Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13

CHAPTER I.

GOSPEL-AGE ISRAELITES.

Num. 1; 2; 26.

 

GENERALITIES ON THE GOSPEL AGE ISRAELITES. DETAILS ON THE GOSPEL AGE ISRAELITES. BEREAN QUESTIONS.

 

ALL of us are familiar with the fact that typical characters are often used to represent various antitypes, e.g., Esau is used to represent the secondary elect classes: (1) nominal Fleshly Israel (Rom. 9: 10-13); (2) nominal Spiritual Israel (Is. 63: 1-6; Obad. 1-21); and (3) the Great Company (Heb. 12: 16, 17). Jacob is another case to the point, typing (1) real Fleshly Israel (Obad. 10: 18), (2) real Spiritual Israel (Rom. 9: 10-13). This principle applies to Jacob's wives, Leah (wild cow) and Rachel (ewe): the former represents (1) Nominal Fleshly Israel and their promises; (2) nominal Spiritual Israel and their promises; and (3) certain stewardship truths and the servants who applied them to developing sects; while Rachel represents (1) real Fleshly Israel and their promises; (2) real Spiritual Israel and their promises (Ruth 4: 11; Jer. 31: 15; Matt. 2: 18; Z '81, 1-7; Berean Comments); and (3) certain stewardship truths and the servants who apply them to develop the Little Flock and Great Company. Taking Leah and Rachel as typing certain truths and the servants who apply them as pertinent to the third sets of definitions just given, we find some very interesting things typed in Gen. 29: 31—30: 25; 35: 16-18. In these stories Jacob represents the servants of Truth by the Divine Word giving life (1 Kings 17: 17-24) to good movements among God's nominal and real people during the Gospel Age. The setting of the story is after Jacob's flight from Esau, which types how the Lord's servants during and just after the Harvest of the Jewish Age fled from persecuting Fleshly Israel. Laban represents the

 

 

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leaders, "the clergy," among the nominal people of God during the Gospel Age. As Jacob faithfully served Laban, so the true servants of God between the Harvests served the leaders of nominal Spiritual Israel. As Jacob served Laban for Rachel, but by deception first received Leah, so the real servants of God expected to be joined to the truths and the servants who would apply them to the real people of God, for gaining fruits in service, but were deceived by being first joined to the truths and the servants who applied them to building sects for the nominal people of God with which and whom to gain fruits in service. Only later were they united to the truths and the servants who applied them to the real people of God, which truths and servants, however, remained barren so far as concerns producing a fruitful movement of the true people of God as such, until in 1846 the cleansing of the sanctuary was complete, when the beginning of such a movement (Joseph) set in. Bilhah (timid), Rachel's maid, seems to represent a set of Christian truths, related to antitypical Rachel, and the servants who applied them to building up two sects which leaned much toward Little Flock matters; while Zilpah (dropping) represents certain truths and the servants who applied them to building two sects nearer the Little Flock than the sects pictured by Leah's children.

 

(2) By Leah Jacob had six sons and one daughter, by Bilhah two sons, by Zilpah two sons, and by Rachel two sons. Taking the Gospel-Age view of matters, and not the view presented in Gen. 49, we find that a history of the start of all the movements out of which clericalists later made sects, except in the case of antitypical Joseph and Benjamin, is given us in the begetting of Jacob's children. Jacob's begetting his children represents the true servants beginning certain good movements throughout the Gospel Age; while the birth of his children, except in the cases of Joseph and Benjamin, represent sectarian people and systems developing out of the good movements begun by the

 

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Faithful. We herewith give a list of the sons of Jacob, type and antitype, in the chronological order of their birth, to clarify both the type and the antitype:

 

Reuben: Greek Catholics and their Church;

Simeon: Roman Catholics and their Church;

Levi: Lutherans and their Church;

Judah: Calvinists and their Church;

Dan: Baptists and their Church;

Naphtali: Unitario-Universalists and their Church;

Gad: Episcopalians and their Church;

Asher: Methodists and their Church;

Issachar: Christians and their Church;

Zebulun: Adventists and their Church;

Joseph: The Cleansed Sanctuary, the Little Flock;

Benjamin: The Great Company;

Dinah: Societyites and their Church.

 

(3) So viewed the story of Jacob's relations to his wives, children and to Laban gives us a history of certain aspects of the nominal and the real Church of the Gospel Age.

