and as it came into contact with each organ it energized it to perform its function. As a result "man [that which lay on the ground as a perfect, but lifeless organism before energized by the life-principle, and called man (Gen. 2: 7) or Adam (1 Cor. 15: 45) in view of what it would become when so energized] became a living soul."

 

Thus such vitalized blood, making the heart pump the blood throughout the body, also made the arteries, veins and capillaries become the avenues of the blood's circulation, made the stomach and the small and large intestines act digestively as to food and drink, made the excretory organs operate, and made the liver, pancreas, spleen, gall bladder, etc., act their separate parts in the digestive works, and the breathing organs to contribute each its part in the breathing process. Likewise the lungs were made to contact the life-principle with the blood and to throw off carbon dioxide, the nose made to smell, the tongue to taste and speak, the ears to hear, the eyes to see and the skin to feel. The energized blood made each of the 10,000 nerves perform its function, wherever in the body it was located. Indeed, the nerves are avenues by which the life-principle acts throughout the body. Thus, according to each organ's function, the life-laden blood, which, because of its being the vehicle of the life-principle, is in the Bible called the life (Lev. 17: 11, 14), caused the organs to perform their work

 

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in Adam. Its most marvelous effect was in the brain. It gave Adam's brain the power to exercise its various functions. Thus, the life-principle enabled the brain in its intellectual faculties to perceive, to remember and to reason. It gave the brain in its religious sensibilities the ability to exercise faith, hope, self-control, patience, piety, neighbor love and disinterested love. It enabled the brain in its selfish faculties to exercise itself in love of a good opinion of self, others' good opinion, rest, life, safety, self-defense, aggression, concealment of injurious things, gaining, retaining, food, drink, the opposite sex, spouse, children, parents, brethren, friends, home and native land. It also empowered the brain to exercise humility, modesty, industry, self-sacrificingness, long-suffering, forbearance, forgiveness, liberality, contentment, moderation, chastity and impartiality, as well as to exercise zeal, meekness, gentleness, magnanimity, joy, obedience and faithfulness. In the will it gave the brain the power of exercising the ability to choose or reject, as inclined by the disposition— the personal bent.

 

In a word, the life-energized blood enabled all the faculties of the body, mind and heart to exercise their functions as the constituents of a person. Hence, that perfect body, which lay on the ground as a lifeless organism, through being energized by its union with the life-principle in the blood, became a living soul, a living being. Mark well that the words of Gen. 2: 7 do not read, "and man received a living soul," as the creeds, darkened by Satan, teach. Mark well that the words of Gen. 2: 7 do not read, "and God breathed into man's nostrils a spirit and thus man got a living soul," as the creeds, following Satan's first falsehood, teach. The language is very explicit, very plain—"God blew into Adam's nostrils the breath of lives; and man [that lifeless but perfect organism that lay on the ground] became a living soul," i.e., a living being. God's description of the creation of the soul, the being,

 

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the person, Adam, is so plain, so simple and so explicit that human ingenuity cannot in so terse a use of language improve upon the description of man's creative process and its resultant product. In the preceding paragraph we have given the main features that constituted man a soul; but everything that we there said is included in the expression, "Man became a living soul." Accordingly, we see that the Bible description of what a soul is differs radically from the Satan-invented theory on the nature of a soul, with which he first blinded Mother Eve, then the heathen and then, during the Dark Ages, the apostate church.

 

According to this false theory a soul is not any sentient being, but is an immaterial spirit being that lives in one's body, either given at birth by God directly to everyone or transmitted to everyone by the parents at the begettal, the proponents of the theory cannot decide which, and that at death leaves the body and lives solely as a spirit being in conscious bliss or torment. Perhaps no other doctrine has served to blind people to the plan of God more than this one, which the Bible plainly shows is one of the elements of Satan's monumental lie. By this lie he deceived Mother Eve, inveigled Father Adam into sin, and thus murdered the whole human family (Gen. 3: 4, 5; John 8: 44). It is not our design here to give arguments directly refutative of this doctrine. This we will do in detail when we come to deal with the penalty of sin. All that need here be said on it is that the Bible, except in giving the record of Satan's lie, is utterly silent on the soul of man as being a spirit being, that it teaches a different view of the human soul's nature, and that this doctrine was invented by Satan as a part of his first lie. Rather it is our purpose here to unfold constructively the Bible view of the nature of a soul. Hence, here we will discuss the question of what a soul is, particularly with reference to a human soul. In giving a definition of a soul we know no better one

