Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13

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God and man by working up the World War God decided to punish by making it the first stage in his overthrow. Satan counted on a somewhat weakened, but comparatively powerful empire, emerging from the war; but God determined that his empire should emerge from the war so weakened that it would be a comparatively easy matter to overthrow it.

 

Therefore God did not permit Satan to end the war with a speedy and easy victory for the Central Powers, which Satan expected would for years result in keeping Conservatives and Radicals united for revenge in each Allied country, and which would keep in each country of the Central Powers the Conservatives and the Radicals united for protection against such revenge, and thus indefinitely postpone the danger of a revolution against his order of affairs. On the contrary, the Lord permitted the war to drag its "slow length along" until all of the involved countries became very greatly weakened in every feature of national strength—especially in man-power, resources, wealth and prestige—and hopelessly burdened with crushing debts. Thus the war had two results directly opposite to those that Satan had planned: (1) the side that he favored was ultimately defeated; and (2) his empire was weakened and debt-burdened almost to collapse. Moreover, the Lord overruled to the complete frustration of Satan's purpose of making each nation emerge from the war with the masses and the classes thoroughly united with each other, instead of their being divided against each other as they had been before the war. This purpose of Satan was frustrated by the Lord's making known, not only the human, but also the Satanic causes of the war, particularly as these were connected with the doctrines of the Divine Right of Kings, Aristocrats and Clerics, which doctrine and its resultant practices were the basic human causes of the war. The making of these things known has had various results: (1) the almost complete abolition of

 

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autocracy—a child of the Divine Right doctrine; (2) in some countries a large abolition, and in other countries a large limitation of aristocracy; (3) greatly de creased belief in the Divine Right of the Clergy and a correspondingly immense decrease of their influence; (4) greatly increased embitterment and opposition of the Radicals to what is Satan's order of affairs; (5) greatly increased demands for more liberty from State, Aristocracy and Clergy; and (6) most threatening imminence of world-wide revolution. Thus in a deeper sense than most people recognize Satan emerged from his adventure in the World War as the worst defeated sovereign of all history.

 

The World War was no usual war. From the above description it will be seen that it was a greater conflict, with larger issues involved, than mankind in general recognizes. As a matter of fact the World War was the great war of prophecy—the war that, according to the Scriptures, would precede Armageddon, the war that would be the first part of the great Day of the Lord, the Day of Vengeance. In many places the Bible refers to it. The following are among the more important of these references: Joel 3: 9-14; Dan. 12: 1; Matt. 24: 21, 22; 1 Thes. 5: 1-3. This war, and the very year—1914—in which it was to begin, were forecast from the Bible by Pastor Russell years before it began. According to the Bible it is, after an ever increasingly stormy interval, to be followed by sudden world-wide Revolution, which will overthrow the present form of Satan's empire in state, aristocracy and religion. And according to the Scriptures even greater famines and pestilences than those which accompanied the World War will accompany the World Revolution. According to the Scriptural delineations, the Radicals, in the coming Revolution, will attack the present order with crushing and relentless blows, under which it will collapse with but scant resistance, due to its greatly weakened condition

 

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resulting from the wounds received in the World War and its aftermath. This will show in another way what a great blunder Satan made in bringing about that war; for by greatly weakening his empire it will have prepared that empire to become an easy prey to the attacks of the Radicals in the coming World Revolution. Events on all hands indicate that we are rapidly sweeping toward this great social upheaval.

 

Of this coming upheaval, the following are some of the Biblical descriptions, clothed in figurative language: "The Battle of the Great Day of God Almighty" (Rev. 16: 14; Zeph. 3: 8; Is. 13: 4, 5), "Armageddon" (Rev. 16: 16), "a great earthquake" (Rev. 16: 18; Heb. 12: 26), "the fire of Jehovah's jealousy" (Zeph. 3: 8; 2 Pet. 3: 10, 12; Mal. 4: 1), "a whirlwind" and "a storm" (Nah. 1: 3, 6, 7), "a tempest of hail," "a destroying storm," and "a flood of mighty waters" (Is. 28: 2; Nah. 1: 4, 5, 8), "the besom of destruction" (Is. 14: 23), "a furnace of fire" (Matt. 13: 42), "a lake of fire" (Rev. 19: 20); "the supper of the great God" (Rev. 19: 17), and "the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God" (Rev. 19: 15). As one reads these many terms descriptive of one and the same event, the conclusion is irresistible that they set forth in symbolic language an appalling calamity just ahead of the race.

 

The present European powers are symbolized in their entirety in the seven-headed Beast of Rev. 17: 7-12, by its ten-horns, which Beast is, of course, symbolic. As such they will be destroyed in the coming Revolution. We look for the coming of another (symbolic) Beast, which seems to represent the form of European government to be set up after the Revolution, and which, we opine, will probably be socialistic in form. This being a part of the "present evil world," Satan, of course, will be its invisible ruler. Forced, much against his preference, to accept such an order of affairs, he will seek to use it to further

 

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his controllership over the human family. However, the inherent impracticability of Socialism as a method of government among fallen, selfish men will be quickly demonstrated, even as the inherent impracticability of Communism as a method of government among fallen, selfish men has been quickly demonstrated in Russia by its adventure with Bolshevism; for the Scriptures teach that after this government shall but briefly pilot the ship of State amid the storms of the social sea, Anarchy will set in, and like a devouring fire will completely destroy every vestige of Satan's empire. More severe famines and pestilences than those accompanying the Revolution will accompany Anarchy. Fire is the most frequent Biblical term describing the Anarchistic phase of the Great Tribulation. The prophet Elijah was given a vision of the three great phases of this Trouble—war, revolution, and anarchy—by the wind, earthquake and fire of 1 Kings 19: 11, 12. Using Jerusalem as a figure of Christendom, the prophet Ezekiel by the term "sword" describes the War and Revolution, and by the figure of the noisome beast (a beast is opposed to law and order) fittingly describes the Anarchy of the Time of Trouble (Ezek. 14: 21) Additionally, in the same passage, he shows that famines and pestilences will play their part in these troubles, as we by observation know they played their part in the war.

