Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; Titus 2:13
proves them to be without a beginning. The fact that the Bible teaches that His pre-existence started by His being created—begotten—proves that it had a beginning and was, therefore, not from eternity. We repeat the thought that there is no Bible passage or Bible fact that proves our Lord to be without a beginning, to have existed always. All of the pertinent Biblical passages and facts prove the reverse, that He had a beginning. Therefore He is not co-eternal with the Father. To be without a beginning is a unique excellence of the Father; therefore it is shared by Him with no one else, not even with His exalted and highly honored Son, in whom He delights.
The second of the three errors as to Christ's relation to the Father is that He from eternity is consubstantial with the Father. The propounders of this theory mean by it two things: (1) that from eternity He was begotten from the Father's substance and therefore (2) from eternity has had the Father's nature—the Divine nature. Both of these propositions are completely destitute of Scriptural proof and are contrary to the Bible in many ways. Their propounders rely on the fact that He was begotten by the Father, as the proof of His being begotten of the Father's substance, alleging the analogy of animal begettals, which ordinarily occur by a substance derived from the father. Such an idea implies two sexes, between whom the sexual act occurs. But such a thought is utterly foreign to a Divine begettal. Again, God's substance is indivisible, hence incommunicable to another. Therefore the Logos was not begotten from the Father's substance. Moreover, none of God's other sons were begotten of God's substance, yet all are begotten by Him through Christ. This is true of God's angelic sons, His human sons (Adam, Eve, Jesus as a human being and the world in the Millennium) and of His new-creaturely sons of the Gospel Age. All of these— angelic, human, Divine—come into existence as
such by creative acts. Hence, whenever the expression to beget is predicated of God, it is used, not to indicate an act similar to the sexual act, with the implication of a male and a female as active, but to denote a creative act. And the reason the word beget is used of God in this connection is to indicate the act that implants the life principle, which in animal procreation occurs ordinarily in the sexual act, and which God, as the source of life, not in the sense of deriving it from His own body, but in the sense of creating it and filling the universe with it, imparts to all His living creatures. Hence, for God to beget means for God to create. These considerations disprove the proposition that God begat the Logos of His own substance, as the creeds teach.
Some other considerations prove the falsity of the proposition that the pre-human Christ was consubstantial with the Father. Those who hold this thought claim that the pre-human Logos was of the Divine nature, of the very essence of God. Such a thought is not only without any Scriptural foundation, and is at best a very poor speculation, as shown above, but is also contradictory of the whole plan of God. In the first place, it would make impossible our Lord's carnation—His becoming human (John 1: 14; 2 Cor. 8: 9; Phil. 2: 6, 7; Heb. 2: 14, 16-18); for the Divine nature is both immortal and unchangeable in substance and character (1 Tim. 1: 17; Jas. 1: 17). Had He, therefore, been Divine in substance—nature—His nature, because unchangeable, could not have been changed into human nature. Hence, had He been Divine in nature He could not have undergone carnation. He had to have a mortal, changeable nature to become human. Therefore His pre-human nature was lower than the Divine nature, since He changed it into human nature. Had he been Divine in nature, which is unchangeable, how could He have emptied Himself (Phil. 2: 6) of His former nature, office and riches
and become poor? (2 Cor. 8: 9.) Again, had He been Divine in nature while with the Father before His carnation, He would have remained Divine while on earth and, therefore, would not have been a man, which the Bible repeatedly says He was (Matt. 8: 20; Mark 2: 28; Luke 7: 34; John 7: 47; 15: 24; 4: 29; 8: 40; Acts 2: 22; 1 Cor. 15: 22; 1 Tim. 2: 5; Heb. 3: 3; 7: 24; 8: 3; 10: 12; Rev. 1: 13).