 

(4) Though largely related to the foregoing, the viewpoint of the 13 tribes in Numbers 1 and 2 is somewhat different, and that in part because the tribe of Levi is viewed from a totally different standpoint, in part because Ephraim and Manasseh were neither begotten by Jacob nor borne by any of his wives; and in part because Dinah does not at all enter into the picture in Numbers. To understand the setting of things in Numbers we must remember that, according to St. Paul's references to the book in 1 Cor. 10: 1-14 and Heb. 3: 1—4: 3, it gives us a twofold picture; which also is shown (1) in the twofold mention, enumeration and order of the tribes and their captains (Num. (a) 1: 2-46; (b) 2: 3-34); (2) in the twofold severance of the Levites from the Israelites (Num. (a) 1: 47-53; (b) 3: 6-13); and (3) in the twofold mention of the services of the three groups of Levites (Num. (1) 3: 25, 26, 31, 36, 37; (2) 4: 4-15, 24-28, 31-33).

 

(5) According to the second of St. Paul's references

 

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the book applies to the entire Gospel Age, and according to the first to the ends of the Ages, more particularly to the end of the Gospel Age. Viewed from the formed standpoint, the numbering of the twelve tribes in chapters one and two types the description of the various denominations up to and including the Adventist Church; while statements as to the sons of Levi type the tentatively Justified (Levites) and the Consecrated (Priests). We say that the Levites here type the tentatively justified during the Age as a whole, because there was then no Great Company as such, though there were then individuals (1 Cor. 5: 5; 1 Tim. 1: 19, 20) who will in the resurrection be placed in the Great Company. It is only for the time after 1829 that the types lay marked stress upon individuals of the Great Company as present (as seen in the case of the Foolish Virgins and of Elisha), though not as yet manifested in Class respects—a thing that began only in the Fall of 1916. Hence, to give us the second antitypical feature, the picture is in places doubled; and in the second typical feature the 12 tribes represent those people of the 12 denominations who do not consecrate, but who hold measurably to the Ransom and to Righteousness, and who form the transitional camp, i.e., the Camp bridging the period between the Gospel and the Millennial Age; while the sons of Levi represent the Little Flock and the Great Company (Mal. 3: 2-4). Unless this twofold picture is kept in mind one will be at sea without rudder and compass amid storms and billows, in seeking the haven of Truth as to the types of the Tabernacle in the Wilderness. Our Society brethren are erring so greatly on the Tabernacle, tentative justification, etc.—as the June 1, 1920, Tower shows—because they overlook this twofold picture, and see only one picture— the finished one at the end of the Age.

 

(6) We note that in Num. 1 and 2 the order of the tribes is not given as the same as that order in which

 

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the birth of Jacob's children is given. The difference seems to be due to the following reasons: The time order of the birth of the denominations and of the Little Flock and the Great Company movements, as such, is typed in the order of the birth of Jacob's sons; while the order of use, character, importance or relation seems to be given by the order in which mention is made of the twelve tribes in Num. 1 and 2. Moreover, the Congregational and the Fanatical sects enter into the picture of Num. 1 and 2, while they are lacking in Gen. 29, 30 and 35—the Congregational Church (unlike in P '20, 41, par. 4) being included in the Calvinistic Church, and the Fanatical sects as associated with all denominations. On the one hand, the Little Flock and the Great Company are typed in the latter passages by Joseph and Benjamin; and on the other hand by Levi, in the second picture of Num. 1 and 2. Except in the cases of the group of three tribes to the East, and the group of the three tribes to the South being mentioned in reverse order, there is no difference in the order of their presentation in the two chapters. We give what seems to us to be the order of the antitype of the second chapter. (1) Judah—Presbyterians, (2)

Issachar—Christians, (3) Zebulun—Adventists. These, encamped to the East of the antitypical Tabernacle, defend, as their central view of God's Plan, the idea of Power, the first attribute of God clearly to manifest itself. (4) Reuben—Greek Catholics, (5) Simeon—Roman Catholics, (6) Gad—Episcopalians. These, encamped to the South of the antitypical Tabernacle, defend, as their central views of God's Plan, the idea of Wisdom, the second Divine attribute to manifest itself. (7) Ephraim—Lutherans, (8) Manasseh— Congregationalists, (9) Benjamin—the Fanatical sects. These, encamped to the West of the antitypical Tabernacle, defend, as their central view of God's Plan, the idea of Justice, the third attribute of God to manifest itself. (10) Dan—Baptists, (11) Asher—Methodists,

