Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13

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from the standpoint of his qualities and activities subsequent to his fall. Thus he is called: Beelzebub (lord of the fly), the god of Ekron, (destruction; 2 Kings 1: 3-6; symbolic of his plaguesomeness through errors [flies] on militarism, leading to war and destruction; Matt. 12: 24; Mark 3: 22; Luke 11: 15); Belial, or Beliar (wickedness, descriptive of his character; 2 Cor. 6: 15); devil (adversary, descriptive of his opposing God, the Truth, righteousness, mankind in general and the good in particular; Matt. 4: 1; Luke 4: 2, 6; Rev. 20: 2); enemy (descriptive of his despiteful course and hating attitude; Matt. 13: 39); liar, and father of lies (descriptive of his deceitfulness and originating error; John 8: 44); murderer (because by sin he murdered the whole human family; John 8: 44; Rom, 5: 12); serpent, and old serpent (because of his cunning and poisonousness: Gen. 3: 4, 14; Rev. 20: 2; 2 Cor. 11: 3); prince of this world (because he is by usurpation the ruler of the present evil order of affairs among mankind; John 12: 31; 14: 30; 16: 11); prince of devils (because he is the ruler over the fallen angels; Matt. 12: 24); prince of the power of the air (descriptive of his headship over the fallen angels as the invisible spirits organized as a kingdom over humanity; Eph. 2: 2); spirit that worketh in the children of disobedience (because he uses the wicked and disobedient as his servants and tools; Eph. 2: 2); tempter (because he entices to sin, error, selfishness and worldliness; Matt. 4: 3; 1 Thes. 3: 5); the god of this world (descriptive of him as the ruler of the present evil order of affairs; 2 Cor. 4: 4); and wicked one (whose character has been rightly described by the words Milton puts into his mouth: "Evil, be thou my good; Good, be thou my evil"; Matt. 13: 19, 38). Thus we see that his Biblically given names accurately describe his character, works and office. And surely a being correctly characterized by such names must be the supreme of all sinners and evil-doers.

 

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There is such a being as Satan. There are some who, repulsed by some nonsensical teachings of the creeds on Satan, have concluded not only to reject those creedal teachings, but with them the Biblical teachings on Satan, as being in their opinion identical with those of the creeds, and who as a result deny altogether that such a being as Satan exists. However, to do this is to fly into the teeth of reason as well as of experience and Scripture; for reason suggests, as the Bible teaches, that sinful acts, like righteous acts and the universe, must have been originated by some first cause. And this first cause of sinful acts, in originating them, must have become sinful; and since sinful acts imply purpose as well as cause, their originator must have been a being endowed with mind and will, hence a person. Thus reason demonstrates the personality of the first cause, or source, of sin, who, the Bible assures us, is Satan. Experience likewise suggests to us that there are at least a number of invisible evil beings evil spirits; for we can on no other ground explain a frequent happening: the sudden injection of irrelevant, unfamiliar, foreign and repulsive evil thoughts into the minds of human beings— thoughts which are not suggested by the cogitations, feelings, activities, circumstances and experiences of those into whose minds they are injected. This implies their existence.

 

However, coming to the Bible, we find the personality of Satan expressed and implied in many passages and incidents. Certainly the dealings between God and Satan and the latter's connected acts respecting job, imply Satan's personality (Job 1: 6-12; 2: 1-7). The angel contending against Satan and calling upon God to rebuke him, as Satan resisted the high priest, Joshua, is in line with the thought that Satan is a personal being (Zech. 3: 1, 2). Jesus' statement respecting Satan's adopting policies foreign to his usual proceedings to bolster up his waning cause strongly implies Satan's personality (Matt. 12: 24-26). No less strongly

 

