Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13

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Gen. 1: 2




WE now come to Gen. 1: 2, on which we will have decidedly less to say than on Gen. 1: 1. How long a period elapsed from the time God started motion in the motionless gases, as the first step in the creation of our universe, if matter was eternal; or if it was not eternal, how long a period elapsed from the time God started to make the gases as the original materials from which our universe was made, until the pertinent spiral was transubstantiated into our universe in fulfilment of Gen. 1: 1, we do not know. It may have been billions of years; it may have been many hundred million years it may have been a few million years. It is useless to guess; for we have no certain criteria on which to base a fairly sure guess, because many essential conditions connected with the creative process and operation are unknown, and many others are but little known to us. Therefore, remembering that the secret things belong to God, and that only the revealed things belong to us (Deut. 29: 29), we will do well to refuse to speculate thereon, waiting patiently for God's good time to make these known to us—beyond the vail. Nor do we of a certainty know whether a long interval of time elapsed between the creation of the heavens and earth as set forth in Gen. 1: 1 and the conditions described in v. 2. It seems reasonable and factual to assume that the condition described in the first sentence of v. 2—"The earth was waste and empty"—



obtained even before our earth left the spiral from some of whose materials it was formed; for the friction of its condensing process, its hard contacts with other bodies and its capturing to its nucleus smaller bodies all made friction which, developing intense heat, produced the molten mass that, among other things, is covered by the expression, "The earth was waste and empty." Moreover, since we can see by our telescopes that the suns as they leave the spirals are molten masses, proven so by their brightness, it is reasonable to assume that the planets, which are invisible to our best telescopes. (yea, apart from the planets of our solar system the planets of our universe's other solar systems are telescopically invisible), are in the same condition, since they are developed along the same lines and modes of operation as their suns. Accordingly, our earth was in this molten condition for a while also after it left the spiral. How long this molten condition from beginning to end lasted we do not know even approximately.


But if the above is true, as it seems to be, of course that theory invented and taught by Dr. Bullinger and accepted from him by Concordant Versionism, which claims that the earth was perfected by the creative works mentioned in Gen. 1: 1, is false. The theory reasons that all God's work is perfect; that the creative work described in Gen. 1: 1 is God's work; and that therefore the earth as described in Gen. 1: 1 was perfect. Our reply is that all God's completed work is perfect (Deut. 32: 4); but certainly an unfinished work of God is not perfect, as we can see from the condition of our earth and the human family, even as an incompleted house, statue, picture, machine, etc., are not perfect. An additional feature in the theory is that there were perfect conditions on this earth amid which various perfect intelligent beings lived for a while in perfect harmony, that they later sinned and that as a consequence God in displeasure turned the



earth into the condition described in v. 2. The theory therefore assumes that these conditions and experience occurred in an assumed period between Gen. 1: 1 and 2. This theory is a mere speculation without the slightest foundation in Scripture; for such a line of thought is nowhere mentioned, or hinted at in the Bible. It thus hangs suspended in the air-in a blank-the silence between Gen. 1: 1 and 2. The Scriptures place the origin of sin shortly after Adam's and Eve's creation. Satan became the first liar and murderer and thus originated sin through deceiving Eve and bringing death upon the human family by Adam's sin, according to the combined statements of Jesus in John 8: 44 and of St. Paul in Rom. 5: 12-21 and 1 Tim. 2: 14, and of St. John in 1 John 3: 8. Moreover, Is. 14: 12-14 describes Satan's fall into sin as starting in his ambition, first, to become the ruler of the human family and, secondly, to become a ruler of angels. Hence sin never was committed until after the creation of Adam and Eve, in whose procreative powers Satan recognized the possibility of a large race and of his gaining rulership over it. The Bible directly tells us that up to Eden Lucifer was perfect in all his ways and without sin (Ezek. 28: 12-19). The further fact that God after the conditions described in Gen. 1: 1, 2, is spoken of as engaged in creative work with the earth for yet six days (periods), proves that the heavens and earth were not perfected by the work mentioned in v. 1. Accordingly, the theory falls to the ground.


