Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13

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for their own. Thus the verses that precede the New Covenant verses of Jer. 31: 31-34 refer to natural, not to spiritual Israel. The same is true of the verses that follow. In vs. 35-37 God pledges by the stability of the universe (v. 35) and of the inscrutability of the universe's immensity and of the laws of gravitation (foundations of the earth) His loyalty—Israel's gifts and calling are unchangeable (Rom. 11: 29)—to His Oath-bound Covenant to all fleshly Israel as a proof of their return to His favor, despite their apostacy during the Jewish and Gospel Ages. The rebuilding of literal Jerusalem to be a city for the Lord during the Millennium is pledged in vs.38-40. Thus vs. 35-40 refer to fleshly Israel.

 

We will now proceed to prove from Jer. 31: 31-34, especially as it is clarified by Heb. 8: 8-12 that the New Covenant is exclusively Millennial and post-Millennial, and therefore was not made at Calvary, though it was then suretied, nor inaugurated in 1918. The first of these points is indicated in Heb. 8: 8. This covenant is to be made with fleshly Israel and Judah alone. But no covenant other than the certain features of the Oath-bound Covenant offered to them if faithful and actually given to their faithful and the Sinaitic Covenant has been yet made with that nation: It was not made at Calvary with Jesus for spiritual Israel, as J.F.R. affirms (Z '34, 100, (7), (6)). The fact that the nation was cast off from God's favor five days before our Lord's death and has ever since been in that cast-off condition proves that the Covenant promised it in Jer. 31: 31-34 was not made with it yet. Hence v. 8 proves that not by 63 or 64 A. D. had the New Covenant been made with Israel, and facts prove that during the Gospel Age this has not yet been done. It never having been designed by God for spiritual Israel, of course it could not have been made with it at Calvary and inaugurated in 1918. V. 9, by the expressions, "not according

 

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to the covenant," also "and I regarded them not," proves in two other ways that not during the Gospel Age will the New Covenant be made with Israel, with whom alone it is to be made; for the Gentiles coming under it must thereby become Jews. This verse shows that the New Covenant will be different from the one God began to make with them (in certain of the Passover arrangements at the deliverance in Egypt, given before the Israelites came to Sinai) in the day He took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt. But He has not yet made a different covenant from that one with them. The next clause covers the whole Jewish Age, throughout which "they continued not in [did not obey] My [God's] covenant." The following clause, "and I regarded them not," covers the entire Gospel Age, in which God has disregarded them in the sense of casting them off from His favor for their Jewish-Age disobedience to His Covenant, culminating in their rejection of Jesus. J.F.R. quotes this part of the verse as it occurs in Jer. 31: 32, "although I was an husband unto them," to prove one of his errors. This is a false reading. Ginsburg, the best edition of the Old Testament original, gives the proper reading, even as St. Paul in Heb. 8: 9 gives it: "and I disfavored, disregarded them." J.F.R. has access to Ginsburg's correcting note in Rotherham on Jer. 31: 32 as given by St. Paul in Heb. 8: 9. Why did he not avail himself of the correct emendation given by St. Paul and proven by Ginsburg to be the right one? Was it because the correct reading overthrows his theory, since it proves that the New Covenant will not be made until after Israel's Gospel-Age period of disfavor will have ended—"and I regarded them not"? Certainly God never abhorred spiritual Israel (Is. 54: 8).

 

Heb. 8: 10 gives five more proofs against J.F.R.'s view and in favor of our Pastor's, as to the time for

 

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making the New Covenant. First, the expression, "after those days," refers to the period following the Jewish Age (when Israel "continued not in" God's Covenant) and the Gospel Age (when God disregarded them for their not continuing His Covenant). Hence the New Covenant is to be made, and that only with Israel after the Gospel Age, and therefore was not made at Calvary. Again, this verse teaches that when the New Covenant is made, and that with Israel only, God will put His laws in their minds, i.e., will give them the Truth. But this He has not done during the Gospel Age; for throughout this Age they have been in blindness (Rom. 11: 25-32), while throughout the Gospel Age whatever Truth was due was put into Spiritual Israel's minds. Hence the New Covenant will not be made, and that with Israel only, until after this Age, and was not made with Spiritual Israel at all. Third, this verse teaches that when the New Covenant is made, and that with Israel only, God will make Israel's hearts pure and holy ("write them [God's laws] in their hearts"). Throughout the Gospel Age Israel has not had holy and pure hearts; hence it will be after the Gospel Age when the New Covenant will be made, and that with Israel only, while during the Gospel Age, hence before "after those days" God has been putting the law of Christ into Spiritual Israel's heart. Jehovah will be their God (powerful, Covenant Helper) accordingly.