 

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to give than the following: A soul is a sentient being, a being possessed of intelligence, feeling and will. We believe this definition will fit every use of the word soul, when properly so translated, found in the Bible. Indeed, those who believe that the soul is a spirit being accept and use this definition, which is the regular dictionary definition of the term, but forsake it when applied to other earthly sentient beings than human. But a definition to be correct must include everything coming under it, and exclude everything not coming under it. And it is because the definition of the soul as a spirit being excludes many things that the Bible calls souls that we reject it, and because the definition of a soul as a sentient being, i.e., a being endowed with intellect, feelings and will, covers every use of the word soul, when rightly translated, found in the Bible, that we hold it to be the proper definition of the word.

 

A soul, then, is any sentient being. As such these may be spirit beings, like God (Heb. 10: 38); human beings, like Adam (Gen. 2: 7), or beasts, like cattle, sheep, asses (Num. 31: 28). Why are all these souls? Because they are sentient beings, beings possessed of intelligence, feeling and will. Of course, they do not possess intelligence, feeling and will in equal degree. This difference, however, does not unmake any of these as souls; for if one should say that the lower animals are not souls because, e.g., they have less intelligence than man, we might reply that the difference between man's and their intelligence is decidedly less than the difference between God's and man's intelligence, yet God and man are souls. It is sufficient that the lower animals are souls for them, among other things to have enough intelligence for their plane of being; but since they are undoubtedly sentient beings they are souls. The following passages call lower animals souls in the Hebrew (nephesh) (though the A. V. does not usually translate this word nephesh "soul" in connection with the

 

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lower animals, which has served to darken the subject); hence they must be souls: Gen. 1: 20, 21, 24, 30; 2: 19; Lev. 11: 46 [in these passages the word nephesh, soul, is translated creature that hath life or living creature]; 24: 18 [in the first use literally, the soul of a beast, and in the second and third uses translated "beast for beast," but should be "soul for soul"]; Num. 31: 28; Prov. 12: 10 [literally, soul of his beast]; Is. 19: 10 [nephesh, soul, is here translated fish, but should have been given as souls]. Thus 15 times the word nephesh is used of beasts, but in only one of these does the A. V. render it properly by souls, forced thereto by the connection (Num. 31: 28), which by the expression souls covers people and beasts. Thus its translators' preconceived, erroneous opinions on the nature of the soul moved them to hide the use of the word nephesh when applied in the sense of soul to lower animals, except in the one case where they were forced by the connection to render it soul, since it is there used of people, as well as of beasts.

 

When used of human beings the Hebrew and Greek words for soul (nephesh and psyche) are interchangeable with the personal or indefinite pronouns, the latter when the word is used indefinitely, or with the word person. Due to the error under which its translators unconsciously labored, the A. V. has rendered the word nephesh by 35 different words and the word psyche by 5 different words. Biblically, the word nephesh occurs 743 times and psyche 103 times. Properly they have but three meanings: (1) life, by which the A. V. renders them 163 times (nephesh 123 and psyche 40 times), (2) soul, i.e., sentient being, or person, by which the A. V. renders them 486 times (nephesh 428 and psyche 58 times) and (3) disposition, i.e., mind and heart. The A. V. renders them by heart 16 times (nephesh 15 times and psyche once) and by mind 18 times (nephesh 15 times and psyche 3 times). We believe that the three definitions that we

 

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have just given will respectively cover every use of the Hebrew word nephesh and the Greek word psyche. It would be superfluous to cite every one of the 743 occurrences of nephesh and the 103 occurrences of psyche, distributed under the three definitions of these words. But we will cite a sufficiency of the occurrences of both words to prove our thought to be true. First we will cite passages that prove these words to mean life: Gen. 9: 4, 5 (3 times); 19: 17, 19; Ex. 4: 19; Lev. 17: 11 (4 times); Num. 35: 31; 2 Sam. 1: 9; 14: 7; 1 Kings 3: 11; 17: 21, 22; 19: 2, 3, 4 (4 times); 2 Kings 7: 7; Esther 7: 3, 7; 9: 16; Job 2: 4, 6; 11: 20; Ps. 38: 12; 40: 14; Prov. 1: 18, 19; Is. 15: 4; Jer. 4: 30; 11: 21; 15: 9; 48: 6; Ezek. 32: 10; Matt. 6: 25 (twice); Mark 3: 4; Luke 6: 9; Acts 20: 10; 27: 10, 22; Rev. 8: 9; 12: 11. An attentive study of these verses will prove that nephesh and psyche in them mean life, and not a spirit being.