Nor could He have hungered (Matt. 21: 18, 19), become weary (John 4: 6), wept (Luke 19: 41-44; John 11: 35), prayed (Matt. 26: 39-44; Heb. 5: 7), been tempted (Heb. 2: 18; 4: 15), sorrowed (Matt. 26: 38), suffered (1 Pet. 2: 21; 3: 18), died (1 Cor. 15: 3), as the Bible in the cited passages and elsewhere tells us that He did. He would only have pretended to be a man, to be hungry, weary, weeping, praying, tempted, saddened, suffering and dead. The cry, "My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?" would have been a hypocritical cry, forsooth to gain sympathy or to make a pitying impression on His hearers. Those who hold the view under consideration have had to resort to all sorts of metaphysical evasions, mystifications, hocus-pocus wizardries, to express their unintelligible gibberish, all the while being compelled to admit that it was unintelligible. Samples of these Satanic vagaries, follies and confusions are hidden under expressions like the following: God became man; Mary, the mother of God; God Himself lies dead; a god-man; two natures in one person; the human nature of Christ is without personality; His Divine nature alone had personality (yet they admit that His human nature had a perfect human intellect, perfect human sensibilities and a perfect human will, which are the essence of personality). According to their view His humanity was only a veil, a cloak, a garment, worn by the Divine. All of such twaddle was born in Satan's head and by him was suggested to the befuddled brains that were Satanically
confused enough to accept it. It is in the most direct conflict with the passages cited in this and preceding paragraphs and it contradicts the offices of Christ before He came 'into the world, while He was in the world and after He left the world and went to heaven.
It likewise contradicts His being dead; for a Divine being is immortal and cannot die, and thus cannot be dead. It contradicts His resurrection; for, if He had been Divine, He could never have been dead, which one must be, if he is to be resurrected. It contradicts His exaltation to the Divine nature in His resurrection (John 5: 26; Phil. 2: 9; Heb. 1: 3, 4); for, according to the theory, He always had the Divine nature, and therefore always had been supremely exalted. It contradicts His glorification after His resurrection and ascension; for if He had always had the Divine glory He could not have been further glorified (Phil. 2: 10, 11). It contradicts His exaltation over the heavenly host; for had He been always Divine He would have always been over the heavenly host and, therefore, would not after His resurrection and ascension been in exaltation put over them (Eph. 1: 20-22; Heb. 1: 4, 5). How could all authority in heaven and on earth (Matt. 28: 18) after His resurrection have been given to Him, if He had always had it? Thus we see that if the theory that the Logos was of the Father's substance, Divine in nature, were true, He could not have been what He was, nor done what He did while on earth, and that in almost all of it He would have been a hypocrite, which He could not have been. Nor could He have experienced the post-human things affirmed of Him by the Bible, if He had always been Divine.
On the contrary, the Bible teaches that He first became of the Divine nature, one of whose essential qualities is immortality, in the resurrection, and that as a reward for His faithfulness unto death. In. John 5: 26 Jesus tells us that God had given Him [a promise]
to have immortality—life in Himself—which proves that He did not at the time He uttered this language have it. But He did have it after His resurrection (1 Tim. 5: 16). It was in His resurrection that He became the very impress of the Father's substance—Divine in nature (Heb. 1: 3-5; Acts 13: 33). It was because He was obedient unto death, yea, the death of the cross, that He was given a name [nature, office and honor] above every other name [nature, office and honor] (Phil. 2: 8-11). It was due to His receiving the Divine nature in the resurrection that He was fitted not only to be placed over the heavenly host, all of whom are of natures lower than the Divine, but also over the Church, which is also to be made Divine in nature (Eph. 1: 20-23; 2 Pet. 1: 4; 1 Cor. 15: 41-54; 1 John 3: 2). All of these considerations refute the idea that the pre-human Logos was of the Divine nature. To sum up: Before the Logos became man He was the highest of all beings, the Father excepted, and in a nature next below the Divine, but higher than that of the rest of the heavenly host (Heb. 2: 16). While He was on earth He was until Jordan a perfect sinless human being, nothing more and nothing less. From Jordan to Calvary He was, while yet a human being, undergoing a recreation of heart and mind for the Divine nature. In His resurrection, and as a reward for His faithfulness unto death, even the death of the cross, He attained to the Divine nature, of the same substance as the Father, though, of course, a different being from the Father. He is thus now, and will to all eternity be, Divine in nature, next to the Father and the Father's plenipotential Vicegerent throughout the universe (Matt. 28: 18; Eph. 1: 20-23; Phil. 2: 9-11; Heb. 1: 3-5). Praised be our God for our worthy Savior's and Lord's high and eternal exaltation to God's right hand—position of chief favor!