 

But God is not at all now in covenant relations with and helpfulness toward Israel, while during the Gospel Age, hence before "after those days" God is in the Oath-bound Covenant relations with Spiritual Israel. Hence the New Covenant is not yet operating. Fifth, this verse teaches that when the New Covenant operates Israel will be God's people, which they have not been during the Gospel Age, while during the Gospel Age, hence before "after those days" Jehovah has been Spiritual Israel's God. Hence the

 

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New Covenant will first come into operation after the Gospel Age; and therefore it was not made at Calvary and was not inaugurated in 1918. J.F.R. claims that the statement of this verse on God being their God and on their being God's people (Z '34, 121, 26) proves the language must apply to Spiritual Israel is completely overthrown by the same statement applied to the restitution class in Rev. 21: 3. In v. 11 we find two more: When the New Covenant shall have been made, none will longer need to be taught by others; but ever since the ministry of Jesus began the faithful have had to be taught by their brethren. J.F.R. pretends that his remnant do not now have human teachers, that God and Christ alone are their teachers. This he knows to be untrue; for he knows he teaches his remnant by the Tower, his books, lectures, conversations, letters; so do others of them teach one another. So this passage does not apply to his followers, nor to any one else of God's people during the Gospel Age; for the true saints will have human teachers as God's mouthpieces to them as long as they are in the flesh (Eph. 4: 11-14). The passage "they shall all be taught of God" means that while God will teach them He will use His chosen methods in teaching them, which He does through his chosen mouthpieces especially (Eph. 4: 11-14). Hence the New Covenant will come after the Gospel Age; and its promise that they will no longer teach one another will be fulfilled after the Little Season. Again, now all Israel do not know the Lord, nor have they all since Calvary known Him; but when the New Covenant will operate post-Millennially, according to v. 11, all will know Him from the least to the greatest. V. 12 gives the eleventh and twelfth proofs of our understanding of its time of operation. Throughout the Gospel Age God was not merciful to Israel's unrighteousness, a thing that He will be, according to this verse, when the New Covenant is made with them,

 

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with whom alone it is to be made. Again, throughout the Gospel Age God has been remembering their sins and iniquities, and that with high disfavor and severe punishments, while when the New Covenant comes into operation, according to this verse, He will no more remember their sins and iniquities. Thus this section (Heb.8: 8-12) gives twelve reasons that disprove J.F.R.'s new views on the New Covenant.

 

We now give a tenth general proof that the New Covenant is not now operating: It is a Covenant of works, though for a while—until the end of the Millennium—it will have more or less grace and mercy attached to it, while the Covenant now operating is one of grace, though not unattended by works. That the New Covenant is a Covenant of works, though temporarily attended by a measure of grace and mercy, is evident from numerous Scriptures, e.g., Rev. 20: 10; Ezek. 18: 5, 9, 11, 13, 19, 20, 24, 27; Jer. 31: 29, 30. The fact that it is the antitype of the Law Covenant also proves that it is a works, as distinct from a grace Covenant. But the Covenant that has been operating since Jordan and Pentecost, being a grace Covenant (Rom. 4: 13-16; Gal. 3: 14-29; 4: 21-31) also proves this, though not unaccompanied by works; for everyone who is in it had previously made a covenant to sacrifice all for the Lord in good works unto death (Ps. 50: 5; Heb. 13: 15, 16). The fact that the Grace Covenant has been operating ever since Pentecost—for our Lord since Jordan—disproves J.F.R.'s claim that the New Covenant— a works Covenant—set in at Calvary.