But upon what, beside the reasons given in the second paragraph above, do we base the thought that the earth was once in a molten condition during the later part of its stay in its spiral and during the first part of its stay outside of its spiral? We reply, there are factual reasons for this thought in the present condition of the earth; for the earth gives evidence that it is a body that has merely in its crust cooled off from a former molten condition. One of the strongest factual proofs



for this is the molten matter that volcanoes from time to time discharge from the bowels of the earth, which proves that below the crust this molten matter exists and by pressure some of it is discharged through the craters of volcanoes. Again there are vast and widely separated territories covered by such discharged lava, e.g., the land of Bashan east of the Jordan, which proves that millenniums ago a vast amount of such lava was discharged by volcanoes. These issuing vast amounts of steam, smoke and fire corroborate this view. One of the causes of earthquakes, i.e., the steam generated by the ocean's water seeping through its bottom and coming in contact with intensely hot substances, causing these substances to strike violently against the inner crust of the earth, proves the same thing. Especially those earthquakes that occur just before, during and just after volcanic eruptions and in the vicinity of such eruptions are in line with this thought, for a volcanic eruption is caused by nothing more or less than this steam-driven molten matter seeking a vent. So violent is this steam power that it frequently opens new craters and breaks down long standing volcano cones. Last summer on Mt. Vesuvius we had the privilege of witnessing a number of the above-described phenomena. The rapid increase of temperature the deeper man tunnels his way into the bowels of the earth until the temperature becomes unbearably hot proves the same thing. Again, vast beds of granite, gneiss, basalt and other crystalline rocks are the first crust formed from the cooling molten mass of which this earth consisted. Finally, the hot springs and geysers of hot water and mud are a further evidence of the fact.


We understand therefore that this molten condition is the first thing meant in v. 2 by the Hebrew expression translated in the A.V. as "without form and void," but which is better translated, waste and empty. Every existing thing must have some form. Hence the A. V.'s



rendering, "without form" is unhappy. The second thing that seems to be meant by this expression is the bottom of earth's crust. As geology shows, there are various layers in earth's crust. The bottom on which these rest was formed out of the materials that came to the top of the molten substance after it had discharged from itself certain of its materials; for after the molten mass had by its intense heat thrown off out of itself combustible substances, gases, acids, minerals and various of its other ingredients, it naturally began gradually to cool at its surface. These materials that remained on its surface after shooting off out of them all combustible substances, etc., cooled off as granite, gneiss, basalt and other crystalline rocks. These are the basis of the earth's crust and never left the earth; for they were, so to speak, the scum of the molten cauldron, while the substances that were by the intense heat driven out of the earth were, so to speak, the steam of this molten cauldron. These two conditions then, the molten mass first and its figurative scum secondly, we understand to be described by the terms, waste and empty. And certainly they were a vast waste; and certainly they were a vast emptiness. They were completely waste and empty of everything suggestive of order, life, cultivation and growth. No human eye ever saw it. God, however, the prehuman Christ and the angels saw it in all its waste and nakedness. (Prov. 8: 22-30; Job 38: 7.) Though not beautiful, yet the lurid sights, the thunderously explosive sounds, the restless boiling, the immense bubbles, first forming, then exploding, the black smoke, the bright flares, the black and white clouds of steam forming above it as the oxygen and hydrogen gases united, must one and all have been sublime! We know of these things, partly from revelation and partly from certain facts and principles.


The expressions, waste and empty, are meaningful. The Hebrew is tohu va bohu. This combined expression