 

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(12) Naphtali—Unitario-Universalists. These, encamped to the North of the antitypical Tabernacle, defend, as their central view of God's Plan, the idea of Love, the fourth and last attribute of God to manifest itself. These four attributes—Power, Wisdom, Justice and Love—and affinity in certain doctrinal, organizational and practical teachings seem to antitype the four standards of the four camps of the twelve tribes. Under the term, Fanatical sects, we group, among others, the following sects: The Quakers, Holy Rollers, Mormons, Faith Curists, etc. In other words, this group embraces those that are impelled by feeling rather than by the Word of God. It is because of this their peculiar characteristic that Jacob, the type of the real servants of the Truth, is not represented as begetting a type of these, under the picture of Benjamin in the Genesis record, though the Benjamites seem to represent them in Numbers. They have been developed by a spirit of error rather than by the Spirit of Truth; therefore do not have antitypical Jacob as their father.

 

(7) We may understand the captains of these tribes (Num. 1: 5-18) in each case to represent the leaders (not one, but a number) in each one of these various denominations. These leaders certainly have assisted Jesus and the Church (Moses and Aaron) to describe, limit, define, etc. (number, "tell [number] the towers thereof," Ps. 48: 12, i.e., describe the strongest truths, towers, of the Church), the various sects of which they have been the leaders. These leaders are not the reformers, like Luther, Zwingli, Hubmaier, etc., who started the movements; for, the latter are of antitypical Jacob; but the former are the ones who formed sects out of these movements.

 

(8) From the standpoint of the Gospel-Age picture the twelve tribes type all professed Christians; while the tribe of Levi, containing Levites and Priests, picture the tentatively justified and the Consecrated. This becomes very apparent, as our dear Pastor taught: (1)

 

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from St. Paul's application of the facts of the book of Numbers (Heb. 3: 1—4: 3) to the professed Christian Church throughout the Gospel Age; (2) from the fact that there were no Levites in the sense of the Great Company during the Gospel Age, until well into the Time of the End; (3) from the fact that until 1916 all new creatures were treated by God as Priests, and (4) hence the antitypical Levites before the end of the Age were the tentatively justified believers; for apart from the Priests these alone thus performed the service of the Sanctuary. Therefore what is said of the Levites in the early chapters of Numbers has a double application: (1) to the tentatively justified throughout the Age, and (2) to the Great Company in the end of the Age. From these two standpoints only are we able, on the one hand, to harmonize St. Paul's statements in 1 Cor. 10: 1-14 with those of Heb. 3: 1—4: 2, and, on the other hand, the typical facts of the book of Numbers on the Levites with the history of the Gospel Church real and nominal: (1) during the Age and (2) in the end of the Age. Hence that Servant was right in Tabernacle Shadows, etc., in teaching that the Levites represent justified believers as distinct from consecrated believers; and in teaching in Towers from 1907 onward that the Levites type the Great Company; as he was also right in teaching in Vol. VI that for Millennial purposes the Levites type the Ancient Worthies, etc.; for doubtless the setting of the book of Numbers types also Millennial matters. It is only a narrow view that, leaving out of consideration certain Scriptures and facts as well as sound reason, moves some Truth people to deny that the tentatively justified are also pictured forth by the Levites.

 

(9) By the expression, "after their families by the house of their fathers" (Num. 1: 2, 18, etc.), we understand the various divisions that exist in each denomination, e.g., there are many Methodist sects, like the Methodist Episcopal North, the Methodist Episcopal

 

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South, the Wesleyan Methodists, etc., etc. Our reason for so understanding this expression is that the parallel expression relating to the Levites (Num. 3: 15, 20, etc.) refers to the various divisions in each of the three groups of the Levites, whose Great Company antitypes are now very manifest as divisions among its various groups.

 

(10) Only those from 20 years upward were numbered in the 12 tribes as qualified for war. This represents that in each denomination of Christendom only those who are mature enough in knowledge and character to defend their own sectarian doctrines and attack opposing ones are reckoned by the Lord as full members of the various denominations. The males in the type do not represent males alone in the antitype, but rather males and females who are mature enough to "war" for their denominations.