 

As an eleventh general argument against J.F.R.'s position on the New Covenant, we would say: The New Covenant, as the antitype of the Law Covenant, cannot set in until the Law Covenant is entirely abrogated. The Law Covenant in those of its provisions that are attached to it for its practical operation, and that do not obligate Israel as a whole has been in

 

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process of abrogation ever since Calvary, yea, ever since Jordan, as soon as they were antityped; but it yet binds Israel in its other features—in all that bound the people of Israel as a whole. The Law Covenant's sacrifices were abrogated at Jordan and Pentecost. Its temple, priesthood, mediator and sacrifices have been set aside (Heb. 10: 9), as is also evident from the fact that they no more exist. Indeed, for the Christian Jew every part of it was invalidated and abrogated when he left Moses and came into Christ (2 Cor. 3: 14). But its contractual features yet bind Israel. They evidently are bound by its ten commandments and those of its ceremonies that are limited to the Millennium so far as their antitypes are concerned— the matter of foods, drinks, festivals, etc. And most manifestly they have been under its curses throughout the Gospel Age, as their punishments abundantly prove. Outcast Ishmael's wandering with outcast Hagar in the wilderness types Israel suffering disfavor for Law violations with antitypical Hagar during the Gospel Age (Gal. 4: 29, 30). This proves that Israel is yet under the Law Covenant, as Ishmael was under Hagar in the type. St. Paul distinctly teaches long after Israel was cast off from God's favor that it was still under the Law Covenant (Gal. 5: 1-3), though he also teaches that Jewish Christians on coming into Christ ceased to be under the Law Covenant (Gal. 5: 1; Rom. 7: 1-6). Heb. 8: 13, which is better translated in the Diaglott than the A. V., distinctly teaches that the Law Covenant had not yet—63 or 64 A. D.—passed away; nor has it since then passed away. This is proved by the present tenses of its participles: "Now that which is decaying and growing old is near vanishing away." This disproves J.F.R.'s view that the Law Covenant waxed old about the time of Jeremiah and passed away at Calvary (Z '34, 120, 22-24). The present tense of the Greek participle katargoumenon (being abrogated; 2 Cor. 3: 13) proves

 

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that the ministry of the Law Covenant had not yet been fully abrogated about the year 55 A. D., when St. Paul wrote 2 Cor. Nor has it yet been fully abrogated. Hence the New Covenant cannot yet be operating; for its operation awaits the full abrogation of the ministry of the Law Covenant; otherwise Israel would at one and the same time be under the Old and the New Covenant—an absurdity. The abrogation of certain features of the Old Covenant, like its priesthood, mediator, sacrifices, tabernacle and temple, is due to the fact there is an antitypical Priest and Mediator who is as such not under the Law Covenant and must offer the sacrifices that will avail after their completion in the antitypical Tabernacle and Temple and for the sealing of the New Covenant. For the Priest and Mediator must do these things preparatory to the inauguration of the antitypical Temple for God's abiding, meeting and blessing place for the people and of the New Covenant for their relations with Him. The Old Covenant is thus yet binding on Israel; and therefore the New Covenant cannot yet be in operation between God and them. This argument also overthrows J.F.R.'s view on the time and subjects of the New Covenant's operation and proves our Pastor's understanding to be true.

 

As a twelfth general argument on the time of the New Covenant's operation we would say that the New Covenant being the antitype of the Old Covenant, it could not be operating before the Old Covenant entirely ceases to operate; while the Covenant that has been operating ever since Jordan and Pentecost began to operate 430 years before the Old Covenant came into existence. The Grace Covenant, which has been in operation throughout the Gospel Age was instituted with Abraham (Gen. 12: 1-3; 22: 16-18; Gal. 3: 15-29; 4: 22-31; Rom. 4: 13-16; 9: 7-9) long before the Law Covenant, even as Sarah, its type, was Abraham's [God's type] wife before Hagar, the

 

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type of the Old Covenant, was his concubine. Hence the Covenant, operating from Jordan and Pentecost on (Acts 3: 25), cannot be the New Covenant; for it operated hundreds of years before the Old Covenant; and the New Covenant, as the antitype of the Old Covenant, cannot have preceded but must follow the Old Covenant, and therefore does not now operate. This overthrows J.F.R.'s view.

 