occurs in, but one other Scripture (Jer. 4: 23), where the waste and emptiness of the second dispensation's earth— society—after the great tribulation are described. Only in one other passage does the word bohu occur (Is. 34: 11), where the effect of the utter annihilation of the symbolic heavens and earth in the great tribulation is described in figurative language. The word tohu occurs 20 times in the Bible, and the A. V. renders it in eleven different ways, but the meaning waste, either literal or figurative, fits its every occurrence. The literal uses will first be quoted: "The earth was waste." (Gen. 1: 2;Jer. 4: 23.) "In a waste and howling wilderness." (Dent. 32: 10.) "Stretch out upon it the line of a waste." (Is. 34: 11.) "He created it not for waste." (Is. 45: 18.) "A city of waste is broken down." (Is. 24: 10.) "Out of the north over the waste." (Job 26: 7.) "They go into a waste and perish." (Job 6: 18.) "He causeth them to wander into a waste." (Job 12: 24; Ps. 107: 40.) The following passages use it in a figurative sense: speaking of the nothingness of idols the Bible says: "For then should ye go after a waste … for they are a waste." (1 Sam. 12: 21.) "Their molten images are waste and confusion." (Is. 41: 29.) "Graven images are all of them a waste." (Is. 44: 9; 29: 21.) "They trust in a waste [a falsehood]." (Is. 59: 4.) "Less than nothing and a waste." (Is. 40: 17.) "He maketh the judges of the earth a waste." (Is. 40: 23.)." "Seek ye me in waste." (Is. 45: 19.) "I have spent my strength as waste." (Is. 49: 4.) These two expressions, waste and empty, describe chaos. Certainly if one could look down upon a huge crater of an active volcano and limit his view to the molten restless mass there, he would see a vast waste, which if in imagination he could enlarge until its limits would be out of sight, he would have a fair view of the waste and emptiness that covered this earth. If one could look down upon a huge crater of an extinct volcano whose molten mass had



turned into cooled surface lava, somewhat like that which is in Vesuvius' crater all around and below its newly formed cone, and then in imagination would enlarge this sight until its limits would be invisible, he would get a fair idea of the waste and emptiness of the scum-like granite, gneiss, basalt, and other crystalline rock covering the red-hot molten mass underneath it, as the cooling surface of the earth appeared in utter waste and emptiness. Seemingly the waste and emptiness refer to the earth's condition when it was in its uncooled, hot, molten condition, as well as to the utter absence from the earth's surface of anything except the cooling granite, gneiss, basalt and crystalline rock surface covering the molten mass within.


Since no human being could have beheld the primeval chaotic condition just described, the knowledge of it must have come to man as a revelation from superhuman sources. Since all the ancient nations give accounts of a primeval chaos, the Lord very likely made this known to Adam before his fall, though it is possible that such a revelation was not made until Noah's time; for in giving Noah the knowledge of the coming flood it would have been quite in keeping with forecasting the downpour of the deluge waters to explain the other downpours that preceded that one and the earth's conditions previous to the first of these. There is another possibility, insofar as the subject affects the heathen records of a primeval chaos. Lucifer and the other fallen angels, who in their state of sinlessness saw the primeval chaos (Job 38: 7), could have revealed the heathen myths on this subject, changing the facts from a monotheistic to a polytheistic cast to enslave into heathenism their dupes; for they either did this or they corrupted the Truth views of it that were brought over to this side of the deluge, and that were held awhile in their proper light until the days of Nimrod, when the demoniac misrepresentations began to set in on this and every other truth that was brought



over the flood to the present order of affairs. That the Genesis record is the one that came from God by revelation is evident from the fact that it is so worded as to fit in with every attested fact that science after thousands of years of investigation has brought to light. It has not only anticipated by thousands of years the latest assured results of scientific research; but as always in the past, it is always found to be far in advance of science, which this side of the perfect revelations in the Ages to come will always be some steps behind the Mosaic account of creation. The marvelous simplicity and comprehensiveness of the story of Gen. 1: 1 2: 4 have proven to be a perfect framework within whose ample pigeon holes every fact of science finds its proper depository, where it is safely and harmoniously filed. The Mosaic account of the creation is one of the mightiest proofs of the Bible's inspiration, and is thus invaluable.