 

(11) Moses', Aaron's, etc., publicly assembling and numbering all the congregation (Num. 1: 18) represents how Christ, the Church and the denominational leaders throughout the Gospel Age describe, etc., the various denominations and their distinct sects in a very public manner throughout Christendom, attracting the attention of all professed Christians, especially the Faithful, and would work conditions in such a way as to cause each one to take his denominational and sectarian stand in his place ("declared their pedigree"). This was first accomplished with the Greek Catholics (antitypical Reuben, Num. 1: 20, 21) early in the Gospel Age, and was then followed in the case of the Roman Catholics (antitypical Simeon, Num. 1: 22, 23). The Episcopalians (antitypical Gad) are next given, not to show a chronological order, but because of being in spirit, i.e., doctrine, organization and practice, related to the Greek and Roman Catholics. So also in the other denominations, typed by the rest of the tribes, not so much the chronological order of their development is given, in the order of the presentation of their

 

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types in the rest of this chapter, as the order of their importance and relations in doctrine, organization and practice that determines the order of the presentations of their types.

 

(12) It is very manifest why (Num. 1: 47-49) the antitypical Levites, whether we take them to be (1) the tentatively justified, or (2) the Great Company, could not be described (numbered) among the unjustified and unconsecrated sectarians. The reason why, in the true description of such sectarians, the tentatively justified or Great Company are not described is because of their belonging to other classes entirely.

 

(13) The tribal standards and the sub-tribal ensigns (Num. 2: 1, etc.) type the denominational creeds and sectarian creedlets, a mixture of Truth and error in denominational and sectarian doctrines, constitutions and practices (Ps. 74: 4); and the Israelites pitching beside their standards and ensigns represent the denominational and sectarian warriors rallying about and prepared for symbolic battle for their creeds and creedlets. A standard or ensign may also represent the pure Truth (Is. 62: 10, etc.). The antitypical Levites neither were nor are to fight for denominational creeds and sectarian creedlets; but were and are to be prepared for the service of the true Church and the nominal people. And in each symbolic march, i.e., general experience of progress in knowledge, character and service on the part of the Lord's people, real and nominal, they were and are to assist them to go forward to the end of the experience; and were and are to defend (encamped about the Tabernacle) the true Church. Others attempting to minister in these ways have suffered a symbolic death, a cutting off from among the nominal people of God (Num. 1: 50-53). What a remarkable typical history of parts of God's nominal people in organized respects we find in these two chapters!

 

(14) Above we have studied the Gospel-Age Israelites

 

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as consisting of twelve groups, i.e., denominations. The viewpoint typed by the birth of the first ten sons of Jacob in Gen. 29 and 30, and by the twelve tribes of Num. 1 and 2, is that of ten and twelve groups, or denominations, without indicating any special divisions in each of the groups, or denominations. These two sections of Scriptures type the denominations of Christendom as so many general bodies developed as such, apart from detailing the divisions of which they would consist in the finished picture. Hence the thought is that of the beginning and development of these general bodies apart from any later divisional development among them. But in Num. 26, a different viewpoint is presented to our minds. Here the finished picture of the Gospel-Age Israelites is presented to our view. This finished picture shows how in the end of the Age each of these denominations would consist of two or more sects, the Baptist divisions, as will be shown, being excepted in the finished picture, and further how some of these sects would even be further subdivided into sectlets. Hence the pictures are distinguished from one another in that the Gen. 29 and 30 and the Num. 1 and 2 pictures give us the generalities, while the Num. 26 picture gives us the particulars on the sects of the twelve denominations of Christendom. With this distinction in mind, we will find that the antitypes of Num. 26 are not only very clear, but that they demonstrate by their many details that our understanding of Gen. 29 and 30 and of Num. 1 and 2, is correct.

 

(15) The expression, "after the plague" (v. 1), shows that the antitypical numbering—describing, defining, limiting, etc., of the denominations—of Num. 26 was to occur after the third or the combinationism sifting, which raged from 1891 to 1894. (P '19, 142, 143.) Hence this verse proves that this antitypical numbering belongs to the end of the Age. Moab (from father) seems usually to represent stubborn, leading sifters (Deut. 23: 3; Gen. 19: 30-38. Ammon types

 