As a thirteenth general argument against J.F.R.'s New Covenant doctrine, i.e., that it began effectively to operate at Calvary and was inaugurated in 1918, we would say that the Covenant effectively operating since Jordan and Pentecost offers the Divine nature and Heaven to its subjects, while the New Covenant will offer perfect human nature and the paradisaic earth to its subjects. Hence the Covenant operating effectively ever since Jordan and Pentecost and until the Kingdom is not the New Covenant. The Covenant now operating offers the Divine nature and Heaven to its subjects. This is proven as follows: In 2 Pet. 1: 4 we are told: "Unto us are given exceeding great and precious promises [the highest features of Gen. 22: 17, 18 are a summary of these], that by these [even as a mother develops the fetus unto birth] we might become partakers of the Divine nature, after escaping [through our final overcoming] the corruption that is on the world [Adam's race] through lust." In 1 John 3: 2 the same thing is taught: "Now are we the sons of God and it hath not yet appeared what we shall be [we do not yet know what our Divine resurrection bodies will be]; but when He [our Lord] shall appear, we shall be like Him [in nature and office like our Lord, who since His resurrection is the effulgence of God's glory—like God in character—the exact impress of His substance—Divine in nature—upholding all things by His powerful word—God's Vicegerent throughout the Universe, seated at God's right hand, Heb. 1: 3-5]." This is also taught in Col. 3: 4:

 

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"When Christ, our Life, shall appear, then shall we also appear with Him in glory [as His partners, and thus like Him]." Rom. 6: 5 proves the same thing: "If we have been planted in the likeness of His death [have died with Him in sacrifice], we shall also be in the likeness of His resurrection [have resurrection bodies like His—the exact impress of God's substance, hence Divine]." Phil. 3: 20, 21 proves that the Covenant now operating will, among other things, give its subjects for their present body, which is one of humiliation, a body like our Lord's glorified body and will give them a heavenly home, even as now their conduct is such as will be theirs in heaven. John 14: 2, 3 proves that the Covenant operating ever since Jordan and Pentecost gives a heavenly home: "In My Father's House are many mansions … I go to prepare a place for you; and if I go away, I will come again and receive you unto myself, that where I am [on what plane of existence I will be] there ye may also be [they would spend eternity with Him in a heavenly nature, office and abode]." "So shall we ever be with the Lord" (1 Thes. 4: 17). "Clothed upon with our house from heaven," "eternal in the heavens," "to be absent from the body and to be present with the Lord" (2 Cor. 5: 1, 2, 8), are all expressions proving the same thing. To the same point are the promises in 1 Cor. 15: 42-54, where the faithful from Pentecost on are promised resurrection bodies of incorruptibility, glory, power, spirituality, heavenliness, likeness to Christ's resurrection body, freedom from human nature, possession of immortality and a heavenly home. The foregoing passages are some of the promises implied in the first promise of the highest feature of the Oath-bound Covenant—"Thy seed shall be as the stars of heaven"— heavenly in character, body and abode. We could cite many others, but the above will suffice in proof of our proposition that the Covenant now operating offers

 

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its subjects the Divine nature and office and home.

 

On the contrary, the New Covenant will give perfect human nature and a perfect earthly home to its faithful subjects. The blessings promised as coming to Israel in Jer. 31: 22-40, after the Gospel Age is past are there described as human and earthly and as New Covenant blessings, and are in certain details touched upon in Ezek. 36: 24-38. They will at once be recognized as human blessings in an earthly home—just the blessings that the New Covenant promises. In both sections Israel's Gospel-Age dispersion among the nations and their return to their own land in an unconverted condition are set forth. Then comes the building up of the land and its cities. Then follows the Covenant's making. Both passages show that they will be cleansed from former sins, that they will be taught God's Word and be given new hearts and God's Spirit. Human hearts—hearts of flesh, human—will be given them, according to both passages, instead of stony hearts—inhuman hearts. They will walk in the Lord's ways, dwelling in the land of Israel, becoming His people and He their God. They will enjoy the abundant fruitage of the earth, nor will they suffer famine any more. The desolate land will be tilled by them and will become like the garden of Eden. The desolate and ruined cities of Israel will be rebuilt and inhabited by multitudes of holy people. Here sinless human beings amid perfect, happy conditions on earth are described as a result of the New Covenant blessings. Ezek. 37 likewise shows that Israel as a united people will dwell in Palestine again (vs. 12-22); and that (vs. 23-28) under the kingship of the Messiah, the antitypical David, they will become God's people and He their God, walking in His ways under the blessings of the (New) Covenant of peace that God will make with them, that God's tabernacle (Christ and the Church) will be among them and that all the nations will recognize the Lord's sanctifying

 