We might by way of contrast and yet by way of corroboration of the general fact of a chaos refer to some of the ancient heathen myths of the primeval chaos. The Egyptian chaos has some slight resemblances to the Hebrew account and more to the Greek myths on that subject. This heathen view differs in very important respects from the Mosaic account of chaos and the bringing of order out of it; for it makes their chaos an intermingling of the elements of heaven and earth. Their chaos they lead back to the conditions of things implied in Gen. 1: 1, while Moses refers only to chaos as on earth. While Moses does not deny a chaotic condition such as the planetesimal hypothesis assures us was in the spiral from which our heavens and earth-our universe-were developed, he simply passes it by in silence, as unnecessary to describe in a brief story which concerns itself after Gen. 1: 1 with this earth, and with other things only as they are related to this earth. Again, the Egyptian chaos fits in harmoniously with, and in part embodies, the Laplacean hypothesis,



which has become scientifically disproven, as we have shown heretofore; but it does not contain the slightest hint as to the planetesimal theory. This myth makes order come out of confusion, due to the intermingling of heaven and earth, by a battle between various gods, which battle allegedly separated the heavens and earth. Then, this myth sets forth the theory of spontaneous generation, through the sole fecundity of the earth, i.e., without the intervention of superhuman agents. Thus it seeks to account for the start of plants, birds, insects, fish, reptiles, mammals and humans. Here again the relation of the ancient myths to materialism is brought out, a thing that the Mosaic account denies by tracing the beginning of all these to the agency of the one God. The Phoenician cosmogony is very similar to that of the Egyptians. Hence they also have a chaos, but similarly unlike that of the Hebrews. The same remark holds true of the Babylonians' chaos, whose creation story sets forth many monsters as existing subsequently to their chaos, which were allegedly destroyed in battle by their chief god Belus, Satan, who palmed himself off as supreme.


The tablets unearthed at Nineveh tell a very similar story, in which by the monster Tiamat is symbolized chaos, as the mother of all things. This personified chaos it presents as the principle of evil, the dragon and tempter of humanity to sin, which of course is the Satanic perversion of the Bible record of the origin of sin in angels and men. This same viewpoint appears in the principle of evil, Ahriman, in the Persian Avesta. In the Greek myths space is chaos and their cosmogony is an intermingling of personified fantasies more or less related to the Mosaic account of creation blended with legendary stories of deceased ancestors. The chaos of the Romans is like that of the Egyptians. Dr. Max Willer has translated a poem from one of the sacred books of India, from which we will quote a short section



as giving a fair view of what Satan palmed off on heathen nations as chaos:


"Nor aught nor nought existed; yon bright sky

Was not, nor heaven's broad roof outstretched above.

What covered all? What sheltered? What concealed?

Was it water's fathomless abyss? …

Darkness there was; and all at first was veiled.

In gloom profound—an ocean without light;

The germ that still lay covered in the husk

Burst forth, one nature, from the fervent heat"


These views of the various ancient heathen nations show that by chaos they meant the confused mass of original matter from which our universe was built, while Moses passes by this condition altogether and in Gen. 1: 1 makes the simple statement that in a beginning God created the heaven and earth; and then describes the earth in a chaotic state by the first clause of Gen. 1: 2: And the earth was tohu va bohu, waste and empty (literally, a waste and emptiness; for both of these Hebrew words are nouns and not adjectives, though English favors their being given here as adjectives).


Apart from slight hints the Bible gives us very little on the nature of our chaotic earth. It does in the first clause of Gen. 1: 2 give us the idea of a universal chaos on earth, that, in the light gathered from science and conditions now prevailing in the earth's crust and from a few hints in the Bible, consisted of two stages—the waste and empty condition of the molten mass and of the granite, basalt, gneiss and crystalline rock condition of its surface as the earth was cooling off. Some of these hints we will discuss when we come to explain how the intense heat of the molten mass and of the above-mentioned basis of earth's layers of rock drove out of themselves rings of matter that hovered above the earth as canopies and that were kept in that condition for longer or shorter periods, according to their varying densities by the heat below, etc. Here we desire to call attention to some things set forth in Ps. 104