We recall that it was stated that those who teach that the pre-human Logos was co-eternal and consubstantial
with the Father likewise teach that He was then also co-equal with the Father. This proposition is as false as the other two; for according to the Bible He never was, nor will He ever be the Father's equal. We now proceed to the refutation of the third leading proposition of those who teach the false doctrine under discussion as to Christ's relation to the Father. We will now show that neither before He came to earth, nor while in earth was He, nor since His return to heaven is He, the Father's equal. The Scriptures are very explicit on these three points. It will be noted that those who teach Christ's equality with the Father do not have any Scripture that teaches such a thought. They infer it as a necessary consequence from the propositions that He is co-eternal and consubstantial with the Father, the falsity of which propositions having been demonstrated, their conclusion drawn from them is necessarily false. They do try to infer it from the passage, "I and My Father are one" (John 10: 30). But if the oneness between the Father and the Son were that of equality, then since the Lord's faithful Apostles and other faithful people are all one in the sense in which the Father and the Son are one (John 17: 11, 21, 23), they are not only all equal with one another, but also with the Father and the Son—a self-evident absurdity in both features of oneness f Note how plain is the Lord's pertinent language; for the Apostles He prays, "that they all may be one [hen, neuter, as in John 10: 30] as we are"; and for the rest of the Faithful He prays: "that they all may be one [hen, neuter], as Thou, Father, art in Me; and I in Thee [God was in Christ by His Spirit and Christ was in the Father by His consecration—subjection. Hence the oneness here prayed for was a oneness of spirit, purpose, aim, plan, work, not one of being or equality], that they also may be one in us [one in the spirit of consecration—subjection] … I in them [My spirit and will ruling in them], and Thou in Me [Thy,
spirit and will ruling in Me], that they may be made perfect in [into, so the Greek] one [hen, neuter]." Hence the oneness for which Jesus prayed on behalf of His own is the same oneness as exists between the Father and the Son. But such is not a oneness of equality; for neither in this life are all the Lord's people equal (1 Cor. 12: 28-30; Eph. 4: 11), nor in the next life (Matt. 19: 28; Rev. 21: 14; Mark 10: 40; Luke 19: 17, 19; 1 Cor. 15: 41, 42). Hence the oneness between the Father and the Son being the same kind as that between the Faithful, it cannot be a oneness of equality, but must be a oneness of spirit, purpose, aim, and work. Thus is exposed the corrupt foundations on which the error under study rests.
Plain Scriptures treating of our Lord's pre-human relation to the Father prove His subordination, inequality, to the Father: Phil. 2: 6, 7, is to the point. We quote it as given in the American Revised Version: "Who [the Logos], existing in the form of God [i.e., in the mode of existence of a spirit being], counted not the being on an equality with God a thing to be grasped [as Lucifer ambitiously did; Is. 14: 10-14], but [instead of conspiring to usurp equality with God, as Lucifer did, He did the reverse, for He] emptied Himself [of His pre-human nature, honor and office], etc." Here we are plainly shown that, while existing as the pre-human Logos, as a mighty spirit being, He considered Himself to be God's subordinate and eschewed aspiring to equality with God after Satan's example. Hence this passage proves His inequality with God. His having been trained in His pre-human existence by God proves that He was God's inferior (Prov. 8: 30), as also His being then owned or acquired [by creation] by God and His having then been given His existence and exaltation by God (Prov. 8: 22, 23) prove His pre-human inferiority to the Father; for the Creator, Owner (Lord) and Promoter is always superior to the one created, owned and promoted.
The proof above given of His coming into existence, while God always existed, and of His being as the pre-human Logos of a lower nature than God's, likewise prove His inferiority to the Father. Accordingly, before He came into the world He was the Father's inferior. Furthermore, the fact that He emptied Himself of His pre-human nature, office and honor (John 1: 14; 2 Cor. 8: 9; Phil. 2: 7; Heb. 2: 9, 10, 14, 16-18), proves that He was the Father's inferior as the Logos; for if He had been the Father's equal He could not have emptied Himself, because since the Father cannot do such a thing an equal of His could not do it. Hence the pre-human Logos was the Father's inferior.