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work on Israel (Rev. 21: 3-5). Ezek. 18: 3, compared with Jer. 31: 28-34, proves that Ezek. 18 refers in part at least to Israel in Palestine, after the Gospel Age, under the New Covenant. The Covenant is shown to be one of works, and not of grace (vs. 4-9), a thing not true of the Gospel-Age Covenant. People no more then will suffer for ancestral sin, a thing not true now; but will suffer each for his own sin (vs. 10-20, 21-30), a thing not now always true. The passage is Millennial and proves that the New Covenant will then operate and that toward human beings, not toward new creatures. Ezek. 16: 53-63 shows that Israel will be restored to her former estate from the tomb (even as Sodom, vs. 53-56, returns from the tomb), as well as from the nations, and will come into a blessed condition in Palestine through the operation of the New Covenant (vs. 60-62), whereby God will become pacified with Israel. Thus Ezek. 37: 26; 16: 60-62 disproves J.F.R.'s claim that Jehovah will make no Covenant with the restitution class, nor with fleshly Israel (Z '34, 117, 10), alleging it would be inconsistent for God to make a covenant with those who broke a preceding one, which claim is contrary to Jeremiah's, Ezekiel's, Hosea's, Amos' and Paul's words. Thus the New Covenant's blessings are earthly—conferring earthly life, nature, abode, works and surroundings. Since these blessings did not abound in Palestine from Jordan to Pentecost on, yea, since it was long after Pentecost, and even after Acts 28, that they were rooted out of their land unto captivity in other lands, whence they must return at the end of the Gospel Age before the New Covenant will be made with them, we conclude that the New Covenant has not yet come into operation. Its giving an earthly nature, blessings and abode, as yet future things, and the Covenant now operating giving the Divine nature, blessings and home, we conclude that it was not made at Calvary, nor inaugurated in 1918.

 

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As a fourteenth general argument proving that the New Covenant did not begin to operate at Calvary, we would say that our faith justification, apart from any works, secures for us reckonedly all the blessings that the New Covenant by works will confer actually on the obedient when it operates. Undoubtedly the justification that has operated since Pentecost is a faith, not a works justification (Rom. 3: 20-5: 1; 10: 4; 1 Cor. 1: 30; Gal. 2: 16-18; 3: 10-13, 24; Phil. 3: 9). Justification is God's act (Rom. 8: 33), whereby for the merit of Jesus He (1) forgives the believer, whether Jew or Gentile, his sins (Luke 24: 45-48; John 20: 23; Acts 2: 28; 10: 43; 1 John 1: 7, 9), and (2) reckons Christ's righteousness to him as his (Rom. 3: 21-27; 10: 4; 1 Cor. 1: 30; Gal. 3: 22; Phil. 3: 9; in most of the preceding passages the expression, "faith of Jesus," occurs and means the faithfulness—righteousness—of Jesus; John 3: 14-16, 18, 36; 20: 31). The same justification we see operated from Pentecost on. St. James, emphasizing works and faith in connection with justification, does not contradict the above; rather he is referring to what we must do in order that the Lord may with safety to us vitalize our faith justification, i.e., actually forgive us our sins and actually reckon Christ's righteousness to us, which before He only tentatively did, i.e., we must do the good works implied in advancing from the beginning of tentative justification (the gate of the court) into consecration (come under the first veil). But our doing these good works did not vitalize, i.e., make actual, our justification by faith, which is exclusively God's act and is done by His grace apart from any merit of our works, solely through Jesus' merit accepted by faith. Thus James' language does not prove that a covenant of works—the New Covenant—has operated and justified from Calvary on, as J.F.R.'s position implies, though he does not express the thought.

 

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When we ask ourselves what the blessings are that the New Covenant will Millennially confer upon Israelites and Israelite-made Gentiles, we find them summed up in Christ's perfect human body and life, right to perfect human life and its life-rights. The right to human life is the Divinely sanctioned privilege of a human being in harmony with justice to exist perfectly, which implies the possession of perfect human physical, mental, moral and religious faculties and life, while the life-rights are the blessings attached to such a right to life, e.g., a perfect earth, climate, home, food, fellowship between God and man (which implies forgiveness of sin) and between man and man, rulership of the earth, of nature's laws and of the animal creation, in so far as man comes in contact with them. These were the main things that Adam lost for himself and his race, and that Christ sacrificed for mankind. Hence He has them as assets to give to man. This He will do on condition of faith and obedience to the New Covenant arrangements in the Millennium (Ezek. 16: 53-63; 18: 4-26; 36: 24-38; 37: 23-28; Jer. 31: 22-38; Rev. 20: 12; 21: 3-5; 22: 3). Thus a works-justification will prevail under the New Covenant. No such thing prevails now; for now a faith-justification prevails. But a justification is a justification, whether it be actually so or reckonedly so, the difference being, not one of fact as to God's judgment, but one of method. Hence faith-justification reckons to the faith-justified all that actual justification really will give, i.e., the perfect human body, life, the human right to live and its accompanying life-rights. Hence we by our faith-justification have reckonedly what the obedient of the world actually will get in the end of the Little Season—the confirmed right to human nature, life and life-rights.