Which beginning with v. 2 is a poetic description, as Gen. 1: 1—2: 4 is a prose description of creation. The reader will note that in v. 2 the words "thyself" and "with" before the words "a garment" are in italics, hence are interpolated to fill out what the translators thought to be the sense. The word with before light should also be in italics; for it has no corresponding word in the Hebrew. We think the following is a better rendering: "Who coveredst light as with a garment." In the words of this verse, "Who stretchest [stretchedst] out the heavens like a curtain," the creation of the heavens is set forth. While vs. 5, 6 refer to the ordering of the already created earth, they do not specifically refer to the creation of the earth. This leads us to the thought, since the creation of the earth should be referred to in this Psalm, which describes creation, that in the words, "Who coveredst light as with a garment," the later stage of the process of earth's creation is referred to. It will be remembered that above we showed that the earth while in its later stage of development in its pertinent spiral and for a while after its leaving this spiral was a molten mass.


Of course, this molten mass was more or less bright with light before any covering came over it. This is not to be understood to contradict the statement, "Let there be light; and there was light"; for this latter light refers to that which was caused to penetrate through the earth's canopies or rings from without; for the light of the molten mass was covered up when the layer of granite, gneiss, basalt and crystalline rock covered this molten mass. The creation of this basal rock seems to be meant in Ps. 104: 2, first clause, "Thou didst cover light as with a garment." Before this covering of rock set in the light of this molten mass, as is the case with our sun, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and probably Pluto, shone through its canopies and appeared to God and the angels somewhat as the sun and the above-mentioned self-luminous planets appear



to us-bright and brilliant. This was all set aside when once the above-mentioned basal rock as the bottom of earth's crust covered this molten mass. So understood the first clause of Ps. 104: 2 would be a reference to the creative process acting on the earth, and thus would be a reference to the creation of the earth as distinct from its ordering which was done during the six following days i.e., a long time after the crust of earth began to form over the molten mass. Hence this act of covering light would belong to the creative process as described in Gen. 1: 1, 2 as prior to the ordering of the earth which began to set in on the first day. If this application of the first clause of Ps. 104: 2 is true, as it seems to be, we have a hint in this passage of chaos in its first and second features, as indicated in the waste and emptiness referred to in the first clause of Gen. 1: 2. But it is merely a hint that could scarcely be seen until one would first understand the earth originally to have been in a molten condition.


In Job 38: 9 we find another such hint, "Made the cloud the garment thereof (the earth) and thick darkness a swaddling band for it." The cloud here referred to we understand to mean the canopies surrounding the earth as suggested above, for which later we will give proof, and by the swaddling band the darkness that the bottom of earth's crust over the molten mass first produced under these canopies and above that bottom. Again we remark, if we did not know of the molten mass condition of the earth as its original state and then of the "scum" that covered the surface of this caldron, as well as of the canopies above this, we would be unable to see such a reference in this passage, even as students of the Bible before these facts became matters of knowledge could not so apply it. At best it is but a hint that requires the background of the above-indicated knowledge to bring out its meaning. In our studies of creation how often do we come upon questions that we are unable to answer! This should make



us very humble, and should greatly enhance in our estimation the wisdom and power of our God, and correspondingly should make us very meek toward Him who, if we be so disposed, will graciously supply us the needed knowledge, as it becomes due, and as we become ripe for it. Some of the knowledge of creation He has not disclosed to us either in His inspired book of revelation or in His book of nature, from both of which we are privileged to draw knowledge, only taking heed not to make the knowledge drawn from the book of nature a matter of faith, which we should make only of such things as we may get from God's inspired book of revelation. We desire to stress this thought with emphasis, because while we have the promise to be led, if faithful, into all Divinely-inspired, revealed Truth as due, we not only have no such promise as to knowledge gained from God's book of nature; but in Deut. 29: 29 we are given a caution that should destroy all dogmatism from us as to our interpretation of God's revelation in nature, and should make us hold very tentative opinions on such knowledge, unless it is backed by sober observations examined without speculative thought, and by the inspired revelation given in the Bible.