 

It is because life is essential for, and the basis of the existence of a soul, that the words nephesh and psyche came to mean (2) soul, sentient being, which, if it refers to a human soul, means a person. We will now cite some passages that use the words nephesh and psyche to mean soul as just defined: Gen. 17: 14; 46: 18, 22, 25, 26 (twice), 27 (twice); Lev. 4: 2; 5: 1, 2, 4, 15, 17; 7: 18, 20 (twice); Lev. 11: 10; 17: 10-12 (five times); Num. 15: 27, 30, 31 (four times); Num. 19: 18, 20, 22; 31: 19, 35, 40 (twice), Num. 31: 46; 35: 11, 15 (twice); Deut. 10: 22; 27: 25; Josh. 10: 28, 30, 32, 35, 37 (twice); Josh. 10: 39; 11: 11; 20: 3, 9; 2 Sam. 14: 14; Ps. 94: 21; Prov. 11: 17, 25, 30; 14: 25; 19: 2, 15; 25: 25; 27: 7 (twice); Prov. 28: 17; Prov. 58: 10; Jer. 52: 29, 30 (twice); Lam. 3: 25; Ezek. 13: 18 (thrice); Ezek. 13: 19, 20 (thrice); Ezek. 17: 17; 18: 4 (4 times); Ezek. 17: 27; 22: 25, 27; 27: 13; 33: 6; Matt. 10: 28 (twice); Acts 2: 41, 43; 3: 23; 7: 14; 27: 37; Rom. 2: 9; 13: 1; 1 Cor. 15: 45; Jas. 5: 20; Rev. 6: 9; 16: 3; 18: 13. Every one of these Old Testament passages uses nephesh and every one of

 

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these New Testament passages uses psyche, correctly translated soul, to mean a sentient being; and in every case it means person; and in not a few of these passages, which are a selection from among many, they are in the A.V. translated person.

 

That the words nephesh and psyche when used in the sense of soul, i.e., a sentient being, mean a person, is further evident from the fact that they can be supplanted by the equivalent of a person, i.e., by the personal pronouns, or in case of an indefinite person, by the indefinite pronouns, and the exact sense of the passage is thus kept. In the following passages please substitute for the word soul the personal pronouns, first, second or third person, singular or plural, as the case may require, or in the case of indefinite persons, the pertinent indefinite pronoun, and the sense of the passage will be correctly given, which proves that the word soul in these passages means person, which is always its meaning when referring to human souls: Gen. 19: 20; 27: 4, 19, 31; Ex. 30: 15, 16; 30: 12, 15, 16; Lev. 11: 43, 44; 16: 29, 31; 17: 11 (twice); Lev. 20: 25; Num. 11: 6; 16: 38; 23: 10; 30: 2, 4 (twice); Num. 30: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12; Deut. 4: 15, 29; 6: 5;13: 6; 19: 6, 11; Josh. 23: 11; Judg. 10: 16; 16: 16, 30; 1 Sam. 2: 16; 17: 55; 18: 1 (third use); 1 Sam. 2: 3; 20: 3, 4, 17; 24: 11; 25: 26, 29 (first use); 1 Sam. 26: 21; 2 Sam. 4: 9; 11: 11; 1 Kings 19: 4; 20: 32; Esther 4: 13; Job 9: 21; 10: 1 (twice); Job 16: 4 (twice); Job 18: 4; 19: 2; 27: 8; 30: 16, 25; 32: 2; 33: 18, 20, 22, 28, 30; 36: 14. In the 139 occurrences of nephesh in the Psalms exactly 99 of them are capable of this substitution, 37 of them are used in the third sense of the word, disposition, i.e., heart and mind (and as we will later show are also capable of this substitution), and 3 of them in the sense of life. In the books of the Old Testament following the Psalms, there are 106 occurrences of this word nephesh wherein the pronouns can be substituted. Having given already a great sufficiency in

 

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proof of this point, we will cite no more of these 205 occurrences. But we may further remark that so apparent is this matter of substitution that the A. V. has used it in exactly 50 occurrences of the word nephesh.