Hence, of necessity, while He was on earth He was the Father's inferior; for as a man and as a spirit begotten man He was lower than He was before He became a man (Heb. 2: 9). The four passages cited toward the end of the preceding paragraph to prove His carnation also prove this thought. Again, all those passages that prove that while on earth He was a messenger, servant and agent of God, decisively prove Him to be God's inferior as another's messenger, servant and agent is his subordinate and inferior. The following are a list of some of such passages: Is. 42: 1; 49: 5; 61: 1; Matt. 20: 23; John 3: 34, 35; 4: 34; 5: 19, 20, 22, 30; 7: 16, 28; 8: 28; 9: 4; 10: 38; 12: 49; 16: 5; 17: 4; Acts 10: 38; Rom. 8: 32; Heb. 3: 2; 1 Pet. 2: 4, 23. Passages previously quoted showing He hungered, was weary, sorrowful, tempted, suffered, died, prove the same thing. The fact that He prayed to God proves His inferiority to God while in the flesh. His having feared that He might not return from the dead, because. He thought that He had perhaps in some way failed to please God perfectly (Heb. 5: 7) proves His inferiority. His not knowing everything proves His inferiority to the Father in knowledge (Mark 13: 32). His saying, "My Father is
greater than I" (John 14: 28), applying to His pre-human, human and post-human condition, proves that while on earth He was the Father's inferior.
So, too, since His resurrection and exaltation He is the Father's inferior. This is proved by those passages that prove that God raised Him from the dead and exalted Him (Ps. 110: 1; Is. 49: 6; John 5: 26, 27; 14: 20; 17: 5; Acts 2: 33, 36; 13: 37, 38; Rom. 1: 4; Eph. 1: 20-22; Phil. 2: 9-11; Heb. 1: 2-5; 5: 5, 6; 1 Pet. 1: 21; 2 Pet. 1: 17). It is proven by those passages that speak of the Father as giving Him His office powers (Matt. 28: 18; John 5: 27; 1 Cor. 1: 30; Micah 5: 4; Col. 1: 15); as being His God (John 20: 17; Eph. 1: 17; Rev. 3: 12); as being His Owner and Head, in the sense that Christ is the Church's Owner and Head (1 Cor. 3: 23; 11: 3); as Christ's being God's Image (2 Cor. 4: 4; Col. 1: 15; Heb. 1: 3). The Lord Jesus is expressly said to be subject to God, as the Supreme One, forever (1 Cor. 15: 28). In His office as Priest, interceding before God (Heb. 7: 25), as Prophet, getting the Truth from God (Acts 3: 23; Deut. 18: 18, 19), as King, ruling as God's Vicegerent (Ps. 2: 6), as Advocate, pleading before God as judge for His clients (1 John 1: 1, 2) and as Mediator, representing God before the people (1 Tim. 2: 6), He acts, or will act, officially as God's inferior since leaving the world. All these considerations prove that He as the pre-human, human and post-human Son of God is, the Father's inferior. Therefore as related to God's eternity, He is not from eternity; His nature was until His resurrection lower than the Divine and He always was and always will be the Father's inferior in attributes of being and character, in word and in work. Thus negatively have we shown what is not His relation to the Father. He is not co-eternal, consubstantial and co-equal with the Father.