The middle clause of Gen. 1: 2 reads, "And darkness covered the face of the deep." Because some writers have misunderstood this term to mean the interplanetary and interstellar spaces, we will quote with brief comments all the passages in which the Hebrew word, tehom, here translated deep, occurs. We understand it to mean any deep body of water from a lake upward to a body of water covering the entire earth. Some of the occurrences that we will quote are very clear as compelling this meaning, others without being of such a character are nevertheless in harmony with our definition: "Darkness covered the face of the deep [the body of water that covered the whole earth before the waters during the third creative



epoch were gathered together in a way to let the land appear (Gen. 1: 9, 10), which before was covered by the water" (Gen. 1: 2)]. "The fountains of the great deep were broken up [the waters above the firmament (expanse, Gen. 1: 7) were the source of all the water on earth, except such as occupied the place of the expanse before it was formed; these waters, etc., came down in successive downpours when the earth had sufficiently cooled, etc., to permit their successive falls, each downpour from these fountains increasing the deep on earth until the last of these fountains fell in the days of Noah, making the deluge" (Gen. 7: 11; 8: 2)]. "The blessings of the deep that lieth under [the heavens, which proves that it is not the interplanetary and interstellar spaces, but is here the sea" (Gen. 49: 25)]. "The depths have covered them … the depths were [as it were] congealed, [here the Red Sea covering the Egyptians and the Red Sea by turning, as it were, into a reef through the wind uncovering its bottom is meant" (Ex. 15: 5, 8)]. "The Lord thy God bringeth thee into a land … of fountains and depths [these depths refer to the seas and lakes of and beside Palestine" (Deut. 8: 7)]. "For the deep that croucheth beneath [the same thought as above in Gen. 49: 25 is here given" (Deut. 33: 13)]. "The depth saith, It is not in me [neither the literal sea nor the symbolic sea (the race in rebellion and unrestrained by religion) has the wisdom that rules the universe, as the parallel statement proves" (Job 28: 14)]. "Hast thou walked in the search of the deep [again the parallel in this verse proves that the sea is thereby meant" (Job 38: 16)]. "The face of the deep is frozen [here a lake frozen over is meant" (Job 38: 30)]. "One [the unbelief class] would think the deep to be hoary [Leviathan, Satan, (vs. 1-34; Is. 27: 1) has by the evolution theory convinced the unbelief class that the rebellious race, the sea, is millions of years old" (Job 41: 32)].



"He layeth up the depth in storehouses [earth's depressions wherein the sea lies are figurative storehouses to the sea" (Ps. 33: 7)]. "Thy judgments [teachings] are a great deep [the profundity, of God's thoughts are here likened to the great depth of the sea" (Ps. 36: 6)]. "Deep calleth unto deep at the noise of Thy waterspouts; all Thy waves and billows are gone over me [one deep sorrow as a sea of trouble invites another through the tumult of distressing experiences that God gave him" (Ps. 42: 7)]. "The depths [the Red Sea at the time of Israel's crossing] also were troubled" (Ps. 77: 16). "Thou shalt bring me up again from the depths" [seas of trouble (Ps. 71: 20)]. "'Drink as out of the great depths [the waters that poured out from the smitten rock were so abundant as to convey the thought that their source must have been a subterranean sea" (Ps. 78: 15)]. "Thou coverdest it with the deep as with a garment [before the first and into the third creative day the waters covered the entire earth" (Ps. 104: 6)]. "So He led them [Israel] through the depths [the Red Sea" (Ps. 106: 9)]. "They mount up to the heavens; they go down again to the depths [after the troubles have removed the symbolic heavens in Armageddon, they will involve during anarchy the rebellious race, the symbolic sea whose waves are lashed into fury by the winds of anger" (Ps. 107: 26)]. "In the seas and all [other] deep places [lakes, etc." (Ps. 135: 6)]. "Ye dragons and all deeps [oceans, seas, lakes, etc." (Ps. 148: 7)]. "By His [God's] knowledge the depths [the waters that covered the entire earth from before the first into the third creative day] were broken up [in separating these waters from the land and forming the seas from them" (Prov. 3: 20, compared with Gen. 1: 2, 7)]. "When there were no depths I was brought forth [when the Logos was created, among other things, neither the condition of Gen, 1: 2 nor of v. 7 existed" (Prov. 8: 24)]. "When He set a compass upon the



face of the deep [when as by a figurative compass God assigned limits to the universal waters which would confine them to our present seas" (Prov. 8: 27)]. "When He established the clouds above, when He strengthened the fountains of the deep [when God by earth's heat, steam, etc., caused the canopies, which by their later breaking up became the fountains of the universal sea and later of our seas, to abide successively their seven thousand year periods" (Prov. 8: 28)].