 

Surely the immediate outlook here presented is far from pleasant; and if there were no blessing following these sad experiences, we would rather pass them over in silence. We tell them here in order to forewarn and thus forearm those who will heed the "sure Word of Prophecy" and "the signs of the times," and by them apply their hearts unto wisdom. One may ask, How could a God of love permit these things? We answer that for nearly 2000 years with marvelous longsuffering God has been calling upon the world to repent; but apart from a saintly few they have refused

 

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to respond, and thus have demonstrated that they will not be reformed by moral suasion. Hence God determined to permit devils and wicked leaders to bring them into great tribulation, which He designs to use as a rod of correction, that men may learn righteousness (Is. 26: 9). As a surgeon, though inevitably hurting the patient whose broken limb he must set, performs the operation as the only means to secure the ultimate good of the patient, so God permits the Great Tribulation as the only remaining method of bringing the world to its senses, and thus of preparing it for its uplift through Christ's Millennial Reign. Then there is, connected with God's permitting the Great Tribulation, another thing that shows His love even amid wrath—this tribulation will by Divine inter-position break Satan's yoke from off the neck of the race, and thus free humanity from the oppression of the worst of all tyrants (Is. 9: 4; Ps. 72: 4). When we contemplate the fearful and remorseless havoc that Satan has wrought against and among mankind, and then learn that the Great Tribulation will result in his losing his empire and throne and in his under-going thereafter a thousand years' imprisonment (Rev. 20: 1-3), and that consequently freedom for the race from his ruthless sway will set in, we at once see that to be freed from him it would be worth while to pass through twenty-five Times of Trouble. And best of all is the third reason why God permits the Great Tribulation—it will be the means of sweeping away Satan's empire, and thus of making way for the establishment of God's Kingdom the world over for the blessing of mankind—living and dead—with the privileges of restoration to human perfection and Edenic bliss. To gain these blessings it would be worth while to pass through fifty Great Tribulations.

 

How glad we are that Satan, the proud, selfish and ruthless oppressor of our race is now being laid hold on by the Almighty hands of our Lord Jesus, and by

 

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them is being hurled from his throne, never again to be permitted to mount it! With this faith in heart and mind let God's Faithful joyfully sing the song, "The kingdom of this world is become the Kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ, and He shall reign for ever and ever" (Rev. 11: 15)! And let all others mightily join in the refrain, "Alleluia! for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth" (Rev. 19: 6)! Yea, let every one in Heaven and in earth sing the jubilee song of Liberty from Satan's yoke to the earth and to the inhabitants thereof; and let every human heart cry out, "Make room! make room!" for the great Liberator, our adorable Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, who with His Bride, as the Seed of Abraham, shall bless all the nations of the earth, and as King of kings and Lord of lords shall reign forever and forever!

 

Satan will, after the Anarchy, attempt but one final effort against God's people, and that not against His spiritual, but against His fleshly Israel. One of the signs of our times as a fulfillment of prophecy has been Israel's returning to Palestine. This has had several stages, beginning with the Berlin Congress of Nations, 1878 (Zech. 8: 23), requiring Turkey to permit Israel's return to Palestine under certain guarantees of protection. Various civil disabilities in Slavic Europe have made such a return quite desirable for Israel. The World War, especially in the Slavic countries, served to loosen all the more the hold of many Israelites on Europe and caused their eyes to turn toward the Holy Land. The Balfour Declaration of 1917 greatly advanced their return. Arab opposition has given a temporary setback to their return, but in due time this obstacle will be removed. Present world-wide conditions have influenced many wealthy Israelites to divert vast millions of treasure to their Home Land, and the land is being richly built up; and much treasure is being laid up there for safekeeping against the financial losses of Christendom. All this is in fulfillment of prophecy

 

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relating to our times (Ezek. 36: 8, 12). Satan, beholding these prosperous Israelites, and realizing that his days of mischief are about over, will, after anarchy has destroyed the future socialistic governments, in hatred against Israel stir up the anarchistic remnants of all nations to plunder the Israelites in Palestine. These plunderers, as described in Ezek. 38 and 39 and in Zech. 12: 1-9 and 14: 1-3, will be gathered by Satan from among all nations and will sorely afflict Israel in what the Bible calls Jacob's Trouble (Jer. 30: 1-9). This will be a very severe trouble, according to the prophetic description given in the above citations, and will be Israel's final chastisement. It will effectually turn them to the Lord Jesus in thorough conversion, when they, in the complete overthrow of their plunderers by the Lord Jesus, will remember that their trouble and their troublers' overthrow were forecast to them by the Truth people. And their affliction and the overthrow of their anarchistic plunderers will be the last act of Satanic oppression as the god of this evil world. With that wicked effort his days as man's supreme oppressor will be over, for which we thank God.

 

According to Rev. 20: 1-3, Satan will be bound and be imprisoned during the thousand years. The language of this passage, of course, is figurative. We understand that the bottomless pit symbolizes error, which, indeed, is a pit, and from the standpoint of its having no real foundation, is well represented by a bottomless pit. A key in Bible symbols represents the power to lock or unlock. In this passage the key is used to lock up Satan in the bottomless pit. The great chain by which Satan is bound represents the Truth in its various parts, as mighty in its Biblical, factual and reasonable proofs. The binding of Satan, therefore, represents his restraint by the Truth, Biblically, factually and reasonably set forth. This binding work has been a gradual one, and when completed, will have consisted of four stages. Its first stage was from 1874 to 1914,

 

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when his binding was his increasing restraint by secular and religious truth, so that he could no more control the nations by his empire's three foundation doctrines—the Divine right of kings, aristocrats and clergy—and their three supporting doctrines—the change of humans into spirits at death, the consciousness of the dead and the bliss or torment of the dead. The completion of the first stage of his binding was marked by the World War, to which he resorted to maintain his empire, after realizing that he could no longer control it by its three foundation and three supporting doctrines, as of yore.