 

Hence the Scriptures speak of our now having everlasting life (reckonedly, of course) through our

 

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faith-justification, as can be seen from John 3: 36; 5: 24; 1 John 5: 12. Hence, also, the Scriptures can properly quote the language of the New Covenant, which applies exclusively Millennially and post-Millennially, in proof of the Gospel-Age justification, since the New Covenant blessings actually given its subjects in the Millennium and Little Season are reckonedly ours now in the Gospel Age, even as St. Paul in Heb. 10: 14-18 does. He does not quote this passage, Heb. 10: 16, 17, from Jer. 31: 33, 34, to prove that the New Covenant now operates, but to prove that Christ's one imputation of His merit for the Church—"them that are sanctified"—forever frees them from the Adamic sin, and also reckons them in the possession of His righteousness, which reckonedly perfects them—a blessing that the world will actually get through obedience to the New Covenant provisions. This reckoned relation to the New Covenant blessings warrants St. Paul's quoting Jer. 31: 33, 34 to prove our eternal perfection from the Adamic sentence and the possession of Christ's imputed righteousness, through Christ's one offering imputed on our behalf and accepted by us in faith, without in the least implying that the New Covenant was made at Calvary and operates over the Church. Praised be our God for this blessing, which gives us all the benefits of the New Covenant reckonedly, without our actually coming under it and its consequent dangers! What does this prove? First, that J.F.R.'s contention (Z '34, 132, 7) that the New Covenant was actually made at Calvary and inaugurated in 1918, to prove which he quotes as an especially important argument Heb. 10: 14-18, is false; and, second, that the New Covenant operates exclusively after the Gospel Age, during which its blessings by way of anticipation are reckoned to all believers, tentatively to unconsecrated, and vitalizedly to consecrated believers. In the same connection he argues that the blood of the Covenant wherewith we are

 

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sanctified (Heb. 10: 29) is the blood of the New Covenant, which he alleges proves we are under the New Covenant. This is erroneous and will be recognized as such when we remember that it is the blood of the sacrificial covenant that sanctifies us. Our consecration made and carried out sanctifies us!

 

Our fifteenth and sixteenth general arguments in proof of the New Covenant's operating exclusively after the Gospel Age, and therefore not since Calvary, are that their faith justification, which anticipatorially reckons the New Covenant blessings to Gospel-Age believers, makes them in their consecration acceptable in the Sarah features of the Oath-bound Covenant, and our consecration is the antitype of the circumcision associated with the Abrahamic Covenant, while the New Covenant consecration is the antitype of that of the Law Covenant. The Bible clearly teaches that we are made acceptable to God in our consecration by our faith justification through Jesus Christ. This is one of the things implied in St. Paul's statement in Rom. 5: 1, 2. Justified by faith through Christ, we therein through Him in consecration have access to the grace of the high calling, in which we stand in Christ. This is likewise taught in Rom. 12: 1, wherein the expression, "the mercies of God"—forgiveness of sins and imputation of Christ's righteousness to us, i.e., faith justification—are set forth as the things that should arouse believers to make, among other things, an acceptable sacrifice. Sts. Paul and Peter say that the priesthood's sacrifices are acceptable to God through Jesus Christ, i.e., through His imputing His righteousness to them (Heb. 13: 15, 16; 1 Pet. 2: 5). Thus their Covenant of sacrifice—consecration vow (Ps. 50: 5)—was acceptable through their faith justification, which makes the consecrated eligible to the Oath-bound Covenant in its Sarah features. It also made the pre-Gospel-Age seed eligible to an earthly feature of that Oath-bound Covenant.

 

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This St. Paul teaches in Rom. 4: 10, 11, 13, 14, 16. This becomes clear when we understand that to Abraham circumcision came after justification as the latter's seal; for circumcision as a type of consecration naturally would come after Abraham's justification by faith, sealing it to him. Circumcision symbolizes the Ancient Worthies' consecration (Rom. 2: 28, 29).