 

We will now cite some of the occurrences of psyche in the sense of a soul, a sentient being, and in the case of a human soul, meaning a person, in which use such substitution can be made, and thereby the sense of the passage be preserved: Matt. 11: 29; 12: 18 (here God as a soul is referred to); Matt. 16: 25 (twice); Matt. 16: 26 (twice); Matt. 20: 28; 26: 38; Luke 1: 46; 2: 35; 21: 19; John 10: 11, 15, 17, 24; 12: 27; 13: 37, 38; 15: 13; Acts 2: 27, 31; 15: 26; 20: 24; Rom. 16: 4; 2 Cor. 1: 23; 12: 15; Phil. 2: 30; 1 Thes. 2: 8; Heb. 6: 19; 10: 38 (God's soul); Heb. 10: 39; 13: 17; Jas. 1: 21; 1 Pet. 1: 9, 22; 2: 25; 4: 19; 1 John 3: 16 (twice); 3 John 2; Rev. 18: 14; 20: 4. In some of these passages the A. V. directly translates the word psyche by the personal pronouns, thus itself making the substitution of the pronouns for the word psyche, in the sense of soul. We will give a few examples of how such substitutions can be made, whereby the reader may be able to make the rest for himself. First we will give some where the substitution is made in the first person of the pronoun: My soul is exceeding sorrowful; even unto death—I am exceeding sorrowful, even unto death (Matt. 26: 38; Mark 14: 34). My soul doth magnify the Lord—I do magnify the Lord (Luke 1: 46). Now is my soul troubled— now am I troubled (John 12: 27). Mine Elect, in whom my [God's] soul is well pleased—Mine Elect, in whom I am well pleased (Matt. 12: 18; Is. 42: 1). My soul shall have no pleasure in him—I will have no pleasure in him (Heb. 10: 38). John 10: 24 and 2 Cor. 12: 15 are cases where the A.V. has made the substitution. Now a few cases of the second person of the pronoun, combined in one sentence: I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods … this night thy soul shall be required—I will say to myself, As for thee, thou hast

 

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much goods … this night thou shalt be required (Luke 12: 19, 20). In your patience possess [preserve] ye your souls … possess [preserve] ye yourselves (Luke 21: 19). A few examples of such substitution of the third person of the pronoun for psyche used in the sense that is now being discussed, a sentient being, a person: What shall it profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose his own soul, or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul … and lose himself, or … in exchange for himself (Matt. 16: 26). To give His soul a ransom for many—to give Himself a ransom for many; compare with 1 Tim. 2: 6 (Matt. 20: 28). His soul was not left in hell—He was not left in hell (Acts 2: 31). Lev. 4: 27; Num. 35: 11, 15, 30; Deut. 24: 7 and 1 Sam. 22: 2 are cases where the indefinite pronoun is substituted. We suggest that our readers look up all the passages in these two paragraphs, making their own substitutions.

 

Because a soul, a sentient being, referring as it does to a person, has personal qualities, the words nephesh and psyche mean (3) disposition, i.e., the heart and mind in their personal qualities, since the disposition is the sum total of character attributes. In this, the third sense of nephesh and psyche, they may also be substituted with the personal pronouns, and that because they are used to refer to personal qualities. We will give examples of this meaning of both of these words, remarking that nephesh is so used 131 times and psyche 12 times: Gen. 23: 8; 34: 3, 8; 42: 21; 49: 6; Ex. 15: 9; Lev. 26: 11, 15, 16, 30, 43; Num. 21: 4, 5; Deut. 4: 9; 12: 15, 20 (twice); Deut. 12: 21; 14: 26 (twice); Deut. 18: 6; 24: 15; 28: 65; 1 Sam. 1: 10, 15; 2: 33, 35; 2 Sam. 3: 21; 17: 8; 2 Kings 9: 15; Job 3: 20; 7: 11; 14: 22; 19: 2; 30: 25; Ps. 10: 3; 13: 2; 35: 12; 42: 4, 5, 6; 44: 25; 63: 8; 69: 1, 10; 77: 2; 84: 2; 86: 2, 4; 94: 19; 103: 1, 2, 22; 106: 15; 107: 5, 9 (twice), Ps. 107: 18, 26; 119: 167; 123: 4; 138: 3; 143: 6, 8. This will be abundantly sufficient. We request the reader to make the substitution