"He that hath dried the [Red] sea, the waters of the great deep [the Red Sea when Israel was about to cross" (Is. 51: 10)]. "That led them [Israel] through the deep [the Red Sea" (Is. 63: 13)]. "When I shall bring up the deep [sea] upon thee [Tyre] and great waters shall cover thee" (Ezek. 26: 19). "The waters [peoples, (Rev. 17: 15)] made him [papacy] great; the deep set him on high," [the symbolic sea, the rebellious people, (Ezek. 31: 4.)]. "I covered the deep for him [for destroying the papacy God will give the revolutionists protection" (Ezek. 31: 15)]. "It devoured the great deep [the fire of anarchy will consume the symbolic sea, the anarchistic race" (Amos 7: 4)]. "The depth closed me round about [the sea covered Jonah when he was cast into it" (Jon. 2: 5)]. "The deep uttered his voice [the rebellious, anarchistic race would make great propaganda and agitation" (Hab. 3: 10)]. The above are all the Old Testament occurrences of the Hebrew word tehom, and all of them prove our definition of this word as meaning any literal or symbolic deep body of water from a lake to an ocean, also the universal waters of Gen. 1 and of the deluge to be meant. In Gen. 1: 2 by this word, as a comparison of vs. 2, 7 proves, the waters that covered the entire earth are meant.


Whence came these waters? We reply, from the layers of steam, vapor, etc., that for miles high surrounded the earth, and that later condensed into



water, as well as from the watery canopies. As the earth gradually cooled off these in successive installments dropped to its surface. Doubtless they repeatedly fell as a rain on the yet hot earth and were again and again thrown off as steam until in time the earth cooled, sufficiently to keep the water, still hot, as a covering of its surface. This steam and vapor were formed when, among other gases, acids, etc., the hydrogen and oxygen that were cast off from the molten mass met above the earth and united. Such vapors condensed as above stated and became the source of the waters that covered the earth, as is shown in our text. We are not to understand that all of the steam, vapors, etc., surrounding the earth fell to the earth before the first creative day; rather it was only the lower portions of these that so fell before the first creative day set in. The fact that it was only the lower parts of these that so fell is proven by the fact that the figurative garments and swaddling bands (Job 38: 9) were so dense as to prevent the light of the sun, moon and stars from reaching the earth clearly until the fourth creative day. Accordingly, the surface of our earth was before the first and into the third creative day one vast sea, "the deep," tehom, an ocean that had no shores. This water for a long time, due to the heat of the earth, was boiling hot and of course was continually giving off steam, which as it cooled off would as rain fall back into the deep. This process continued long, but how long we do not know. Between it and the molten mass was the figurative scum of granite, gneiss, basalt and other crystalline rock. We have already seen that before the intense heat of the molten mass penetrating its figurative scum allowed any of the vapors above to descend and remain on the earth its scum had formed. Hence these waters lay upon this scum. We also have seen that before any of this steam could condense there was darkness over the face of the earth, because the scum hid the light in the



molten mass, and because none could penetrate from the sun, etc., through the dense layers of various earth-expelled substances. This condition prevailed before the fact brought to our attention by the words "darkness was upon the face of the deep" set in. But that dark condition according to these words also prevailed after the deep was formed, and for the same reason as it prevailed before the deep was formed, which condition was re-enforced by the dirty, slimy water that covered the crust of the molten matter. That darkness must have been worse than that of Egypt, which itself was so dense as to be figuratively felt. It was a blessing that man was not there to experience its gloom—"Darkness was upon the face of the deep."