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clericalists). The plains of Moab (v. 3) seem to represent the abiding places where the stubborn sifters would be active, which certainly has been true in sectarian circles in and out of the Truth. The Jordan here represents the peoples of Christendom, and Jericho represents the nominal church. The antitype of v. 3 would seem to be that Jesus as God's Executive (Moses) and the Christ class (Eleazar) as the World's High Priest, in close proximity to the peoples of Christendom (Jordan) and to the nominal church (Jericho) while active as to the abiding places (plains) of stubborn sifters (Moab), would describe, limit, define, etc., the various denominations and their subdivisions at the end of the Age. As we have already seen, Reuben (son, look, or speculate!) represents the Greek Catholic Church, a very speculative Church. Of Reuben there were four divisions (vs. 5, 6) typing the four divisions of the Greek or Oriental Catholic Church. Hanoch (teaching) represents the Nestorian section of the Greek Church; Pallu (wonderful), the section of the Greek Catholic Church under the Patriarch of Constantinople, usually and by emphasis calling itself the Greek Catholic Church; Hezron (blooming), the Syrian or Orthodox section of the Greek Catholic Church; and Carmi (vineyard-man), the Coptic section of the Greek Catholic Church. It will be noted (v. 7) that at the second numbering there were 43,730 men of war in Reuben; whereas in the first enumeration there were 46,500 (Num. 1: 21). This would type the fact that at the end of the Age there would be proportionately a smaller number of Greek Catholics able to defend their peculiar views than in their undivided condition at an earlier period of that Church. Eliab (my God is Father), the son of Pallu (v. 8), seems to type the Slavic section of that part of the Greek Catholic Church that by emphasis calls itself such. His three sons, Nemuel (day of God), Dathan (Spring) and Abiram (my Father is high, or great, v. 9),

 

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at the second enumeration—but not always, e.g., at the rebellion of Korah, Dathan and Abiram (Num. 16; P '19, 144)—seem to type, respectively, the Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian sections of the Slavic Greek Catholic Church. It will be noticed that the Jugo-Slavic Church is here omitted. This is due to the fact that there was a union made between the Roman Catholic Church and Serbia in the Spring of 1914, which occasioned the murder of the Austrian Archduke, and which thus became the direct occasion of the World War. The outbreak of the War was thus preceded by the full union of Rome and Serbia. Thus the latter's course in the premises was sufficient to take her out of the Greek Catholic Communion, where she had hitherto been.

 

(16) Next are given the numbers and divisions of Simeon (attentive, vs. 12-14). As we have already seen, Simeon represents the Roman Catholic Church. His five sons, Nemuel (day of God), Jamin (right hand), Jachin (established), Zerah (dawn) and Shaul (desired), seem to type the Catholic Church as the state church, respectively, in the following European countries: Poland, Austria, Germany, Jugo-Slavia and Spain. The Roman Catholic Church in France, Italy, etc., is not indicated in this type, because there was during the Parousia and early Epiphany no legal union of church and state in those countries. Well might the Polish Catholic Church be typed by Nemuel and the Jugo-Slavic Catholic Church by Zerah, because it became the state church in Poland during the day of God, the Day of Vengeance, and because it became the state church in Jugo-Slavia in the Millennial Dawn. The Austrian Catholic Church for centuries has been the right hand (Jamin) of Rome. Rome has been firmly established (Jachin), in Germany; and certainly the Spanish Catholic Church has been greatly desired and appreciated by Rome. The number of Simeonites at the second census, 22,200 (v. 14), was greatly less

 

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than at the first census, 59,300 (Num. 1: 23), typing the fact, that the Roman Catholic Church has now proportionately many less to defend her as a state church than she had before the present era.

 

(17) Gad (a troop), the type of the Episcopal Church, is next enumerated (vs. 15-18). Of Gad there were seven groups: Zephon (North) corresponding to the British Episcopal Church; Haggi (festive), to the Canadian Episcopal Church; Shuni (grunt), to the Indian Episcopal Church; Ozni (attentive), to the Australian Episcopal Church; Eri (watchful), to the New Zealand Episcopal Church; Arod (descent), to the South African Episcopal Church; and Areli (heroes), to the American Episcopal Church. The second enumeration (v. 18) showed a smaller number of Gadites (40,500) than the first (45,650, Num. 1: 25), typing that present day Episcopalianism's warriors are proportionately fewer than formerly.