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is this taught by Jesus in His statement that Satan was once in the Truth, that he later originated falsehoods and murdered the human family, when he introduced sin into the world (John 8: 44; Gen. 3: 1-7). If Satan were the evil principle, as some claim, how could he ever have been in the Truth? If Satan were the evil principle, and not an evil person who works through evil principles, how contrary to St. Paul's stated purpose would it have been to deliver the erring Corinthian brother to Satan for corrective stripes (l Cor. 5: 5)! How could the Bible speak of his devices, unless he could think and plan, as making devices implies thought and purpose and thus personality (2 Cor. 2: 11)? Certainly in transforming himself into an angel of light from an angel of darkness, he must have thought and reasoned, which of course implies personality (2 Cor. 11: 14). The fact that devils believe and tremble—therefore think and feel— proves that Satan, their leader, thinks and feels, and therefore is a personal being (Jas. 2: 19). His walking about as a roaring lion seeking, especially Christians, as his prey, proves his personality (1 Pet. 5: 8, 9). Michael's contending with him over Moses' body, which Satan seemed to want for use as an object of worship in Israel, is in line with his being a real, personal-being, and not the abstract evil principle (Jude 9). Accordingly, Reason, Facts and Scriptures prove Satan's personality. It is therefore to be accepted by us.

 

Evidently Lucifer, his name before his fall, was at first good; for he at first was in the Truth, though he failed to continue therein (John 8: 44). Thus, too, he was before his fall—before he sinned—one of the foremost angels in heaven (Is. 14: 12). This implies his rectitude at the time. Hence he was pure and perfect in all his ways, until he sinned (Ezek. 28: 13-15). Accordingly, as he came from the creative hand of God he was good; nor did God make him so that he had to sin. God, on the contrary, gave him a disposition

 

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favorable to righteousness and averse to sin. This naturally raises the question: How, then, could he have sinned, if there were no sin in the world, and no sinful propensities in his make-up, as he came from the creative hand of God? The possibility of his sinning lay in the fact that he was endowed with liberty of choice. Apparently Lucifer was one of the highest of the angels (Is. 14: 12), and as such had as his subordinates some of the other angels, from whom by Divine arrangement he received the honor and obedience due to his station in relation to them. It was proper for him both to desire and to receive such honor and obedience in harmony with God's order. But it seems that Lucifer permitted his mind to dwell overweeningly on the desirability of receiving such honor and obedience, and thus he failed to keep such desires in proper subjection to higher sentiments, like the desire to please God above all things and the desire not to receive honor and obedience from others unless it should be according to God's arrangement. Failing to keep the desire of receiving obedience and honor subject to the two desires just mentioned, the more he kept the desirability of receiving honor and obedience from others in his heart the stronger by exercise this desire became, and the more it reached out for exercise toward some who were not, to the extent that he craved them to be, put by God in his charge.

 

Thus a craving for more honor and power than God arranged for him to have grew gradually in him (1) by a failure properly to subordinate the desire for honor and obedience to certain higher qualities, and (2) by extending such a desire toward persons and things beyond the limits of their Divinely arranged relations to him. As he contemplated the race of mankind and its possibilities such growing ambition began to see in the human family a possible dominion from which he could gain further honor and obedience than God offered him. He seems, as "the covering [protecting]

 

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cherub," to have been given a limited guardianship over the human family in Eden (Ezek. 28: 13-15). The limits of this guardianship were too confined for that degree of exercise of his desire for honor and obedience to which his ambition by this time had grown. Therefore to gain more power over the race than God had commissioned him to exercise, his ambition—by now the controlling quality of his heart— prompted him to lead unfallen mankind into sin, as the only way by which his ambition could be gratified. Thus externally he rebelled against God through his inordinate ambition grasping for the exercise of Divinely-unsanctioned power and rulership, as the growth of the seed of a not properly controlled desire for honor and obedience from others. This is the way the Prophet describes his gradual fall into sin: "Thou has said in thine heart [desires], I will ascend," etc. (Is. 14: 12-14). Unholy ambition brought it about.