We are now ready to discuss the canopy theory, otherwise called the ring or annular theory, and sometimes the Vailian theory from its discoverer, Prof. Isaac N. Vail-the view that there were successive rings of matter, water, minerals, sand, slimy mud, acids, gases, etc., that surrounded our earth at varying distances. Their origin was from the molten matter of which this earth before it left its spiral consisted. This molten mass by its intense heat discharged from itself heavily-laden smoke, many gases, acids, minerals, pumice, sand, mud, etc., i.e., its more volatile, combustible substances. These substances varying in weight, the earliest and lightest were thrown up the highest from the earth, the latest and heaviest settled the nearest to the earth, all of them according to their weight forming rings or canopies with more or less clouds, steam, vapor, etc., between each ring, unable as later discharges from the earth to penetrate the canopies already formed above it before their pertinent discharges. Thus these intervening layers of steam formed a sort of a cushion, each holding in place the ring immediately above it, with heat doubtless aiding therewith, especially in the lower rings. This steam did not as steam leave the molten earth. It was formed



by the union of the discharged hydrogen and oxygen so greatly heated as to form at first, not water, but steam. These rings not only held the heat below them, but they also shut out the cold that was in space beyond the outermost canopy, which resulted in the earth being in a hothouse condition of fairly uniform temperature under each of its successively nearest canopy. That such was the case can be shown from various statements scattered here and there in the Bible and from facts in nature. We will now proceed to set these proofs briefly before our readers. Among these proofs belong Ps. 104: 2, "Thou didst cover light as with a garment," and the last clause of Job 38: 9: "Who … made the cloud the garment [canopy] thereof [the earth], and thick darkness a swaddling band for it?" These having been sufficiently explained foregoing in two full paragraphs, we will pass them by here.


We will now discuss others, beginning with Gen. 1: 6-9: "And God said, Let there be a firmament [expanse of atmosphere] in the midst of [between] the waters [those that covered the earth and those that as water and as steam, for which there is no Hebrew word, and which is water in an attenuated, gaseous, state, were above this atmosphere] and let it divide the waters [below] and the waters [above it]. And God made the firmament [the expanse of atmosphere] and divided the waters which were under the firmament [those on the earth] from the waters which were above the firmament; and God called the firmament heaven [sky] … and God said, 'Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together unto one place.'" That the flood was caused by the topmost canopy, which consisted of almost pure and translucent water, falling as very heavy rain and snow is shown in Gen. 7: 11; 8: 2: "In the 600th year of Noah's life, in the 2nd month, the 17th day of the month, the same day were all the [remaining] fountains [the canopies are called



fountains of the great deep, because they were the source of earth's] great deep [the deep bodies of earth's waters] broken up [as the topmost canopy when it fell to the earth as rain in the temperate and torrid zones and as snow in the frigid zones]; and the windows of the heavens were opened [the translucent waters that formed the topmost canopy were figurative glass windows through which the people on earth could see the sun, moon and stars. These figurative windows of heavens, sky (Gen. 1: 8), were figuratively opened by the breaking up and falling down of the topmost canopy whereby the flood was produced] … The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heavens were stopped [were made to cease because non-existent and as a result] the rain from heaven was restrained [ceased, because there was no more a watery canopy above the expanse]."


Ps. 104: 3, 6: "Who laid the beams of His chambers [the steam and vapor that were cushions between the various canopies were figurative beams that rested on the canopy below, and that bore up the canopy above it, making the intervening space a figurative chamber or room which God used as a workshop, working creatively in each up to the time through its figurative floor, canopy, falling, it became merged into the expanse below] in the waters [in the midst of the heavy cushioning vapors and between the waters forming the canopy below and above], who made the clouds his chariots [this is true of the clouds of steam and vapor between the canopies and of the clouds that formed since the last canopy fell; for God used the former and has used the latter as instrumentalites of His creative and providential figurative rides] … who coveredst it [the earth] with the deep [the waters of Gen. 1: 2] as with a garment [when before the first and into the third creative day the waters covered the entire earth]. The waters [both that which covered the whole earth into the third creative day and that in the



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