In previous parts of this chapter we showed that our Lord in His pre-human condition was the first of all
God's creation. From this and from pertinent Scriptures we further proved that He had a beginning and, therefore, did not exist from eternity. We further showed that He was not of the Divine being, nor of the Divine nature before He came into the world, though He attained in His resurrection the Divine nature, having now a body of the same kind of substance as the Father's, though not of the Father's substance. And, finally, we showed that He was in His pre-human, human and post-human conditions the Father's subordinate. This proves that the Father is in Himself unique, being greater in attributes of being and character than the Son and thus solely the Supreme Being. From this standpoint we are in a better position to see just what His relation to the Father is. First of all, we recognize Him to be the Son of God—not God Himself; for a son is not the same being as his father; for to affirm that He is both the Son of God and God Himself implies that He is both His own Father and His own Son, which, of course, are absurdities of the first order. God is His Father and He is God's Son, yea, God's only begotten Son; and God is His Father directly, by a direct begettal, in which sense no one else is God's son. The following passages prove that God is His Father and that He is God's Son: John 1: 14, 18; 3: 16-18, 34-36; 1 John 4: 9; Ps. 2: 7; 89: 27; Matt. 3: 17; 11: 27; 15: 13; 16: 15-17; 17: 5; 21: 37; Mark 1: 1; Luke 1: 32, 35; John 15: 1, 8, 10, 23, 24; 20: 17, 21, 31; Acts 3: 13; Rom. 1: 3, 4; 1 John 1: 7; 3: 8, 23; 4: 10. It will be noted that in these passages it is God who is called the Father of our Lord and that our Lord is called the Son of God. In none of them are they identified as one, but always as separate persons or beings.
From His relation of sonship as to God is immediately inferred His coming into existence (which implies His previous non-existence, i.e., that He has not always existed), as well as His being subordinate,
unequal to the Father. Nor must we from His sonship infer that He always was of the same nature as the Father, since such an inference, if necessary, would make the angelic sons of God and the human sons of God of the same nature as God, which would be erroneous and absurd. So, then, His sonship implies His creatureship at the Father's hand. Hence the above considerations prove Him to be God's created Son, who is the Father's inferior in being, in duration, in nature until His resurrection, in honor, in position and in work. These features of their relationship to one another must be kept in mind, if we are to see daylight on the subject of their relationship. The ignoring of these things as indicating their relationship has resulted in confusion worse confounded on the subject, as can readily be seen in the self-contradictory, reason-defying and Scripture-denying absurdities of the creeds of men on the subject. But the right view of their relationship clarifies the pertinent Scripture teachings and enables us to honor God supremely and next to Him His highly exalted and worthy Son, to whom be glory and honor as now occupying at the Father's right hand the place of chief favor and power.
This relation to the Father implies His pre-human superiority to the other spirit subjects of God. This is directly stated in the correct rendering of the Hebrew of Dan. 10: 13, as it is given in the margin Michael, the first of the chief [spirit] princes. His being called, Michael the archangel (Jude 9), and the archangel (1 Thes. 4: 16), proves the same thing; for the word archangel means, first or chief messenger. And He is the chief messenger of God (John 17: 3). His pre-human superiority over the heavenly host of God is likewise evident from His being called their creator as God's creative agent (John 1: 3; Col. 1: 16; 1 Cor. 8: 6; Eph. 3: 9). This is also to be inferred from the fact that He was God's chief providential agent in His pre-human condition (Gen. 48: 16;
Ps. 34: 7; Dan. 10: 13). It likewise follows from His being the chief agent of God in giving the Old Testament revelations (Gen. 18: 1-33; 22: 11-18; Ex. 3: 2 -4: 17; 1 Pet. 1: 11). And, finally, this follows from the fact that God offered Him, and not any other of the heavenly host, the privilege of carnation in order to become the Grand Agent for carrying out God's plan with its involved opportunity of still higher exaltation in nature, honor, riches, office and work, than He had in His pre-human condition. Thus we see that, while in His pre-human existence He was God's inferior in every way, He was at the same time superior to any of God's other creatures whatsoever.
From these facts we see that He held the position of being God's special representative toward the heavenly host and in the work of creation, providence and revelation in His pre-human condition. This put Him into line of being the one who would be chiefly considered as a candidate for any specially important work that God desired done. What does this mean other than that He was a quasi-vicegerent of Jehovah during His pre-existence? We say quasi-vicegerent designedly, because His powers then were much more limited in vicegerental respects than those that He received in and since His resurrection. He had then far less discretion as to how He should do than He now has as to how He should do. Therefore He then had to consult God more than now as to ways and means of doing. Before His carnation He could not truly say, "All authority in heaven and earth is given unto Me" (Matt. 28: 18), as He can now say since His resurrection. With Him God carried out the law that is everywhere prominent in His dealings with His servants: As they are faithful in smaller things He entrusts them with larger things. Since He had always proved loyal to the Father, and that in a higher degree than any other servant of God, of course God advanced Him more than He did His other servants.