 

St. Paul's analysis of the parts of the Church's consecration and his calling them the constituents of antitypical circumcision prove completely that the circumcision connected with the Abrahamic Covenant (Gen. 17: 9-14) types the Church's consecration connected with the Sarah Covenant (Col. 2: 11, 12; compare with Rom. 6: 3-5). And the type thoroughly pictures this forth: As in consecration (1) the human will is at once put to death and (2) the body is gradually put to death, so these things are respectively symbolized (1) by cutting away the foreskin and (2) by shedding the circumcised person's blood, which flows for some time. The other side of consecration in its two features is also typed by the other side of circumcision. As in consecration (1) a healing from the natural selfishness and worldliness sets in and (2) good spiritual health is increasingly present as consecration is being carried out; so these two things are respectively typed in the second side of circumcision: (1) in the healing that sets in and (2) in health that is increased as the healing increases. Clearly does St. Paul (Gal. 3: 21, 22) teach that the Oath-bound Covenant in its Sarah features is made available to believers through Jesus Christ's faith— righteousness—which of course they receive in justification by faith. Therefore, from the fact that faith justification in the Patriarchal, Jewish and Gospel Ages made its subjects eligible to the Oath-bound Covenant in various of its features, dependent on their standing before God, and from the fact that faith justification reckoned to its subjects anticipatorially all the New Covenant

 

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blessings, we conclude that the New Covenant could not have been operating from Calvary, nor be inaugurated in 1918, while the consecration associated with the New Covenant is the antitype of the circumcision connected with the Old Law Covenant (John 7: 22). We give the fifteenth and sixteenth arguments together because they are somewhat related. These two arguments prove that the New Covenant must operate after faith justification ceases to operate, i.e., after the Gospel Age, which overthrows the setting of J.F.R.'s New Covenant.

 

Our seventeenth general argument in proof that the New Covenant operates exclusively after the Gospel Age is: All new creatures have been in the same Covenant as Jesus— the Sarah features of the Oath-bound Covenant. This cannot be the New Covenant, inasmuch as it was not even suretied, let alone operating, until He had died on Calvary. Jesus' sinlessness proves Him not to have been under the New Covenant which is one that forgives the sins of all under it (Jer. 31: 34). Hence none of the Gospel-Age brethren, who stand in the same Covenant with God as He, can be in the New Covenant. Rom. 9: 7-9, compared with Gal. 3: 16, 26-29, proves that the preeminent seed of Abraham is the Christ—Head and Body—the One Seed, the one new man (Eph. 2: 15), the perfect man (Eph. 4: 13). The features of the Oath-bound Covenant typed by Sarah are the mother of this seed, as Rom. 9: 9; Gal. 4: 22-31 and Acts 3: 25 prove. This Covenant is repeatedly called the promise (Rom. 9: 7-9; Gal. 3: 8, 9, 14-19, 29; 4: 23, 26, 28). St. Paul in Heb. 6: 12-17 calls it the promise, and of the promise he speaks as the Oath-bound Covenant. That Covenant developed our Lord as a new creature; and it has developed the brethren as new creatures since Pentecost, as the passages cited above and as Heb. 6: 12-20 prove. This argument is overwhelming on the point before us;

 

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for Jesus as a new creature having been developed by the same Covenant as the brethren from Pentecost on, and Jesus being spoken of thirty or thirty-one years later as suretying the future operation of the New Covenant, none of the Gospel-Age brethren have been under the New Covenant; hence it comes after the Gospel Age. This destroys the whole theory of J.F.R. and proves our Pastor's view.

 

The Scriptural types on the Covenants likewise prove that the New Covenant operates exclusively after the Gospel Age; and we offer them as our eighteenth general argument against J.F.R.'s new view and in favor of our Pastor's view. God has been pleased to use Abraham and his three wives—rather the one wife, Sarah, and the two concubines, Hagar and Keturah (Gen. 25: 6) to type matters in respect to the three great Covenants. The original and all-embracing Covenant with Abraham is recorded in Gen. 12: 2, 3. It is of seven parts or promises and is a summary of God's plan; and all of God's later Covenants are made operative by what it promises. Its first promise, "I will make of thee a great nation," applies antitypically to all the seed in general, but it more especially applies to the Christ, Head and Body, the fruitful and holy nation of Matt. 21: 43 and 1 Pet. 2: 9. This first promise of the Abrahamic Covenant is elaborated in Gen. 22: 16-18, where it appears as what we call the Oath-bound Covenant, because of God's oath added to it (Gen. 22: 16; Heb. 6: 13-21). It has two aspects, a heavenly and earthly aspect, as is implied by the expressions: the seed like the stars of heaven and the seed like the sands of the sea shore. Each of these seeds is again divided into two classes: the heavenly into the Little Flock and the Great Company, and the earthly into the Ancient Worthies and the Youthful Worthies. Ultimately the full seed will include the Jews in their capacity of blessing all mankind, and in an attenuated sense, the faithful restitutionists