 

Since then he is trying to maintain it by various other errors, especially combinationistic ones, as these are manifest in various treaties, the League of Nations, the World Court, alliances among the nations, etc., combines among the financiers and unions and federations among the religious forces. By Biblical, factual and reasonable exhibitions of secular and religious truth, Jesus is showing, and will continue to show the erroneousness of these to such a degree that Satan, to maintain an empire at all, will resort to a revolution of the masses against the classes combined as above, and thereby will overthrow his present order. His resorting to the revolution—the fast approaching Armageddon—will be a proof of the completion of his second binding stage. He will establish on false teachings a socialistic form of government which, as the third stage of Satan's binding, Jesus will expose as erroneous, by secular and religious truth; and in a mad dash to preserve some sort of power over mankind, Satan will lead the people on to anarchy, which will prove the completion of the third stage of his binding. The fourth stage of it will be our Lord's exposures, by secular and religious truth, of his effort of despair and hatred against the Jews by the anarchistic remnants of all nations. Thus, at the end of the tribulation Satan's binding will be complete. He will have

 

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run the full course of his pre-Millennial deceptions. In every way the Truth—the great chain—will restrain him, so that he will be unable to move hand, foot or mouth, in the way of deceiving the nations during the Millennium. His being cast into the bottomless pit represents his being left to his own unaided resources and speculations and being kept from learning any further truth; and his being kept in the darkness of errors of his own making is meant by his remaining in the bottomless pit, which certainly will be painful.

 

To accomplish this several things will be necessary on the Lord's part: (1) to remove Satan so far away from the earth that he will know nothing of what is going on here during the Millennium, and (2) to keep him there away from mankind during that period. This will prevent his learning the secular and religious truths given mankind during the Millennium; and separating him from contact with mankind will not give him opportunity to deceive any of them. It will also leave him to his own resources in imagining what is going on here. But with an intellect so perverted in power of reasoning, all his imaginations as to Millennial conditions and teachings will be erroneous. The errors that he taught mankind before the Millennium will during that period be so completely refuted that none of mankind will any longer believe them. Thus he will deceive the nations no more by error and sin during those thousand years. On the contrary, our Lord will operate restitution processes on the race so powerfully during those thousand years as to bring all the obedient to perfection—those obeying only externally, and not from the heart, to perfection of physical, mental, moral and religious faculty, but not to perfection of character; and those who obey externally and also from the heart, to perfection of both faculty and character. Thus the entire race will be perfect when the Millennium is over, and it will be in a better position to be tested for fitness or unfitness for everlasting

 

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life than inexperienced Adam and Eve were when they were put on trial for life in Eden.

 

This post-Millennial trial of mankind will be during the Little Season at the end of the Millennium (Rev. 20: 7-9). In the passage just cited Satan is spoken of as being loosed out of his prison. As his imprisonment means his being in error and away from any contact with the race on earth, his loosing would imply his being brought back into touch with the race and finding out the exact truth on Millennial teachings and conditions. As his binding was a gradual one, extending over many years, so will his loosing—a permitting of more or less of knowledge to influence by deception—be a gradual one extending over many years, though his coming back to the earth will not be a long-timed journey. He will make a careful study of the situation, so as to get a thorough grasp of it, as the basis of a plan to seize control of the human race again. Doubtless Satan will not believe that he will be annihilated at the end of the Little Season, but like Pharaoh, his type, will persuade himself that God is too kind to take extreme measures against him; and he will therefore hope for another empire and reign over the earth for thousands of years, like his first one god will allow him to attempt to gain control of the race again, only as a means of testing the hearts' attitude of the perfected race for the manifestation of those who will be loyal to right principle under heart-searching tests and those who under such tests will not be loyal to right principle; for God is determined to let no person after having had a favorable opportunity for life exist after the Little Season, if he will not maintain loyalty to righteousness. So Satan's unbelief and ambition will inveigle him into the role of a tempter; and this will bring upon all a final crucial temptation, whose outcome will be life everlasting to the faithful and endless death to the unfaithful. Thus, as with Adam and Eve in the beginning, a trial to

 

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determine worthiness or unworthiness for everlasting life must be undergone by all, and the stage for that trial will be set in the Little Season.

 

Of what will the deception consist, through which Satan will seek to make the race again his subjects? While we may not be too positive on this subject, we incline to the thought that Satan will seek to work out a deception as follows: After 2874 he will remind the people that the Millennium began in 1874 and, therefore, was over in 2874, that at the end of the Millennium, according to God's promise, the race would be given the dominion over the earth, and that the Ancient and Youthful Worthies, instead of yielding up to the race the promised dominion at 2874, have allowed year after year to pass since that time without making a move to give up that dominion to mankind as a whole. Thus he will slyly insinuate the thought that the Worthies are usurping a rulership over them, unauthorized by God and contrary to God's promise. These sophistries will affect responsively those who during the Millennium will not have in heart reformed, but only reformed externally in order to escape chastisement. Thus, instead of developing supreme love to God and equal love to man, such will have been developing a selfish disposition during the Millennium. And Satan's suggestions will appeal more and more to their selfishness. Shortly thereafter, under Satanic suggestion, they will begin to voice their thoughts, and more by hints to express their disapproval at the alleged usurpations of the Worthies. Presently, under Satanic manipulation, these hints will become direct charges, and later agitations will break out and more and more will multitudes—Gog and Magog—join these agitations. And as during the trial the Lord will not summarily punish wrong-doing, as He for their reformation will have done during the thousand years (Is. 26: 9), these selfish persons, encouraged by Satan, will think their course approved by the Lord. Under

 

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Satan's lead they will organize to make their claims all the more effective. They will probably, at Satanic incitation, delegate committees to ask the Worthies to turn over the dominion to them, which, under Divine instruction, will be refused by them.