And this we recognize as right and good. Thus we see in the above our pre-human Lord's personal and official relations to the Heavenly Father. And in all of them we find Him to be the Father's inferior and the superior of all others of God's creation.
We now come to a discussion of His pre-human work, which, as we have already seen, exercised itself especially in three separate spheres—creation, providence and revelation. His work of creation properly belongs to our subject, Creation, because He was the Agent whom God used in creating all things. Though His pre-human works of providence and revelation do not properly belong to our subject, we will nevertheless in this chapter treat of them in order to have a fairly complete view of our pre-human Lord's work. Accordingly, we begin with His creative work. In this He did not act independently of God, nor did He act as God's equal. Rather His creative acts were those of an agent carrying out the plans and arrangements of His superior. He did not originate the creative plans. These God originated and designed. Nor did He supply the materials of creation. These God provided. His work was that of taking the materials that God provided and working them into creative products according to God's plans and specifications. In other words, God is the source of the plans and materials of creation, somewhat after the manner of an architect who from materials that he himself owns and provides and from the plans and specifications that he himself draws up has a house built for himself by a contractor whose work in all details he supervises. Our Lord acted like the contractor in this illustration, performing the work with the materials furnished Him according to the plans and specifications. And He performed it well.
We are thus to view the relationship of the Father and the Son in creation, if we would see it in its
Scriptural light. 1 Cor. 8: 6 is a passage that not only proves this thought, but also shows that in all other matters of God's works and ways the Father is their Source and Originator, while the Son is His Agent in their outworking: "To us there is but one God, the Father, of whom [as their Source and Originator] are all things … and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom [as their Agent] are all things." Thus as to creation, both of the spiritual world and of the material world, the Father originated the thought of them, made the plans in the minutest details for them and provided the substances out of which everything in them was made, which proves that He is the Creator in the sense of being creation's Source and Originator. Thus all things [also of creation] are of [source and origin] the Father. But all things [also of creation] are through [by the agency of] the Son. In the Greek agency through which a thing is done is expressed by the preposition dia [through] with the genitive, while the source of a thing is indicated by the preposition ek [of, in the sense of out of]; and to denote that a thing is made or done by an independent originator the preposition hypo [by] is used after the passive verb by which the action is expressed. Thus if we were to state prepositionally in Greek that creation was (1) originated in God and (2) was brought into being by His supervision, and that (3) through His Son's agency, we would use ek [of, out of] to express the first thought, hypo [by] to express the second thought and dia [through] to express the third thought. Thus creation is of and by God, but through the Logos. And well have they made it.
Thus to show that God as its Dominator was the Source, Originator and Supervisor of creation, Gen. 1: 1-25 speaks only of Him as the Creator; and then first in v. 26 is the Logos spoken of as associated with Him in that work: "Let Us make man in Our image, after Our likeness; let Us give him dominion," etc. There
upon in vs. 27, 28 and 31, the discourse turns again to God only as Creator. On the other hand, the agency of our Lord for God in creation is shown in John 1: 3 by the word dia [through]: "All things were made through Him [the Logos] and without Him was not one thing made that was made." His agency in making the ages (see Revised Version) under God's supervision is also so stated in Heb. 1: 2: "Through [dial whom [the Son] He [God] also made the ages." Whenever in contrasts the Scriptures present the work of the Father and the Son, the Father is shown to be the primary actor, usually shown by the active voice of the verb with God as its subject; while if the form of the statement were to be put into the passive voice the things made would be made the subject of the passive verb, while God's activity therein would be expressed by the preposition hypo with the Genitive of Actor. Such a case is manifest from the last two clauses of Heb. 3: 3. If we see clearly the above lines of distinction we will understand well the relations of the Father and the Son in creation, in which all things are of the Father in the sense of His being their Source, Originator and Supervisor, and all things are through the Son in the sense of His being God's Agent in putting God's creative plans into execution.