 

We may reasonably assume that at the outstart Lucifer did not intend to go so far as he has gone; for his course gradually turned him into an implacable enemy—Satan, i.e., enemy, opponent—of God and man. There is a proverb to the effect that whoever says A must in time, say B, i.e., whoever concedes an inch to wrong for advantage will have to go further in wrong to secure his ends. Satan has gone further than B. He has now proceeded as far as Y, and at the end of the Millennium he will go to the end—Z, the full limit of evil, whereupon his destruction will ensue (Heb. 2: 14). The course that he has taken has wrought fearful havoc with his own once holy character and fellowship with God and all in harmony with Him, as well as has involved many angels in sin with its evil results, and has brought sin and ruin upon the human family. His course has made him most cunning instead of wise, most unjust instead of just, most selfish instead of loving and most obstinate in evil instead of powerful in good. As a result he is the most conspicuous example

 

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of depraved character in the Universe—almost the synonym of Sin itself. It is true that he has attained his ambition for rulership over the human family under the present evil world (Gal. 1: 4; John 12: 31; 14: 30; 16: 11; 2 Cor. 4: 4; Eph. 2: 1, 2), and for princeship over the fallen angels (Matt. 12: 24; Eph. 2: 2; 6: 11, 12), yet at what a terrible cost to himself and to all his underlings! Surely his is the chief example of "vaunting ambition overleaping itself"! Let us avoid imitating him; for it would spell ruin.

 

How graphically the Prophet describes the various features of his ambition: "Thou has said in thine heart, [1] I will ascend into heaven [I will make myself an exalted ruler]; [2] I will exalt my throne above the stars [angels] (Job 38: 7) of God [I will become the king over the angels (Matt. 12: 24)]; [3] I will sit upon the mount [Kingdom (Dan. 2: 35, 44, 45; Is. 25: 6)] of the congregation [people—I will become the ruler of the human family] in the sides of the North [as a spiritual, invisible ruler]; [4] I will ascend above the heights of the clouds [I will put myself out of reach of all trouble]; [5] I will be like the Most High! [I will found an independent Empire in which as God's rival I will be supreme, and will be His equal]"! Thus Lucifer experienced a real fall, which involved him step by step into deeper degradation, mental, moral and religious, but not physical, for Satan has retained all his physical perfection unimpaired. Nor has he impaired his mental, moral and religious faculties, which have, like his physical faculties, remained unimpaired, but which in their qualities have been deeply depraved, so that he thinks erroneous thoughts instead of true ones and loves moral and religious evil and hates moral and religious good. This degradation, mental, moral and religious, God meant when He sentenced him, the symbolic serpent (Gen. 3: 14), symbolically to crawl and to eat dust, i.e., unlike the good angels, who stand upright in good, he would grovel in, and appropriate to

 

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himself the degraded things of sin, error, selfishness and worldliness, and would delight in degrading others to the same level. What a terrible condition!

 

Remembering that he sinned first in his heart (Is. 14: 13), let us note how in order to gain an unauthorized rulership he inveigled the race into such unwarranted controllership under him: He sought to turn the affections of the race away from God to himself. Since this could not be done by the race retaining its proper relation toward God, which was possible exclusively by obedience to righteousness, he had to seek it through leading them into sin, if he were to become their supreme ruler. Hence his inordinate ambition, in order to its gratification, would go the length of seducing mankind into sin! As he viewed Adam and Eve, he saw that she was the more deceivable of the two, and that Adam very ardently loved her. So he determined to inveigle her by deception into a position that Adam's love for her would make him deliberately sin. He knew that Adam believed God's statement as to the result of eating of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil in disobedience, i.e., death would be the result. He further thought that if he could deceive Eve into eating of that tree, Adam, under the conviction that Eve was to die, would in despair likely yield to the temptation that he would then strongly present to him, deliberately to eat of it in order to be spared the evil of living without Eve, i.e., in order to die with her. In other words, Satan speculated on the question as to whether Adam so greatly loved Eve as rather to die with her than to live without her, and therefore he determined to create a situation in which Adam's great love for Eve could be made the point of temptation to draw him into deliberately eating of the forbidden tree, in an attempt to suicide, that thus he, by dying with Eve, might be spared the sorrow of losing her. This, then, was the fell purpose of Satan, who probably believed that if God would enforce the

 

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penalty, He likely would allow a long time, since a day of His time is 1,000 years of man's, to lapse before it would go into fulfillment, during which time Adam and Eve could have opportunity to propagate a race, which, with its parents, would thus become his subjects.