 

Satan urging them on, they will become increasingly urgent until, finally, they will commit such undeniable sin—perhaps the murder of the Ancient and Youthful Worthies, represented by the beloved city and the camp of the saints—that they will be proven to be sinful and thus unworthy of life. Thereupon will follow their and Satan's and the impenitent angels' annihilation, symbolized by their being cast into the lake of fire (Rev. 20: 9, 10, 15; 21: 8). Literal passages, like the following, prove this of the wicked: Job 6: 15, 18; 7: 9; Ps. 37: 10, 35, 36; 49: 12; 104: 35; Is. 65: 20; while the following passages show this of Satan: Is. 27: 1; Ezek. 28: 16, 19; Heb. 2: 14. Sometimes Rev. 20: 10, which in the A. V. speaks of the devil being tormented eternally, is quoted to prove that he will continue to exist forever. To this several things may be answered: The beast and the false prophet, which are spoken of in this passage, and which have the same thing done to them as is done to Satan, are not persons, but Satanic institutions, systems, organizations, which therefore will not exist forever (1 John 3: 8). What, then, is the solution of this matter? We reply that the word basanizo, translated tormented in the A. V. of Rev. 20: 10, is an unhappy translation here. This word has three meanings: (1) to examine; (2) to examine with torture, and (3) to torture. The A. V. has taken the third, whereas the first meaning of this word fits here. The thought is this: that eternally perfect men will examine Satan's, the beast's and the false prophet's history, theories, effects, etc., and as a result of that examination will always conclude that these are worthily in eternal annihilation. The thought is more literally expressed in Is. 14: 15-20.

 

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Satan will subject to temptation those who will have reformed not only externally but also internally, i.e., those who will have faithfully developed supreme love to God and equal love to the neighbor, but he will fail to deceive them. As the sun melts wax, but hardens cement, so, by the heat of temptation, Satan will ruin the unfaithful, and will but strengthen the faithful. Their unselfish gratitude and appreciation of the Ancient and Youthful Worthies for ministering to their Millennial blessing and uplift will shield them from responding to the delusion that the former are usurping rulership over them during the Little Season. They will meet the temptation somewhat after this manner: "Though we do not understand why the rulership is not being handed over to us, we do not believe that they are usurping authority over us. And even if they should rule over us a few years longer than we have expected, we will not begrudge it of them, because their ministry assisted us up out of physical, mental, moral and religious degradation to physical, mental, moral and religious perfection. If they reign over us longer than we expected, they are welcome to it for the good they have done us; moreover, we are sure that it will result in greater blessing to us than if they did not so rule. Therefore, we will not murmur nor complain with our lips against them, nor resent and dislike their acts with our heart, much less do them insult and violence with our hands. And, finally, we love God so much that we will do nothing in the way of attempting to take matters out of His hands into our own. We will in such love wait on Him to manage this matter as it will please Him." Thus they will overcome the temptation, which after being faithfully met will be eased by their being given an understanding of the temptation denied the unfaithful, who will be permitted to remain in their delusion until escape will be impossible and their destruction inevitable, while the faithful will in perfection inherit the

 

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paradisaic earth as their perfect and everlasting kingdom in righteousness and blessedness.

 

Among other Biblical types the experiences of Moses and Israel and of Pharaoh and the Egyptians at and in the Red Sea are given as a type of the Little Season's experiences of the Christ and the faithful restitutionists on the one hand, and of Satan, his fallen angels and wicked men on the other hand, the former coming to safety in everlasting bliss and the latter to eternal destruction, as a result of their varied wicked attitudes, while the song of praise to Jehovah sung by the Israelites on the other shore types the Hallelujah anthems joined in by all in heaven and earth as a choir—an anthem that will be lived as well as sung (Rev. 5: 13). This outcome of God's plan reveals Satan's true character and work. At best, so far as the Elect are concerned, he has served as a catspaw to pull God's chestnuts out of the fire, as a grindstone to make them acute, as a mason's tools and materials to shape, smooth and polish them, as shears to prune them, as a rod to discipline them and as a proving machine to test them. At best, to the world he is now a fire that burns them to teach the burnt ones to dread the fire, and in the Little Season the roaring lion, who will make the faithful seek a refuge in God away from the lion's power to harm, and who will devour the unfaithful, remaining within reach of the lion's paw. And these good results are not of his planning or design, but are of the Lord's overruling untoward things for the glory of his Name in the blessing of the faithful and in the destruction of the unfaithful. At his bad and worst, in his thoughts, character and works he is guilty of all the evil and more, too, than we have written of him here. Surely, as we contemplate his past, present and future activities, we are constrained to say also of his end—annihilation: "Great and marvelous are Thy works, Lord God Almighty; just and true are Thy ways, Thou King of the nations … for Thy righteous acts are made manifest" (Rev. 15: 3, 4)!