 

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(Rom. 11: 29; Matt. 25: 34-40). That part of the Oath-bound Covenant, which is but an elaboration of the first promise of the original Abrahamic Covenant, and which applies to the Christ, is typed by Sarah. Sarah does not type those features of the Oath-bound Covenant that develop the Great Company, the Ancient Worthies, the Youthful Worthies, Israel and the faithful restitutionists. She types those promises only which develop the Christ (Gal. 3: 1529; 4: 23-31; Rom. 9: 7-9). That a feature of the Oath-bound Covenant developed the Ancient Worthies we can see from Acts 3: 25, where St. Peter is addressing certain Christ-believing Israelites indeed, who therefore had been of the Ancient Worthies class, and who living in the end of the Jewish Age and the beginning of the Gospel Age, were given the privilege of transfer into that heavenly feature of the Oath-bound Covenant typed by Sarah. Heb. 6: 12-17 in part and the whole of Heb. 11, particularly v. 39, prove that the Ancient Worthies were subjects of the Oath-bound Covenant in its earthly part. From certain other Scriptures, not quite so clear as the above, we gather that the Great Company and the Youthful Worthies are likewise developed by two other features of the Oath-bound Covenant; so, too, Israel and the faithful restitutionists (Heb. 11: 12). These features of the Oath-bound Covenant are not typed by any of Abraham's wives.

 

That the Law Covenant is typed by Hagar [flight], who was added to Sarah [princess], is plainly taught in Gal. 4: 23-31. As the seed-promising part of the original Covenant, given first without an oath as the first promise of the original Abrahamic Covenant, was 430 years before the Law, so this fact was pictured forth by Sarah being Abraham's real wife years before Hagar was taken as concubine. But as the concubine bore her son before Sarah bore hers, so the Law Covenant developed Fleshly Israel before antitypical Sarah

 

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developed Spiritual Israel. Later, at antitypical Isaac's weaning time of the Christ class, i.e., during the Jewish Harvest, the Law Covenant and its product—Fleshly Israel—were cast off (Gal. 4: 29, 30) and remained cast off during the Gospel Age (Rom. 9–11; Gal. 4: 29, 30), just like Hagar and Ishmael, who remained cast off during the rest of Sarah's life, antityped by Israel's hardness and consequent rejection by God until the full number of the Elect be won (Rom. 11: 25-27). Sarah, thus continuing, types the fact that the highest phase of the Oath-bound Covenant has been developing the Christ class from Jordan (Matt. 3: 13-17; Acts 10: 38; 3: 25; Rom. 11: 7-9; Gal. 3 and 4), until the end of this Age, when Israel would be recovered.

 

After Sarah's death Abraham took as a concubine, Keturah (incense), who types the New Covenant. So after the Gospel Age, when the Sarah Covenant will have ceased operating, so far as developing the Seed is concerned, God will take another Covenant as a symbolic concubine. But, one asks, how do we know that Keturah types the New Covenant? We answer, Is. 60: 6, 7 proves this. Is. 60 unquestionably describes the Millennial reign of The Christ, under the picture of a city—Zion (v. 14)—the same thought as is in the New Jerusalem of Rev. 12. Kedar [dark] and Nebaioth [heights] (v. 7) were Ishmael's [whom God hears] eldest, hence chief, sons (Gen. 25: 13), and stand typically for the two principal divisions of Israel as they were designated in the divided kingdom: Israel (the ten tribes under Ephraim) and Judah (the two tribes under Judah), even as we find them set forth in the classic New Covenant's passage—Jer. 31: 31-34. Ishmael's twelve sons (Gen. 25: 16) type Israel's twelve tribes. Hence v. 7 shows how the descendants of Jacob in their two divisions, who will have the New Covenant made directly with them, will be blessed by the Millennial arrangements