 

(18) As we have seen, Judah (praised) represents the Calvinistic Church. Er (watchman) and Onan (strong; v. 19) represent the Austrian Calvinists and the French Huguenots, respectively, both of whom were completely overthrown, and that forcibly, by the Catholics. Shelah (a petition; v. 20) seems to represent the German Calvinists, usually called the Reformed, who were always seeking governmental favors; Pharez (breach), the British Calvinists, who certainly caused a great breach against Rome; and Zerah (dawn), the Non-Germanic Continental Calvinists, who introduced a new era religiously and politically wherever they wrought. As Pharez had two sons (v. 21): Hezron (blooming) and Hamul (spared); so the British Calvinists have developed two Calvinistic bodies: the American and the Canadian Calvinistic Churches. Judah at the second enumeration had a larger number of warriors (76,500, v. 22) than at the first enumeration (74,600, Num. 1: 27), typing the fact that the Calvinists or Presbyterians have in

 

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creased proportionately the number of those able to defend its creeds.

 

(19) Antitypical Issachar (hire) is the Christian or Disciple denomination (v. 23). Of this denomination there are four groups: the Northern liberal group, antitypical Tola (worm); the Northern conservative group, antitypical Pua (month); the Southern liberal group, antitypical Jashub (he returns); and the Southern conservative group, antitypical Shimron (guard). Like Judah, Issachar was more numerous at the second (v. 25) than at the first census (Num. 1: 29), typing the fact that there are now proportionately more warriors among the Christians than there were in former times.

 

(20) Antitypical Zebulun (dwelling) is the Adventist denomination, which consists of three divisions the Second Adventists, the Seventh Day Adventists and the Church of God Adventists, respectively, antitypical (v. 26) of Sered (fear), Elon (oak, strong) and Jahleel (he hopes in God). Zebulun was (v. 27) also more numerous in the second than in the first census, typing the fact that the Adventists have increased proportionately the number of their warriors.

 

(21) The Congregational Church is antitypical Manasseh (forgotten). Machir (trader, v. 29) represents English Congregationalists before they became separate from other bodies. These were the first Congregationalists. Gilead (rocky) types the English Congregationalists who severed themselves from other bodies, especially from the Presbyterians. From these arose (v. 30) the Welsh Congregationalists, antitypical Jeezer (he helps); the Scotch Congregationalists, antitypical Helek (portion); the Oceanic Congregationalists (v. 31), antitypical Asriel (God binds); the Canadian Congregationalists, antitypical Shechem (shoulder); the Australian Congregationalists (v. 32), antitypical Shemida (he knows my name); and the American Congregationalists, antitypical Hepher (blushing).

 

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Zelophehad (sharp wound) represents Congregationalism as practiced in denominations other than the Congregational denomination, inflicting a sharp wound on them by their divergent views (v. 33). There are five denominations that in part practice the congregational form of Church government: Lutherans, antitypical Mahlah (dancing); Baptists, antitypical Noah (wandering); Christians or Disciples, antitypical Hoglah (partridge); Adventists, antitypical Milcah (queen); and Unitario-Universalists, antitypical Tirzah (delight). Manasseh was also more numerous in the second census (52,700, v. 34) than in the first (32,200, Num. 1: 35), having the same typical significance as in the similar cases above-mentioned.

 

(22) The Lutheran Church is antitypical Ephraim (doubly fruitful, v. 35); and like its type, consists of three great groups: the German Lutheran Church, antitypical Shuthelah (plantation); the Scandinavian Lutheran Church, antitypical Becher (firstling); and the American Lutheran Church, antitypical Tahan (encampment). Eran (watchful), the son of Shuthelah (v. 36), seems to type the Lutherans of the Baltic provinces, who were developed directly by the Lutherans of Germany, a part of whom they mostly were. Ephraim was at the second census (32,500, v. 37) less numerous than at the first census (40,500, Num. 1: 33), typing the fact that their warriors have been proportionately reduced in number.

 

(23) The Fanatical sects are antitypical Benjamin (son of the right hand). They consist (v. 38) of the Mormons, antitypical Bela (destruction); the Quakers, antitypical Ashbel (God's thought); the Holiness people, antitypical Ahiram (my brother is high); the Holy Rollers, antitypical Shupham (v. 39, serpent); and the Faith Curists, antitypical Hupham (harbored). The Mormons consist of two bodies: the Brighamites and the Latter Day Saints, respectively antitypical of Ard (descendant from rulers) and Naaman (pleasant).

 

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Benjamin was in the second census (45,600, v. 41) more numerous than in the first census—35,400, Num. 1: 37.