Hence God put into the Logos' hands the creative plans and specifications which He had thought out. Furthermore He put into His hands the substances and forces to be used in creation and charged Him to work out these plans by applying to the substances the pertinent forces in such ways as to produce the effects aimed at in the plans and specifications. We do not know whether these plans were merely described verbally, or were given in drawings, or were made in form of models, such, e.g., as God showed Moses on the mount as respects the tabernacle and its belongings (Heb. 8: 5). Such details belong to the hidden things not revealed to us (Deut. 29: 29), which we may,
therefore, well leave to the Lord, content with such details as He was pleased to reveal to us. Doubtless in due time the exact details will be made known to us. But whatever method God used in making clear to the Logos' understanding the various details as to the beings and things that He desired Him as His Agent to bring into existence, the Logos' intellect was sufficiently able to grasp the pertinent details and His executive abilities were sufficiently skilful and powerful to give these beings and things not only existence, but in the exact modes and qualities called for in God's plans and specifications. Therefore, the Logos' pertinent intellectual and executive abilities must have been of the highest order compatible with a nature lower than the Divine in order to have brought the world of spirit and the world of matter into existence. This will appear from a brief consideration of the general things done and the great diversities, details and attributes of the creatures brought into existence by God through the Logos. From all viewpoints these are great.
According to Col. 1: 16 and John 1: 3 the Logos brought into existence all the spirit beings in the spirit world, the Father and the Son excepted, and all creatures. animate and inanimate in the material world. While this is stated in general terms in John 1: 3, already quoted, it is stated specifically in Col. 1: 16, which we will here quote: "For by [not hypo—by, but dia—through] Him were all things created that are in heaven [the spirit world] and that are in earth, visible [to man's eye, hence, generally, earthly things] and invisible [to man's eye, hence, generally, heavenly beings], whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers. All things were created by [through] Him and for Him." By the expressions, "thrones," "dominions," "principalities" and "powers, four orders and perhaps four different natures among created spirit beings are meant. In Eph. 1: 21 the same four are again meant, the word "might" here
standing for the class called "thrones" in Col. 1: 16. The angels of Rom. 8: 38 seem to be a fifth order and perhaps nature among created spirit beings. Additionally the Bible speaks of cherubim and seraphim (Gen. 3: 24; Ezek. 28: 14; Is. 6: 2, 6), who seemingly are still two other orders of beings than the foregoing five orders of created spirits. The Logos, also a created spirit, was of a still higher order than the above-mentioned created spirits. Accordingly, there seem to have been eight orders and natures of created spirits, the Logos, the highest of these, bringing the other seven into being. This means that God gave the Logos different spirit substances, life principle being among these, and gave Him pertinent plans and specifications with the charge to bring into existence the other seven orders and natures of spirits above-mentioned, by using the specified spirit substances to form the involved bodies and give existence to spirit beings by uniting with these bodies the life principle.
We are ignorant of the details as to the substance or substances from which each order or nature of spirit beings was created, not to mention the proportionate amount of each substance used for each nature, how they were diversified, and how they were compounded. Nor do we know what the members of these spirit bodies are. All that we know of them as to their bodies is that they consist of some incorruptible spirit substance or substances, that they can permeate and pass through material substances without impediment, that they are gifted with exceedingly rapid powers of locomotion and that they are very powerful physically, mentally, morally and religiously. That they can die is evident from the fact that Lucifer, who by sin became Satan, will be annihilated (Heb. 2: 14; Is. 14: 15; 27: 1; Ezek. 28: 14, 15, 19), as the impenitent fallen angels will with him share the same fate (Matt. 25: 41). It took great skill and executive ability in the Logos to make their wonderful bodies; but much
more so to make their mental, moral and religious faculties, endowing them much more highly in these respects than the perfect human mental, moral and religious faculties of Adam, Eve and Jesus were, and than those of the perfected human race will be. When we think of some humans exceptionally well endowed in mental, moral and religious faculties, whom we have met or read of, and then remember that the heavenly host is by far superior to any of these, we can form a fairly approximate idea of the Logos' great creative skill and executiveness. This would also appear from a consideration of the skill and inventiveness of an Edison or a Steinmetz. If we should take one of Edison's most marvelous inventions—like moving pictures—and contrast it with the wonderful inhabitants of the created spirit world, we could form a fair idea of the Logos" creative greatness. Edison has made moving pictures, but not persons. Edison made moving images, but without life; but the Logos made higher than human beings—spirit beings of wonderful abilities of body, mind and heart, capable of almost infinite development and attainment. Surely to have been the Creator of such was an achievement of almost rarest skill and executiveness.