 

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So far in our study of the evil angels we have given our attention almost exclusively to their leader, Satan, saying almost nothing of his associate evil angels. We now proceed to a brief study of them. Some, giving a literal and historical, instead of a symbolic and prophetic explanation to Rev. 12: 7-9, have imagined that Satan and a number of literal angels before man's creation made a rebellion in the literal heaven, were defeated and cast out of it into a burning marl—an imaginary hell—which they fancy to be far away from the earth. Certainly Rev. 12: 7-9, being, like the rest of that book, a symbolic prophecy of things to come (Rev. 1: 1, 2), cannot have such a meaning. As we saw, Satan fell into open sin after Eve's creation; and, according to the Bible, the rest of the fallen angels sinned shortly before the flood. To make this matter clear we will have to give a description of the first world, the world before the flood, and of its heavens and earth.

 

The first world—"the world that then was," "the old world"—was from the creation and fall of man until the flood, lasting 1656 years. It was the order of affairs that prevailed among men especially from the fall into sin and the curse until it was blotted out by the flood in the days of Noah. It was an evil order of affairs, because in it sin, error and death prevailed; but not being so evil as that one which followed, it is not, like the present order of affairs, expressly called, "that evil world." "The world that then was," or "the old world," consisted of two parts: (1) its heavens, and (2) its earth. But when we speak of its heavens and its earth, we are not to be understood as meaning the literal heavens and earth of those days; but are to be understood as meaning figurative or symbolic heavens and earth. But one might ask, "What is the difference between the literal and the figurative heavens and earth?" The literal heavens are, of course, the planetary systems and their suns that we

 

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see above us on cloudless nights; while the literal earth is the planet on which we live, build our houses and plant our gardens. These literal heavens and this literal earth are used in the Bible in a natural figure to represent symbolic heavens and earth. The following thought-likeness underlying these things suggests the use of the heavens in a symbolic sense: As the natural stars give light, so that we may find our way in the natural night, so teachers of religion are to shed the light of Truth on the pathway of sinners, that they may find their way in the night of sin. As, therefore, all of the literal stars constitute the literal heavens, so all of the religious systems and their teachers in any of the Bible's three worlds constitute the heavens of that world. That the Bible speaks of a teaching class or system in the sense of symbolic stars is apparent from many verses, of which we will quote a few: "They that be wise [literally, teachers; see margin] shall shine as the brightness of the firmament [the sun]; and they that turn [convert] many to righteousness, as the stars for ever and ever (Dan. 12: 3). The Christ from the standpoint of giving the world the light of Truth during the Millennium, are called the Sun of Righteousness and the Sun (Mal. 4: 2; Matt. 13: 43). False teachers are called wandering stars (Jude 13). The special teachers of the Church in her seven epochs are called stars (Rev. 1: 20). The twelve Apostles as the teachers of the entire Church are symbolized by the twelve stars crowning the woman who symbolizes the Church (Rev. 12: 1). And Jesus, from the standpoint of giving the Truth in the dawn of the Millennium, is called the Day Star and the Morning Star (2 Pet. 1: 19; Rev. 22: 16). These passages, proving that religious teachers are symbolic stars, enable us to see how that all of the symbolic stars of a world would be the symbolic heavens of that world—order of affairs.

 

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In the Bible, angels—the spirits that God made as His servants (Heb. 1: 14)—are called stars, or teachers. In job

38: 7, they are spoken of as the stars that sang together early in human history, rejoicing in God's creation. Lucifer, light-bearer, who later became Satan, was like the morning star—"son of the morning"—and later in unholy ambition sought to mount above (to become supreme over) the other stars—angels (Is. 14: 12, 13). According to these verses, the angels have been teachers—symbolic stars. When? Evidently they will not be the heavens—the teachers—in the world to come; for St. Paul expressly says, "Unto the angels hath He [God] not put in subjection the world [Age] to come" (Heb. 2: 5). Nor are they the religious teachers of "this present evil world," for the Lord has made certain men teachers of religion in "this present world," as can readily be seen from Cornelius' experience, to whom an angel was sent to show where a preacher might be found; but the angel was not himself privileged to teach Cornelius the Truth unto Salvation; for instead of attempting to teach Cornelius, the angel said to him, "Send … for … Peter, who shall tell thee words whereby thou and thy house shall be saved" (Acts 11: 13, 14). Therefore, not being the symbolic heavens of the second and third worlds, if the angels ever were symbolic stars—teachers of the human family—it must have been before the flood—in the "world that then was," in "the old world," i.e., in the first dispensation.

 

The angels are expressly spoken of as having been the authorized teachers of the human family, and as having been clothed with power to reward the obedient and punish the disobedient, in the following verse: "For if the word spoken by angels was steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense of reward" (Heb. 2: 2). This passage, in the light of the foregoing considerations, implies that before the flood the symbolic heavens—the symbolic

 

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stars—light or truth bearers—were the angels who were the authorized teachers of the people, rewarding them for obedience and punishing them for disobedience. It is true that the Bible does not give details as to their administration of affairs; but piecing together the thoughts Scripturally indicated and implied, we infer that they were permitted by the Lord, who foreknew their failure, to seek the uplift of mankind after sin had entered the world, and thus were made the religious teachers—the stars, the symbolic heavens—in "the world that then was." But instead of success crowning their efforts, matters became worse and worse until man's wickedness required the punishment of the flood, which was effected by God's causing the canopy of water that enveloped the earth—"the waters above the heavens" or earth's atmosphere—to drop upon the earth in a worldwide deluge.