 

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of the personal pronouns; and he will find the sense preserved. Now for the New Testament examples of psyche in the sense of disposition, i.e., heart and mind: Acts 4: 32; 14: 2, 22; 15: 24; Eph. 6: 6; Phil. 1: 27; Col. 3: 23; Heb. 12: 3; 1 Pet. 1: 22; 2: 11; 2 Pet. 2: 8, 14. In these twelve cases the reader may substitute the pertinent personal pronouns. Thus our investigation has proven abundantly that nephesh and psyche mean: (1) life, (2) soul, in the sense of sentient being, and when a human being is meant, a person, and (3) disposition. There is no inspired Scripture using it to mean a spirit being in man.

 

Under one or another of the three definitions that we have given the words nephesh and psyche, every use of these words in the Bible is covered. We are citing just 418 of the 846 occurrences of these words (surely an abundant sufficiency), as many samples of these three meanings, and as examples of all the senses of these words in their Biblical occurrences. According to the second of these definitions, i.e., the soul is a sentient being, we cannot properly use the expression, We have souls; for according to this definition we are souls. But according to the first and third definitions, which refer to parts of ourselves, one can say, I have life, I have a disposition—heart and mind. But some may be disposed to think that according to Gen. 2: 7 the body and the soul are the same. That they are not the same is evident from Is. 10: 18; Mic. 6: 7; Matt. 10: 28, where they are clearly contrasted. It will be noted that Gen. 2: 7 does not call the lifeless body the soul, though in view of what it was to become it is called man—"God made man [the body] of the dust of the ground; and blew into his nostrils the breath of lives, and man became a living soul." Here the two constituent parts of man are set forth: (1) body and (2) life-principle; and by the union of these two, a third thing came into existence—a living soul. Before the body was united with the life

 

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principle it was not a soul; it was simply a lifeless organism which never had life. Nor was it a dead soul, which the Bible frequently calls one's body after he has lived and died, though this thought is usually hidden under the veil of mistranslation (Lev. 19: 28; 21: 1, 11; 22: 4; Num. 5: 2; 6: 6, 11; 9: 6, 7, 10; 19: 13, etc.). Nor is the life-principle the soul; for it is a substance that is derived from the air. The soul first springs into existence by the union of the body and life-principle, as we explained above. So, then, we are to recognize the soul as the person himself, who as such— as a soul—has two parts: body and life-principle, neither of which has a spirit being.

 

We will offer several illustrations that we trust will clarify the soul as distinct from the body and life-principle, and as coming into existence as a result of the union of the latter two. E.g., a lump of coal is not heat, nor is the fire that sets it ablaze; but as a result of their union heat springs into existence from that coal, which by its carbon contents has the capacity of making heat when set aflame by fire. A piece of wood and fire uniting and likewise producing heat, will also serve to illustrate the relation between body, life-principle and soul. In these illustrations the coal and wood correspond to the body, the fire to life-principle and the heat to the soul, the carbon in the coal and wood corresponding to the faculties for soul existence. A still better illustration is that of an electric lamp, the electricity and light—the union of the lamp and the electricity produce a third thing distinct from the first and second, viz., light. This illustration may well serve to picture forth Adam's creation: the lamp was first made with capacities needful to exercise light-receiving powers, as the body of Adam had capacities needful to exercise soul-receiving powers; the electricity before reaching the button of the lamp corresponds to the life-principle before it entered Adam's nostrils; the turning on of the button corresponds to God's

 

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blowing the breath of lives into Adam's nostrils; and the electricity energizing the filament of the lamp represents the life-principle energizing the blood and by it every organ of the body; and the light that results from the union of the lamp and electricity corresponds to the soul—the person. Thus as the heat is distinct from the coal and wood and the fire that lights them, and as the light is distinct from the lamp and electricity, so the soul, the person, is distinct from the body and life-principle. A candle or almost any machine run by electricity or radio also illustrates it.