 

(24) As we have already learned, Dan (judge) types the Baptist denomination; and to type the fact that all of them, of whatever hue they maybe, lay special stress on but one doctrine, the immersion of adult believers, there is but one division of the Danites given—Shuham (grave-man, i.e., he who buries the dead, i.e., in the watery grave). Dan likewise was more numerous in the second census (64,400, v. 43) than in the first census 62,700, Num. 1: 39.

 

(25) Asher (happy) types the Methodist Church. The Methodists consist of three groups: Calvinistic Methodists, antitypical Jimna (good luck, v. 44); Wesleyan Methodists, antitypical Jesui (level, equal); and Methodist Episcopals, antitypical Beriah (gift). The Methodist Episcopal Church is divided into two groups, the Methodist Episcopal Church North, antitypical Heber (companion) and the Methodist Episcopal Church South, antitypical Malchiel (my king is God). Sarah (princess), the daughter of Asher, seems to type the Sanctificationists or Perfectionists scattered among all groups of Methodists, without forming any distinct group of their own. Asher was also more numerous in the second census (53,400, v. 47) than in the first—41,500, Num. 1: 41.

 

(26) Naphtali (wrestling, v. 48) represents the Unitarians in the wide sense of that term, not simply those who in the United States are called Unitarians. The four divisions of the Naphtalites represent the four classes of Christian people who believe in the unity of God as against the Trinitarian view of God. These are the modern Arians, antitypical Jahzeel (God distributes); the Socinians, antitypical Guni (protected); the sect that in America calls itself Unitarian, antitypical Jezer (form); and the Universalists, antitypical Shillem (recompense). Naphtali was less numerous (45,400, v. 50)

 

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at the second census than at the first (53,400, Num. 1: 43), typical of the fact that there are proportionately less warriors for the creed of the Unitarians now than there were formerly.

 

(27) Some might say that our presentations above on the Gospel-Age Israelites are pure speculations. But such forget that the Apostle Paul, in Heb. 3: 7—4: 13, directly teaches that nominal and real Fleshly Israel types the nominal and real Spiritual Israel. And his use of the five siftings, type and antitype, in 1 Cor. 10: 1-14 proves that this is also true of the Harvests. Hence it is not a speculation, but a Scripturally-taught fact that Israel in Numbers types the Gospel-Age people of God, real and nominal. If the Jewish-Age Israel consisted of twelve tribes, if the Millennial-Age Israel will consist of twelve tribes (Matt. 19: 28), and if the Gospel-Age real Israel consists of twelve spiritual tribes, why should not the Gospel-Age nominal Israelites consist of twelve tribes—the twelve denominations of Christendom? Undeniably, as in Fleshly Israel, there were twelve and only twelve non-Levitical tribes, so are there in Spiritual Israel twelve and only twelve denominations, the Gospel-Age Levites and Priests not being a denomination. And the further fact that Num. 26: 1-50 gives us the subdivisions of the twelve tribes, which subdivisions we find to correspond exactly with the subdivisions of the twelve denominations of Christendom, proves that our understanding of this subject is not a speculation, but a Scriptural, reasonable and factual truth, for which truth let us praise the Father of Light as its Giver.

 

(1) How are typical characters often used? Give and explain four examples of such use. How are Jacob, Leah and Rachel used typically in Gen. 29: 31—30: 25; 35: 16-18? How does the setting of the story prove this? What does Laban type, and Jacob in his relation to Laban? What is typed by Jacob's serving for Rachel and being deceived by receiving Leah; and what is typed by his receiving Rachel afterward? What are the antitypes of Bilhah and Zilpah?

 

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(2) How many children did Jacob have by each of his four wives? What is the Gospel-Age antitype of Jacob's begetting and his wives, except Rachel, bearing their children? What is typed by the begetting and birth of Rachel's children? What are the names of Jacob's 13 children? What did they type?

 

(3) What does this type, so viewed, antitype?

 

(4) Compare and contrast the viewpoint of Gen. 29: 31—30: 25 and 35: 16-18, with that of Num. 1 and 2. In what three especial particulars do they differ? What three lines of thought show the twofold picture in Numbers?

 

(5) What is the difference between the viewpoints of 1 Cor. 10: 1-14 and Heb. 3: 7—4: 11? From the standpoint of the Gospel-Age picture, what is typed by the numbering of the twelve tribes and the tribe of Levi in Num. 1 and 2? Why do the Levites from this standpoint not type the Great Company? When, according to the types and prophecies, did individuals of the Great Company begin emphatically to come to the fore? When did they as a class begin to come to the fore? What do these types picture for the transitional period? Why must these two pictures be kept in mind?