 

But not only did mankind steadfastly continue its downward course; but many of the angels were misled into sin in an unauthorized attempt to stem the tide of human wickedness and to restore mankind to perfection. While the Bible does not give us the details, yet from the facts that it does give us we may properly infer that the following things occurred: Satan, who originated sin among men and angels, seems to have suggested the following thoughts to the angels while they were somewhat discouraged by their failure to uplift fallen man: "Your failure is due to your use of an inadequate remedy for man's sin. He is becoming worse because of hereditary depravity. A pure fountain is indispensable to pure water. If you make the fountain pure, you will have pure water. The race is impure because it comes from an impure fountain through heredity. You have the power to materialize human bodies (Gen. 18: 1, 2; 19: 1; Judges 6: 11-22; 13: 20; Luke 1: 11-22, 28-38; etc.). Use this power, marry women and raise families; and you will impart your sinlessness to your posterity, and

 

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by the by, through a pure heredity, sin will be blotted out of the race." We say that Satan suggested such thoughts, because (1) apart from Satan angels did not sin until just before the flood (1 Pet. 3: 19, 20; 2 Pet. 2: 4, 5; Jude 6, 7); (2) he led many angels into sin; and (3) the angels sinned by marrying women and raising families (Gen. 6: 2, 4; Jude 6, 7; A.R.V. margin), thus leaving their own habitation— their mode of living as spirit beings—and becoming guilty of fornication and going after strange flesh—a different nature from their own; and St. Jude tells us that they in these matters did as the people of Sodom and Gomorrah did later. But, instead of the offspring of these angelic fathers and human mothers being sinless, they seem to have increased the wickedness of the antediluvians (Gen. 6: 4-6). The procedure of the angels in this matter was entirely unauthorized. We may assume that when Satan first made his suggestion, it appealed to all as plausible; but doubtless some of them had doubts as to its propriety, because God had never authorized such a procedure. Some of the angels refused to enter into the suggestion unless Divinely authorized so to do. But there were others that allowed their zeal to reform the race to set aside proper caution; and these, following Satan's suggestion, instead of reforming the race, plunged themselves into sin, and the race into deeper sin. Thus the heavens—the symbolic heavens—of "the old world" became unfit for Divine use as religious leaders and teachers—symbolic stars. What a solemn lesson to us always to find out the Lord's will on everything before attempting it, if we would be one with Him!

 

Let us briefly look at the symbolic earth before the flood. We understand the symbolic earth of any world to be the organized society of that world. Often the word, earth, is symbolically used in the Bible to mean society. For example, when Jesus said, "Ye are the salt of the earth" (Matt. 5: 13), He certainly did

 

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not mean that we are literal salt placed in the literal earth to season, nourish and preserve it, but that in human society— the symbolic earth—Christians are a seasoning, nourishing and preserving factor. Evidently Is. 60: 2 does not refer to the literal earth being in gross literal darkness; for if such were the case, it would be dark wherever the sun does not shine on the earth, no matter how many saints were there; and it would be light wherever the sun shines, no matter how many sinners were there. Evidently the thought of the verse is that while society in general would be in the darkness of error, the faithful would be in the light of Truth. How apparently does the word earth mean society, in its first use, and the planet on which we live, in its second use in Gen. 4: 14: "Thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth [society]; and from Thy face [favor] shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth [our planet]." Again, "the whole earth [human society] was of one language" (Gen. 11: 1). Other illustrations of the symbolic sense—society—as being given to the word earth could be cited; but the above are sufficient to prove the point under consideration.

 

It being established that the symbolic earth of the Scriptures means society, we now remark that the symbolic earth upon which the angels as the symbolic heavens shone before the flood was human society as then constituted. From the fact that the earth was not divided up into private property until in the day of Peleg [divider] after the flood (Gen. 10: 25); from the fact that the first human government was organized by Nimrod (Gen. 10: 10), and from the fact that the first business transaction on record in the Bible is that of Abraham's purchase of the field and cave of Machpelah (Gen. 23: 3-20), we infer that before the flood there was no private ownership in property, no governments among the people, and no competition in business. In other words, society seemed to be

 

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organized on a more or less communistic basis, somewhat after the manner of the social organization of the North American Indians. It was this peculiar social arrangement, combined with man's increasing selfishness and sinfulness and the greater selfishness and sinfulness of the giant offspring of the angels (Gen. 6: 4), that made the earth— society—"corrupt" (Gen. 6: 5, 6, 11-13)—an expression that cannot be applied to the literal earth. The reader will note that in every use of the word, earth, in the above-cited verses it means society. Thus the order of affairs before the flood—the angels in charge of the race and the race organized on a sort of communistic basis—proved to be a failure, so far as concerns the reformation of man from sin and his restoration to his Edenic perfection.

 

The foregoing discussion proves that both the symbolic heavens—the angels as the teachers of the human family, and the symbolic earth—society organized on somewhat of a communistic basis, became corrupt—unfit for the Lord's further use and tolerance as such. Hence He determined to destroy the world—not the physical, but the symbolic world, consisting not of the physical, but the symbolic heavens and earth (Gen. 6: 3, 5-13, 17). That the symbolic world is referred to as having been destroyed by the flood in 2 Pet. 3: 6, and not the literal world, nor the human family, is evident from the fact that we still have the same literal heavens and earth that existed before the flood and that the human family still exists; for had the world in the sense of the human family been destroyed by the flood, a new human race would have been created, while the Bible shows that a part of the human race survived the flood. Therefore it was the symbolic world that was destroyed by the flood (Gen. 6: 13; 9: 11), i.e., the order of affairs in which the angels were the teachers of the human family, and in which the human family was socially organized on a somewhat communistic basis, was forever set aside by the

 

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flood. Thus ended "the world that then was," "the old world"—not the human family, nor the universe, nor the literal earth, but the order or dispensation of affairs existing in the human family before the flood.