 

A final consideration that proves that one's soul is himself, a person, i.e., the soul and person are identical, is the Scriptural teaching that a person's death is a soul's death, that to kill a person is to kill a soul, that a dead person is a dead soul, and to keep a soul alive is to keep a person alive. These Scriptures prove that a dead person is a dead soul; for in these passages the word nephesh, soul, is in the A.V. rendered, the dead, dead body, dead person, etc.: Lev. 19: 28; 21: 1, 11; 22: 4; Num. 5: 2; 6: 6, 11; 9: 6, 7, 10; 19: 13; Hag. 2: 13. The following Scriptures, which are but a very few examples among many, prove that to kill a person is to kill a soul, hence the person is the soul, the word nephesh being translated person, or man, or him in most of them: Lev. 24: 17; Num. 31: 19; 35: 11, 15, 30; Deut. 19: 6, 11; 22: 26; 27: 25; Josh. 10: 28, 30, 32, 35, 37, 39; 11: 11; 20: 3, 9; Ezek. 13: 19 (twice); Ezek. 17: 17; 18: 4, 20; 22: 25; Matt. 26: 38; Acts 3: 23. We could have cited an immense number of passages belonging among the foregoing passages that speak of the killing of a person as the cutting off of a soul, i.e., passages like Ex. 12: 19 and Lev. 7: 20, 21. The following passages, which also are but a few examples among many, prove that a person's death is a soul's death and that to keep a person alive is to keep a soul alive, the word nephesh being in them sometimes translated person or by personal

 

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pronouns: Num. 23: 10; Josh. 2: 13; Judg. 16: 16, 30; 1 Sam. 22: 22; Job 31: 39 (margin); Job 33: 22; 36: 14; Ps. 22: 20; 22: 29; 33: 19; 49: 15; 66: 9; 78: 50; 89: 48; 116: 8; Jas. 5: 20. Hence the four lines of thought in this paragraph, each proved by many Scriptures, demonstrate that a human soul is a person.

 

Above we have proved that the words nephesh and psyche have three meanings: (1) life, (2) soul and (3) disposition, and by seven lines of Scriptural evidence we have proved that these words when used to mean the soul mean a sentient being, and as such are Scripturally used of God, of man and of the lower animals and that the human soul is a human being, a person. Hence when Gen. 2: 7 teaches that the body of the prospective Adam, which is called man in view of what he would become, when it was vivified by its union with life-principle; underwent such a change as resulted in the production of a living [energetic] soul, which means that this soul was a living person. This, then, shows what the soul is, what Adam and Eve were as they came from God's creative hand. And with this we end our discussion of man's creation, who as a human soul was the crown of all God's works of creation on earth and on earth alone.

 

Now Heaven in all her glory shone, and roll'd

Her motions, as the great first Mover's hand

First wheel'd their course: Earth in her rich attire

Consummate lovely smil'd; air, water, earth,

By fowl, fish, beast, was flown, was swum, was walk'd

Frequent; and of the sixth day yet remain'd:

 

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There wanted yet the master-work, the end

Of all yet done; a creature, who, not prone

And brute as other creatures, but endued

With sanctity of reason, might, erect

His stature, and upright with front serene

Govern the rest, self-knowing; and from thence

Magnanimous to correspond with Heaven,

But grateful to acknowledge whence his good

Descends, thither with heart, and voice, and eyes

Directed in devotion, to adore

And worship God Supreme, who made him chief

Of all earth's works: therefore The Omnipotent,

Eternal Father (for where is not he

Present?), thus to his Son audibly spake.

"Let us make now Man in our image, Man

In our similitude, and let them rule

Over the fish and fowl of sea and air,

Beast of the field, and over all the Earth,

And every creeping thing that creeps the ground."

This said, he form'd thee, Adam, thee, O man,

Dust of the ground, and in thy nostrils blew

The breath of life; in his own image he

Created thee, in the image of God

Express; and thou becam'st a living soul.

Male he created thee; but thy consort

Female, for race; then bless'd mankind, and said,

"Be fruitful, multiply, and fill the Earth;

Subdue it, and throughout dominion hold

Over fish of the sea, and fowl of th' air,

And every living thing that moves on th' Earth."

Wherever thus created, for no place

Is yet distinct by name, thence, as thou know'st,

He brought thee into this delicious grove,

This garden, planted with the trees of God,

Delectable both to behold and taste;

And freely all their pleasant fruit for food

Gave thee; all sorts are here that all the Earth yields,

Variety without end; but of the tree,

Which, tasted, works knowledge of good and evil,

Thou may'st not; in the day thou eat'st, thou diest;

Death is the penalty imposed; beware,

And govern well thy appetite; lest Sin

Surprise thee, and her black attendant Death.

 

 

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