 

With this plot in mind, using a serpent as a medium, just as the demons in spiritism use mediums through whom to speak to others, Satan, waiting to find Adam absent, and seeing Eve alone, suggested to her (Gen. 3: 1-5) that by prohibiting their eating of the forbidden tree God was seeking for His own interests to abridge their privileges and to keep them in a degrading bondage to Himself, whereby their possibilities for development were being greatly curtailed, whereas, he said, if they would eat of the fruit: (1) they would only seemingly, but not really, die ("ye shall not surely [really] die"); (2) would change their mode of existence from human to spirit beings while seeming dead (ye shall be as gods [angels, who as spirits, are called gods 197 times in the Old Testament]"); and (3) would as spirits, after a seeming death, experience bliss and torment ("knowing [this word, like the word see, in the Bible at times means experience] good [bliss] and evil [torment]"). Thus Satan told the first falsehood—really three in one, an unholy trinity. The first one was a bold direct contradiction of God, who said, "In the day [of God's time, with whom 1,000 of our years make one day; Ps. 90: 4; 2 Pet. 3: 8] that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die" (Gen. 2: 17). Thus Satan's first falsehood was that the dead are not really dead, but alive. But Satan, illustrating the saying that whoever tells one falsehood must tell others to support it, was then forced to tell a second to make the first plausible. It was this: "Ye shall be as gods," i.e., they would change their mode of existence at death by becoming spirits. Knowing that if he could deceive her by these two, a third by deception would make them his slaves, he stated than an experience of

 

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bliss and torment would as alternative possibilities be opened before them, i.e.; he told this third falsehood to prepare them for later deceptions through which he hoped to make them believe they would have bliss, if they would do what he would want them to do, and torment if they would not so do. It will be noted that these three falsehoods are the basis of all heathen religions and that during the Dark Ages they were introduced into and accepted by all Christendom. Thus Satan's original three lies have since been used by him to deceive and to enslave to him almost the whole race. Eve believed the falsehoods, and knowing that to be a spirit was greater than to be a human, and doubtless being made to believe that the eating of that tree made the literal serpent wise, since she did not know that Satan, and not the serpent, really did the talking, she became very desirous to be made wiser and greater and, therefore, in deception ate of the tree (1 Tim. 2: 14) to attain these ends. But she believed the deceiver.

 

When she met Adam she told him the whole history as recorded in Gen. 3: 1-6; but this was as though she had plunged a knife into his heart, he believing that she was for her act sure to die; and his love for her caused this thought to grieve him inexpressibly. Satan, according to his fell plan, by an inaudible suggestion worked on him in his great grief, alleging that life without his loved Eve would be intolerable, and that it would be a thousandfold better to die with her than to bear the grief of living without her, and that all he need do to escape the woe of living without her would be to eat the fruit that she offered him and thus save himself from the great grief that otherwise would make him forever miserable. The suggestion was accepted. Adam ate of the fruit deliberately (1 Tim. 2: 14), and thus sinned willfully in order to die with Eve, and not in deception, as was the case with her. For love of his wife he deliberately committed suicide. His real sin was not so much in the external eating of

 

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the forbidden fruit; but it was in this: He had learned to love his wife more than God—idolatry! Thus Satan's plot succeeded: he had won the race as the subjects of the empire that he had plotted to found in rebellion against, and in rivalry with God (Is. 14: 14). And by this act Satan not only originated lies and thus became "the father of lies," but also became the arch-murderer of all history, murdering the whole human race (John 8: 44).

 

Above we have described the fall, not so much from man's as from Satan's standpoint, since the latter is the subject in this connection—he is the villain of our story! The results of this fall surely affected disastrously all three participants therein: Eve (Gen. 3: 16), Adam (vs. 17-19) and Satan (vs. 14, 15). The sentence on Adam and Eve was according to the law of life and death, under which they were tried, even as God had forewarned (Gen. 2: 17)— death, not life in torment. And the sentence on Satan was not a different one, though in its wording and outworking it would be different. His mental, moral and religious degradation would be deeper than that of those symbolized by the cattle and beasts mentioned here—deeper than that of the visible religious and civil governments that he would establish among men (cattle) and than the invisible governments that he would later establish in the fallen angels (beasts), which implies that the officers of each phase of his kingdom would be less evil than he. Furthermore, the Lord sentenced him and his underlings to a losing fight with God's servants, resulting not fatally for the latter, but so with him and his persistent servants (v. 15). Apparently after this sentence Satan went to that heaven where God and the good angels dwell and was, in the presence of the pre-human Jesus, cast out therefrom (Luke 10: 18) and fell to the earth, within whose atmosphere (Eph. 2: 2), as his prison, he is confined (Is. 14: 12; 2 Pet. 2: 4). The words in the latter passage, "cast down to