 

Thus we see that the human race in eight persons survived the flood. So, too, did the fallen angels survive the flood, but no longer organized as the symbolic heavens— teachers of the race as organized anew in the second earth. On the contrary, they were sentenced not only to the punishment of being demoted from being the teachers— symbolic stars—of the human family, but were further punished (1) by being imprisoned within the atmosphere of this earth, no longer, as formerly, being allowed the freedom of the universe, and (2) by being restrained from all manifestation of themselves to humans in the light, being limited to darkness for such manifestations. Both Peter and Jude tell us of these two forms of punishment as being meted out to the fallen angels after the flood for their sins before the flood (2 Pet. 2: 4; Jude 6, 7). We have above explained Jude 6, 7, as showing the peculiar form of the angels' sin before the flood. The second part of v. 6 points out their punishment: "The [sinning] angels … He [God] hath reserved [kept] in everlasting [ages-lasting] chains [imprisoned within the atmosphere of this earth, where they are under the prince—Satan—of the power of the air,— Eph. 2: 2] under darkness [limited to operating visibly to darkness, hence in séances no lights are allowed, since in the light these fallen angels cannot manifest themselves] unto the judgment of the great day [in which we have been since 1874, which accounts for the gradual loosing of their visible manifestations from the limits of darkness and their gradually increasing materializations in the light]. But 2 Pet. 2: 4 is more clearly to the point than Jude 6, when the veil of mistranslation is removed; for here the A. V. renders one word, the verb tartaroo, by five

 

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words, "cast them down to hell,"—a verb, a personal pronoun, an adverb, a preposition and a noun. This fact properly arouses suspicion that some violence has been done in translation to the verb, tartaroo. This verb is from the same root as the noun tartaros, which the heathen Greeks used to designate a gloomy prison in which wicked spirits were kept imprisoned and where they were more or less tortured. And when the Catholic Church in the Dark Ages took over from the heathen the doctrines of the consciousness of the dead and the eternal torment of the wicked, it without Biblical warrant introduced and magnified the heathen ideas associated with tartaros. If we keep in mind the basal idea of tartarus as a prison and make a verb of it, we have the true meaning of the verb—to imprison. Thus Peter by the verb tartaroo tells us that God imprisoned the angels that sinned; and since Jude tells us that such imprisonment lasts until the great day, and since these fallen angels as the power of the air are active among humans, e.g., in demonizing people, appearing in séances and other occult practices, we conclude that earth's atmosphere is their prison (Matt. 12: 24-27; Eph. 2: 2; 6: 11, 12).

 

None of the other sinful angels are of so high a nature as Satan, he being the only cherub to have sinned. Despite the fact that Satan deceived them into sinning, he succeeded in securing their subordination to him since the flood, which is probably due to the facts that, feeling the need of some organization among themselves and knowing that Satan was their superior in nature and consequently in the compass of his powers, they accepted his supremacy among them, and under his direction they were organized into the invisible phase of his kingdom. While the Bible does not give us definite details on the organization of the invisible phase of Satan's kingdom, it shows us that it is an organized arrangement, from the fact that it proves Satan to be its chief (Matt. 12: 24) and other

 

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fallen angels to have varying ranks in that kingdom (Eph. 2: 2; 6: 12). Since his kingdom is a worldwide one (John 12: 31; 14: 30; 16: 11), it is doubtless divided into departments corresponding to the various governments, religions and aristocracies among men, without overlapping into one another. Especially would this be so in the countries where there have been one religion and one form of aristocracy. Thus, e.g., in a country like Russia one of Satan's chief deputies would be in charge of a large number of demons, of various ranks and authority, and thus they would rule over Russia governmentally, religiously and aristocratically. And as that country was a unit of Satan's kingdom, under the lead of its chief ruler (who was, of course, subordinate to Satan), the country would be divided up among various groups of the fallen angels, each group having a chief who would act under Satan's chief deputy for Russia. Thus the demoniacal rule would be universal in Russia. The same principle was doubtless carried out in all other countries of Satan's empire, similar things there taking place.

 

The chief deputy of Satan in each country got himself called the god of that country in heathen times and countries, and national patron saints in the Catholic countries of Christendom. Thus the so-called Saint George was the counterfeit patron saint (actually a demon) of England; St. Denis, of France; St. Michael, of Germany; St. James, of Spain; St. Patrick, of Ireland; etc., etc., while provincial and local gods or so-called saints were actually the demons in charge of provinces, cities and towns of the various countries. Thus they got themselves worshiped (Lev. 17: 7; 2 Chro. 11: 15; Ps. 106: 37; 1 Cor. 10: 20, 21). This shows us how thoroughly the invisible phase of Satan's empire was organized. For varying reasons, always at Satan's instigation, these demons incited the nations to war on one another, the false religions to war on one another or against the true religion and the members

 

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of various aristocracies or members of the same aristocracy to war on one another. The case of Joan of Arc, incited (supposedly) by St. Michael (actually by a demon who impersonated Michael), aroused France to renew the war against England. There cannot be doubt in the mind of those truly instructed on the subject (Rev. 7: 1-3) that the World War was of demoniac origin and furtherance, as evidenced, e.g., by many reports from soldiers, on both sides, of visions of angels leading them on into the fight. Thus all sorts of movements, governmental, religious and aristocratic, have been inaugurated, incited and led by the invisible phase of Satan's kingdom.