 

(6) What difference is indicated in the order of mentioning Jacob's descendants in Genesis and in Numbers? Why is this difference made? What other difference is found in these accounts so far as the antitypes are concerned? What difference in the order of mentioning the tribes is found between Num. 1 and 2? What groups of tribes were encamped respectively East, South, West and North of the Tabernacle? What do these groups respectively type? What thoughts, as central to God's plan in the antitype, did each group respectively defend? What did the standards of these four tribal groups represent? What peoples antitype the Benjamites? What quality characterizes these people? Why is Jacob not represented as begetting their type in Gen. 35?

 

(7) What do the captains of the twelve tribes represent? What did their antitypes do? What is typed by numbering? Who were, and who were not the antitypes of these twelve captains?

 

(8) From the standpoint of the Gospel-Age picture, whom do the twelve tribes and the tribe of Levi represent?

 

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What four things prove these thoughts? What double application should be made of the typical Levites? What does this double application enable us to do? Who taught this double picture? Where especially did he teach each one of these applications? What third application did he also make?

 

(9) What is represented by the two expressions, "after their families" and "by the house of their fathers"? Why is this so?

 

(10) What is typed by numbering those of 20 years and upward? What is not, and what is typed by the males alone being numbered?

 

(11) What is typed by Moses, etc., assembling and numbering the congregation? In what two denominations was this first begun? What proves that the chronology is not adhered to in the typical and antitypical enumeration? Why were the antitypical tribes grouped together as the types indicate?

 

(12) Why were the Levites, type and antitype, not "numbered" with the other typical and antitypical tribes?

 

(13) What is typed by the tribal standards and the sub-tribal ensigns? What is typed by the Israelites pitching beside them? What else may a standard or ensign type? For what should not the antitypical Levites fight? What were they to do? What would happen—type and antitype—to an Israelite who tampered with a Levite's work? In what respects is antitypical Israel represented in the types of Num. 1 and 2?

 

(14) What is the viewpoint of the denominations of Christendom presented typically in Gen. 29 and 30 and in Num. 1 and 2? What is not sought to be pictured in these types? What is the viewpoint in Num. 26? What is the difference in these viewpoints? To what will this distinction help us?

 

(15) What is the antitypical chronological setting of Num. 26? What do Moab and Ammon type? What are typed by the plains of Moab, the Jordan and Jericho? What is the antitype of Num. 26: 3? What do the Reubenites type? What do Reuben's four sons respectively type? What does Eliab, the son of Pallu, type? What do his three sons type? Why is the Serbian Church omitted from

 

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the picture? What is typed by Reuben's decreased numbers?

 

(16) What did the tribe of Simeon type? What did his five sons type? What is in harmony with this thought? Why are the French, Italian, etc., Catholic Churches not typed in this picture? What is typed by Simeon's decreased numbers?

 

(17) What does the tribe of Gad type? How many sons did Gad have and what did they type? What is typed by the decreased number of the Gadites?

 

(18) What did the tribe of Judah type? What did his five sons type? What did the two sons of Pharez type? What is typed by Judah's increased numbers?

 

(19) What did the tribe of Issachar type? What did his four sons type? What is typed by Issachar's increased numbers?

 

(20) What did the tribe of Zebulun type? What did his three sons type? What is typed by Zebulun's increased numbers?

 

(21) What did the tribe of Manasseh type? What did Machir and Gilead type? What did Gilead's six sons type? What did Zelophehad and his five daughters type? What is typed by Manasseh's increased numbers?

 

(22) What did the tribe of Ephraim type? What did Ephraim's three sons type? What did his grandson type? What is typed by Ephraims decreased numbers?

 

(23) What did the tribe of Benjamin type? What did Benjamin's five sons and two of his grandsons type? What is typed by Benjamin's increased numbers?

 

(24) What is typed by the tribe of Dan? What is typed by the fact that he had but one son? What is typed by Dan's increased numbers?

 

(25) What is typed by the tribe of Asher? What is typed by Asher's three sons, his daughter and his two grandsons? What is typed by Asher's increased numbers?

 

(26) What is typed by the tribe of Naphtali? What is typed by Naphtali's four sons? What is typed by Naphtali's decreased numbers?

 

(27) What six facts prove that the foregoing presentation is not a speculation, but a Scriptural teaching? What should the knowledge of these truths prompt us to do?