 

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hell," are the translation of but one Greek word, a verb, and should be rendered, imprisoned, i.e., within earth's atmosphere. Thus Satan has been subjected to the severest penalty of the then participants in the fall, and this we all recognize as right. Cast out of heaven and confined to earth's atmosphere, Satan for a while had no associates among spirits; for the Bible teaches that it was only toward the time of the flood that he succeeded in inveigling other angels into sin (Gen. 6: 2-4; 1 Pet. 3: 19, 20; 2 Pet. 2: 4; Jude 6, 7). The meantime he filled in with plotting the furtherance of his influence and control over mankind; and this he succeeded in doing more with Cain and his descendants than with the rest of Adam's race. But as yet, though obtaining great influence over mankind, he had failed to establish an empire over the race, which remained to be done in the dispensation following the flood; but in Abel, Enoch and Noah he found servants of God whom he could not dominate. We leave for later consideration the deception of certain angels into sin, which Satan with great cunning and plausibility accomplished, merely remarking that he did succeed in winning them to his side, and found them efficient subordinates of his in carrying out his later plots against God, His servants and mankind as a whole, and that on a large scale.

 

With many confederate fallen angels after the flood, Satan did establish an empire over the human family and that empire has persisted, though from time to time its form in its various departments, as these have been visible to mankind, has undergone great changes, almost always from bad to worse. A brief description of this empire would here be in place. It has two phases, which we may call an invisible and spiritual phase and a visible and human phase. Of these two, the spiritual phase is the controlling one and consists of Satan, as head, and the other fallen angels, as body. Satan's headship over them is shown by his being

 

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called the prince of this world (John 12: 31; 14: 30; 16: 11), the prince of the power of the air (Eph. 2: 2) and the god of this world (2 Cor. 4: 4). Their being his co-operators under him is shown by his being called the prince of devils (Matt. 12: 24), prince of the air power (Eph. 2: 2) and by their being called principalities, powers, world rulers of this darkness and wicked spirits (Eph. 6: 11). These, then, Satan and his subordinate demons, as the spiritual invisible phase of his kingdom, are the real rulers in Satan's empire. This combination, under Satan, thus rules the earth (Job 9: 24). God never granted him this rulership, but has allowed him to usurp it (Matt. 4: 8, 9; Luke 4: 5-8). While he has hitherto had the kingdom of this world, it is now in process of being transferred to our God and His Christ, according to God's word (Rev. 11: 15).

 

But as an invisible kingdom without earthly representatives to further their designs Satan and the other fallen angels would have achieved very little in the way of ruling over the human family. Therefore they have sought to enlist as their representatives gifted humans who, under the deception of error and the rule of selfishness, could be manipulated by the spiritual phase to accomplish its designs. As Satan wanted three ruling departments in the earthly phase of his kingdom in order to control the race governmentally, religiously and proprietarily, he had to deceive certain ones to become leaders in government, religion and capital, or aristocracy. But deception was not enough as a means of controlling them to carry out his will. He had to make it desirable to them to have and to hold such leadership. Accordingly, he had to make having and holding such leadership appeal to their selfishness as a thing profitable. Therefore he has in these three domains made such leadership bring great gain to its holders—gain in the way of power, influence, honor, ease, wealth and luxury. He makes the opportunity of gaining such things the means of influencing

 