Not the least remarkable feature of the Logos' creation of the spirit world is the fact that He began His creative activities by first bringing into existence the most complex and difficult of all creatures—spirits. Ordinarily an inventor starts with simpler inventions and gradually proceeds to the more complex. Not so in our Lord's case. Next to the new creation, which He began with Pentecost, He brought the most complex of creations into being at the first. Doubtless the Father supervised this work and enabled the Son to bring each feature of it on the spirit plane to a successful conclusion—to perfection. It was undoubtedly due to this supervision that our Lord was able successfully to complete this, the first and the next most difficult
feature of the creative program, apart from Himself. While this was undoubtedly a most difficult feature of the creative work, it was not so vast as was that of the creation of the universe, which He proceeded to bring into existence after the heavenly host.
Indeed, according to the Scriptures the heavenly host rejoiced to see the creation of the universe (Job 38: 7), and from the fact that they were created to be servants of Jehovah (Heb. 1: 7) the conclusion is quite sound that they assisted the Logos in bringing the universe into existence. While details are not given us on this point, we are warranted in concluding that under His direction their assistance was in the way of manipulating various of nature's laws to operate various features of the creative process. According to our Lord's declaration (Matt. 26: 53) that for His deliverance, if He desired it, He could ask the Father for more than 12 legions of angels, and seeing that a legion at that time consisted of 6,000 soldiers, and that Jesus could thus have had more than 72,000 angels for His deliverance, we conclude that the number of angels is quite large, there being probably over 100,000 of them who remained sinless, not to mention those who later sinned and are now fallen angels. These in the creative work on the universe were doubtless divided into groups under sub-supervisors, scattered about among the various embryo solar systems with their various embryo suns and planets, manipulating the pertinent laws of nature for the development of such embryo solar systems as wholes and in their various parts toward finished products. And as they saw this wondrous work proceed their holy hearts rejoiced and their holy voices sang and shouted for joy, praising the Lord, in whose creative work they were privileged to share (Job 38: 7). And when we consider this immense force of helpers under the Logos' direction, we have another glimpse of His skill and ability as a director of subordinate; for all this work
went on with greater precision than the proverbial clockworks. Merely to have supervised so large a company of helpers would have been a very exacting piece of work. Thus, with angelic co-operation, did He bring into rough and unfinished existence the heavens and earth, as described in Gen. 1: 1, making the earth consist of at least 92 chemical substances, all of the universe being produced from gases originally.
But the work so done was finished only in the rough. Neither the earth, nor the other planets of our solar system, nor the suns and planets of other solar systems were perfect. This work of perfecting His creations has been going on, e.g., in the earth during the six creative days and will not result in perfection until the end of the seventh epoch of earth's history, when Christ will deliver over the kingdom to God (1 Cor. 15: 24-27). Indeed, so far as we know only one heavenly body is now perfect—God's abode, heaven, which is quite probably Alcyone, one of the Pleiades (Job 38: 31), the center of the universe, whence seemingly the Creator governs His universe. During the six creative days following the creation of the heavens and earth the Logos directed the various creative processes that continually advanced the earth toward perfection, giving it light during the first epoch, an atmosphere during the second, dividing it into land and water and starting vegetation during the third, causing the sun and moon and stars to shine through earth's rings during the fourth, creating living beings in sea, air and land during the fifth and bringing beasts and cattle and finally man into existence during the sixth. But the perfecting of the earth awaits Christ's Millennial reign, though under the conditions of the curse man has done more or less to subdue some parts of the earth, bringing it toward perfection. In bringing various forms of life into existence, as well as the universe itself, we see again illustrated the wonderful skill and creative ability of the Logos—a skill and an ability not