 

These demons have wrought on nations, groups and individuals. They have resorted to all sorts of methods and means to get influence and control over these. In all Satan's methods and means of obtaining control of mankind they have been the agents to bring these into operation among men, using false religious theories more than any other things to accomplish their ends. These fallen angels thus duped the race into believing the then foundation and supporting doctrines of Satan's empire, as well as hordes of other errors of doctrine, practice, organization, ceremonial and custom. Very fertile in deceptive contrivances have they been through the doctrine of the consciousness of the dead. In Deut. 18: 9-14 and Is. 8: 19, 20, a list of these is given, among which are mentioned: making children pass through the fire, divination, observing times, enchanting, bewitching, charming (hypnotizing), consulting familiar spirits (fortune tellers), necromancy (alleged talking with the dead, actually with demons impersonating the dead). In their approach to individuals they have set as their ultimate goal demoniacal control, and to gain it they have been using five distinct steps: (1) suggestion of whatever thought they considered advantageous to them for each individual case; (2) diversion of one's attention from that on which he desired to fix his mind

 

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to such thoughts as would interfere with one's direction of his own thoughts; (3) impression of all sorts of vagaries, dreams, hallucinations, etc., to make one's mind wander and weaken his will for logical thought, feeling and action; (4) obsession, whereby a partial control over the will is obtained, and finally, (5) possession, in which the person's will is entirely controlled by the demons, who would thus make their victims act as foolishly, wickedly or insanely as they might desire. The Bible has much to say of demoniac possession and of Jesus and the disciples freeing people therefrom (1 Sam. 16: 14-23; Matt. 8: 16, 28-34; 9: 32, 33; 12: 22, 43-45; 15: 22-29; 17: 14-18; Mark 1: 23-26; 3: 22; 16: 9; 9: 38; Acts 5: 16; 8: 7; 16: 16-18; 19: 12). We all recall how the demons caused Jesus to be accused of demoniacal possession (Mark 3: 22-30; John 7: 20; 8: 48; 10: 20). To discredit Jesus and the Apostles they attempted to give testimony of them (Matt. 8: 29; Mark 1: 23, 24; 3: 11; 5: 7; Luke 8: 28; Acts 19: 15). Thus they figure in the Bible.

 

In our day demoniac possession and spiritism are the favorite methods of these demons. Many people have by these demons been led to give up all belief in most phases of demonism, especially witchcraft and demoniac possession. But they are undoubted facts, now being enacted. According to medical authorities, two-thirds of the inmates of insane asylums are there for no other cause than demoniac possession, evidenced by the fact that they have no functional derangement, such as normal insanity entails. And the demons obtain this possession by the five steps above described. For the last 90 years the demons have been making great efforts to inveigle people into demonism by spiritism. While fully 95% of the manifestations in séances are slight-of-hand trickery in which the mediums are taking a conscious part, perhaps 5% of the spiritistic phenomena are manifestations of genuine spirits. These spirits are not the dead, who are unconscious

 

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(Job 14: 21; Is. 63: 16; Ps. 6: 5; 115: 17; 146: 4; Eccl. 9: 5, 6, 10; Is. 38: 18, 19), but they are the fallen angels, who impersonate the dead and deceive the unwary by telling them things of which they believe no one else except the dead and themselves have had any knowledge. We raise a warning against spiritism as a gigantic fraud palmed off by the fallen angels to mislead and injure all whom they can dupe; for these are the lying spirits mentioned in the Bible (1 Tim. 4: 1). These Satan uses to bring mankind to, and to keep them in subjection to him; and certainly by their manifold aid, of which a few of its forms are given above, he has succeeded with the bulk of men.

 

We saw above that Satan originally deceived these angels into sin. He has since been deceiving them further, e.g., into believing that our Lord intends to torment them (Matt. 8: 29); and it is for this reason that they tremble instead of trust (Jas. 2: 19). It is because, unlike Satan, who sinned originally without being deceived, they were deceived into sin, that the Bible teaches an opportunity of repentance and trial for life for them. This is taught or implied in passages like 1 Cor. 6: 1-4; 4: 9; Eph. 1: 10; 3: 10; Phil. 2: 10, 11; Col. 1: 20; Jude 6; 1 Pet. 3: 18-20; 2 Pet. 2: 4; 1 Tim. 3: 16; 2 Tim. 4: 1. According to these passages, throughout the Gospel Age God has through the Church been enlightening the fallen angels on the actual purposes of God with respect to God, Christ, the Church, the world and themselves. Thus they have been getting the needed enlightenment as an encouragement to repent. The fact that God is too wise and practical to undertake a thing in which no success whatever is obtainable, proves that some of these fallen angels have been repenting, which doubtless has resulted in their suffering great persecutions as "turncoats," "traitors," etc., from Satan and the impenitent angels, under which conditions they must purge themselves of their sins. Now, in the Epiphany time

 

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(2 Tim. 4: 1), the penitent angels, who, among others, are "the quick" of the passage last cited, are being separated, "judged," from the impenitent ones. The latter as irreformable will be imprisoned with Satan in the bottomless pit during the Millennium, while during that time the penitent angels will get their trial for life, and those successful therein will be restored to God's eternal favor with their sins as fully forgiven and forgotten by God as mankind's Adamic sins will be (Jer. 31: 34). The impenitent angels will not be given the Millennial opportunity of undergoing trial for a full restoration to God's eternal favor; for their impenitent course has hardened them in sin irreformably, as Satan's course therein has done to him, hence it would be fruitless to give them a trial for life then. With him they will be imprisoned in, and later loosed from the bottomless pit in the Little Season; and with and under him, as typed by Pharaoh's captains (Ex. 14: 7), they will seek to bring mankind again into sin; and with Satan and apostate men they will all perish in the Second Death, typed by Pharaoh's and his officers' and men's overthrow in the Red Sea. Thus the Sublime Drama will end with the annihilation of all evil beings and things, and in the eternal permanence of all good persons and things: "Glory to God in the Highest, and on earth peace, good will to men" (Luke 2: 14; Ex. 15: 1-21)!

 

—————

 

O Thou Almighty on Thy radiant throne,

Let endless hallelujahs be Thine own!

Let angels praise Thee that before Thee bow,

Let these creatures of celestial frame,

Our guests of old, our wakeful guardians now,

Praise Thee, and (may like zeal our hearts inflame)

Transport then, too, our praise to Thee from whence they

came!

 

 

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