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them to do what he wants done, and to block their doing what he does not want done he makes it injurious and unprofitable to them so to do. Thus he enslaves them to his will. That he makes such offers as the means of gaining their doing what he wants we can see from his threefold temptation of Jesus, where-in he offered Jesus governmental (all this power will I give thee), religious (cast thyself down) and proprietary (turn stones into bread) advantages in return for Jesus' service of him (Matt. 4: 1-11; Luke 4: 1-13). But whereas Jesus repelled the temptations to these things, the governmental, religious and proprietary leaders have succumbed thereto (2 Tim. 2: 26; Acts 13: 10; Matt. 13: 22; 2 Thes. 2: 9). Thus through deceiving them and by their selfishness he works them into doing and accomplishing what he wants done and accomplished, as by making it injurious and more or less ruinous to them he restrains them from doing and accomplishing what he does not wish to be done or accomplished.

 

Accordingly, Satan got control of the governments. Since he can control through an absolute monarchy more easily than through a limited one or through a republic, he first formed such governments and strove to keep them intact as long as possible, only then yielding to the allowing of limited monarchies when the people no longer would tolerate absolute ones, and later only then allowing republics when the people no longer would submit to a limited monarchy. Hence the rise and fall of various kingdoms in Satan's order. Furthermore, he got control of popular religion. He made it as superstitious and erroneous as possible, compatibly with the degree of these that the people would tolerate. Only then would he let the grosser forms of superstitions be put aside when the people would no longer tolerate them. Accordingly, he has had to modify his superstitions and errors from time to time as the growing intelligence and self-respect of

 

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the people forced it. Hence the rise and fall of many false religious systems in history. But in all his religions in a grosser or more attenuated form, as conditions demanded, he made fundamental his original three errors: (1) The dead are not dead, but are alive; (2) the dead are spirits and as such are conscious; and (3) the dead are either in bliss or torment. Thus by religious error, championed by various religions, he has deceived practically the whole world (John 8: 44; 2 Cor. 4: 4; 11: 3, 14, 15; 2 Thes. 2: 9; 2 Tim. 2: 26; Rev. 17: 2; 18: 3; 19: 2, 20). The same things in principle Satan has done with aristocracies, making them as predatory on the common people as conditions would allow, modifying their oppression only when forced thereto by a determined people. But he has always so shaped them as to make them, under the influence of error and selfishness, represent his purposes along proprietary and social lines. This accounts for their varied forms and powers in the history of the earth.

 

In all three departments of his empire's earthly phase, as the principle that in practice would best serve his purposes, Satan has set forth that of the "Divine Right" as the foundation principle of his empire, and has given it in three forms: the Divine Right of rulers, the Divine Right of aristocrats, and the Divine Right of the clergy—one form of the principle of the Divine Right for each department of his empire. These three forms of the doctrine of the Divine Right are calculated to make the masses blindly subject to the classes as a matter of Divine sanction and obligation. How well the three forms of the Divine Right are calculated to keep the masses, indoctrinated with the error of the Divine Right, in subjection to Satan's representatives, and thus to him, becomes manifest on even a casual consideration of what the three forms of this principle mean. By the doctrine of the Divine Right of kings Satan caused the

 

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following thoughts to be taught by his mouthpieces, especially by the clergy: (1) the kings are God's direct appointees, vicegerents and representatives; (2) they do exactly what God wants them to do; (3) therefore God sanctions all their acts (which means, e.g., God sanctioned all the acts of the Czar and the Kaiser!); (4) therefore the people are in duty bound to obey without question everything their rulers require! The principle of the Divine Right of rulers is calculated to keep the people subject to those rulers, on whose selfishness Satan could depend to advance those governmental policies that he wished advanced, and thus he would control the people governmentally by the Divine Right doctrine.

 

By the doctrine of the Divine Right of the aristocrats he caused the following things to be taught, especially through the clergy: (1) It is the Divine good will and pleasure that practically the whole earth and its riches be owned and administered by the aristocrats; (2) that these act as "the stewards and almoners of the Almighty" in dispensing on their own terms to the bulk of mankind, as their slaves, serfs and employees, of the surplus of earth's bounties; (3) that God sanctions the aristocrats' administration of things; and (4) that the masses should, therefore, be content with their lot and with what is dispensed to them by these "stewards and almoners of the Almighty." The principle of the Divine Right of the Aristocrats is calculated to keep the people subject as slaves, serfs or employees to the aristocrats, on whose selfishness Satan could depend to advance those aristocratic policies that he wanted advanced, and thus he would control people economically and socially by the Divine Right doctrine. By the doctrine of the Divine Right of the clergy, Satan caused, especially by the clergy, the following thoughts to be taught: (1) God speaks to the people through the clergy; (2) therefore they are His mouthpieces giving forth the Truth; (3) He

 

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sanctions their teachings; and (4) therefore the people should with blank, unquestioning minds believe and practice the clergy's teachings. The principle of the Divine Right of the clergy is calculated to make the people subject to the clergy, on whose selfishness Satan could depend to advance those religious teachings and practices that he wanted advanced, and thus he would control the people religiously by the Divine Right doctrine. Of course, the doctrine of the Divine Right as Satan has caused it to be taught is false as a whole and in its three forms, but it has been calculated to keep the race subject to Satan since the flood until very recent times, when the war debates largely set it aside throughout Christendom.

 

For the good of his empire Satan has always seen to it that, compatibly with the successful operation of his empire's three earthly departments, some law and order existed; for he was too shrewd to allow anarchy to reign in his kingdom, well knowing it would result in wreck and ruin for his cause. Hence, there has from the outstart been in his empire civil law, guarding especially the rights of the leaders in state, religion and aristocracy, or, as it is now usually called, capital. This has prevented anarchy from setting in among such rulers. And only then has he tolerated the setting aside of civil law when it interfered with such overturning of governments, religions and aristocracies as he decided should be overturned for his empire's good. Then, also, he has introduced some laws for the regulation of the "rights of the common people." These, however, have always been made first of all to serve the interests of the statesmen, clergy and aristocrats; and subordinately to such interests they have been made to serve those interests of the common people that were calculated to keep them subject first of all to his own interests and thereafter to prosper in a measure their interests, and that, again, subject to his dominion as the executioner of the race (Heb. 2: 14).

 

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These limitations have always made his governments, religions and aristocracies oppressive and exploitative of the common people, and have allowed more or less crime and other invasions of the common people's rights, which Satan on general principles encouraged in individual cases, partly because it was in his interests to corrupt the race and partly to arrange for the execution of penalties on exceptional cases, in order to strike fear into the hearts of the people, as a tribute of respect to his laws. Thus he has been an angel of both light and darkness, accordingly as it best served his ends (2 Cor. 11: 14, 15).

 

An empire based on such principles and using such means for its perpetuation naturally must be one of much evil, even as the Scriptures call it the power of darkness— sin and error (Col. 1: 13). While he greatly deceived the people by the doctrine of the Divine Right of rulers, clergy and aristocrats, he knew that these of themselves were not sufficient to continue his rulership over the race. He, therefore, found it necessary to advance three other doctrines to support the superstructure which he built upon the foundation of the three forms of the Divine Right. Hence, we call the latter three doctrines the fundamental, and the former three the supporting doctrines of Satan's empire. The following are these three supporting doctrines: (1) The dead are alive; (2) they have become spirits; and (3) they are in bliss or in torment. Early in the history of the race, yea, as shown above, in Eden itself Satan set forth these three falsehoods, for which Jesus called him a liar and the father of lies, and for whose acceptance by Eve, resulting in sin and death coming upon the race, Jesus called him a murderer (John 8: 44). Let us again for sake of emphasis note the language in which Satan first clothed these three supporting errors of his empire: (1) "Ye shall not surely [really] die [you will only seem to die; actually, you will live right on, even though seemingly dead, i.e., 'the dead

 

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are alive']; … (2) Ye shall be as [like the] gods [angels (Ps. 97: 7; compare Heb. 1: 6; 197 times angels are called gods in the Hebrew of the Old Testament), who are spirits (Heb. 1: 7), i.e., 'the dead have become spirits'—they exist as angels], (3) knowing [experiencing] good [bliss] and evil [torment]." Satan's design in using these three errors as the supporting doctrines of his empire is very apparent. He knew that if he could deceive the race on these three subjects he could deceive them into believing that certain (other) errors were true and certain truths were false, and that certain wrongs were right and certain rights were wrong. This done, he would promise rewards for the next life to those who would, under the deception that his errors were true and his wrongs were right, accept his errors and practice his wrongs, and threaten with eternal torment those who refused so to do. So, too, would he threaten torments for the next life to those who would accept God's truths— misrepresented as erroneous by Satan—as true, and practice certain of His commands, misrepresented as wrong by Satan, as right; as he would also promise eternal bliss to those who would not so do. Thus, through deception, he would by hope of reward for compliance and by fear of torment for non-compliance, to be realized in the hereafter, enlist the people to believe and practice his errors; and he would, by misrepresentations of the source and character of God's teachings and by hope of reward and by fear of torment, in the hereafter, deter the people from believing and practicing God's truths. Thus he would enslave the race to his will and prevent their doing God's will! In this dark plot he succeeded, with the bulk of the human family; and thus by the three errors under consideration he mightily supported his empire and its foundation errors on the Divine Right.

 

The above considerations show us that Satan's empire is founded on and supported by errors. And by

 

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these he has worked mightily in the hearts of the children of disobedience throughout the duration and territory of his empire. (Eph. 2: 2.) But an empire so founded and so supported must be an evil one, even as all history attests; for the course of Satan's empire is marked by every evil word and work. Corrupt indeed have been the majority of the rulers, aristocrats and clergy of his empire. The history of "the present evil world" presents a succession of events replete with war, revolution, rapine, murder, destruction, lust, cruelty, conquest, oppression, degradation, unhappiness, misfortune, death and persecution, especially of God's people! How little space is given in history to good, noble and elevating philanthropies! How much of its space is given to their opposites! So, too, Satan's empire has been one in which are found the greatest inconsistencies. How contradictory have been its religions, its philosophies, its civilizations, its governments, its social arrangements, its laws and its workings! From this we infer that Satan adapts the form of government, religion, society, etc., to the varying ideals of the peoples as far as he must. He would, if he could, keep all people in the densest ignorance, deepest oppression, darkest superstition and basest character and environment; but when the people will no longer stand for this, he makes such concessions as he must, compatibly, however, with his retaining control. This will account for the many overthrows, revolutions and reorganizations that have occurred in the governmental, aristocratic and religious departments of his empire. Whenever governments, aristocracies and religions which he has used cease to serve his purpose of controlling the people, as nearly according to his views as possible, he wrecks those governments, aristocracies and religions, often with extreme ruthlessness, and replaces them by others more in harmony with his aims, and the concessions he must make to his subjects. He certainly makes it uncomfortable

 

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for those rulers or religionists who oppose the principles and purposes of his empire. This is manifest in the oppositions and persecutions that he has aroused against every Christian leader and movement that have attacked his errors and preached God's Truth; for he has made them targets.

 

Satan has not contented himself with merely founding and operating an empire in rivalry with, and opposition to, God; but he has also used that empire in the officers of its earthly phase and in its subjects to further his purposes. Above we pointed out how he used such officers to carry out his purposes, but did not point out how he has been doing this with other citizens of his empire. He has "worked" these according to their talents, positions and susceptibilities to contribute to his designs. Of course he has been thoroughly deceiving them as to the character of his works and intentions through appealing to their varying degrees of degradation, selfishness and ignorance. The more talented the agents that he could find for his works and purposes, the more willingly did he use them. Without any doubt, he manipulated his knowledge of hereditary laws to produce characters and talents susceptible to his designs; and this will account f or certain marriages that he promoted and prenatal experiences that he gave, to have, as it were, handmade suitable agents for his purposes. In the cases of many of the leaders in the world of education and learning, of society and home, of art and philosophy, of camp and rostrum, of vice and crime, the manipulation of the laws of heredity by Satan can be discerned.

 

Then, he saw to it that their training, experiences, surroundings and contacts were conducive to adapting them to his designs, for Satan has had varied designs for the various strata from, and with which he has constructed his forms of society. Thus he has wanted some to be leaders in education and learning, others in society and home, others in art and science, others in

 

 

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