Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13





Num. 10.




THE thought-connection between this and the last chapter is this: Both the antitypical cloudy, fiery pillar and the two trumpets of Num. 10: 1-10 refer to the Word of God, though the viewpoints are somewhat different. The former presents God's Word and Spirit from the standpoint of leading God's people, the latter from the standpoint of its proclamations arousing them to certain actions. But each of them refers to the good Word of God. In Bible symbols a trumpet is used to type a message; and blowing a trumpet in Bible symbols represents the proclamation of a message. That the two trumpets of Num. 10: 1-10 are typical is evident from their being a part of the law and tabernacle arrangements, all of which were typical (Heb. 9: 1-28; 10: 1). Quite a number of Scriptures suggest that a trumpet symbolizes a message, and its sounding symbolizes the proclamation of a message. Thus the trumpet that sounded long (Ex. 19: 13, 16, 19) at the inauguration of the Law Covenant represents the Truth proclamations of the seventh trumpet, connected with the inauguration of the New Covenant. The sounding of the Jubilee trumpet (Lev. 25: 9), proclaiming liberty to the land and to the inhabitants thereof, beautifully types the proclamation of the restitution message made by the Priests from 1874 to 1914. The seven priests who sounded the trumpets while Jericho was being encircled (Joshua 6: 4-9, 13, 16, 20) represent the same as the seven angels with the trumpets of Rev. 8: 2-6, and their sounding them represents the same as these



seven angels' blowing their trumpets, which, we know, represents the proclamations of the seven angels' messages. Gideon blowing his trumpet (Judg. 6: 34) types our Lord proclaiming the Gospel message throughout this Age, while he and the 300 blowing their trumpets at the first battle (Judg. 7: 16, 18-22) represent our Lord and the faithful Little Flock giving out the message against the Divine right of rulers, clergy and aristocrats, from 1914 to 1916. The following passages are a few others, from among many, that give the same thought: Ps. 47: 4-6; 81: 1-4; 150: 3; Is. 18: 3, compare with vs. 2-7; 27: 12, 13; Jer. 6: 16, 17; 51: 27; Ezek. 7: 14; Hos. 8: 1; Joel 2: 1, 15; Zeph. 1: 14-18; Zech. 9: 14; Matt. 24: 31; 1 Cor. 15: 52; Rev. 1: 10; 4: 1. Hymn No. 24 sings this symbolic thought with a beautiful explanation of the type. It might be well to sing it here in order to impress the thought better on our hearts and minds.


(2) It will be noted (v. 2) that Moses was commanded to make the two trumpets. Here, as almost everywhere else in Numbers, Moses represents our Lord as God's Executive. His making these two trumpets types our Lord's developing two Gospel-Age messages. Doubtless Moses made these trumpets through Bezaleel (in the shadow of God) and Aholiab (his father's tent), assisted by their companions (Ex. 31: 2-6). Bezaleel types our Lord in His capacity of developing the Church and all its pertinent teachings. Aholiab represents the members of the seven stars, used by the Lord as special assistants in developing the Church and its teachings, while their assistants represent the scribes instructed unto the kingdom, bringing forth things new and old, consisting of general and special helpers of the members of the seven stars (Matt. 13: 52). The trumpets' being made of silver represents the fact that the antitypical proclaimed messages would be true. Their being made of but one whole piece represents several things: (1) that they are



taken from but one source, the Bible as God's Word (John 17: 17; 2 Tim. 3: 15-17); and (2) that they are in harmony with each other as parts of a harmonious whole (Is. 8: 20; 2 Pet. 1: 19-21). This raises the question, What are these two messages proclaimed during the Gospel Age? We are safe in inferring that they are the two most important messages given during the Gospel Age, because of the emphasis laid upon them by the fact that they are referred to in the first part of Numbers, which sets forth typically the chief things in the arrangements of God's nominal and real spiritual Israel during the Gospel Age. And what are the two most important themes of the Gospel Age? They may be said to be the message of the human salvation and the message of the Divine salvation. Or we may put it in another form having the same meaning: restitution (reckoned and actual) and the high calling. It is these that are referred to as the wonderful songs—the song of Moses and the song of the Lamb (Rev. 15: 3, 4).


(3) As a matter of fact, the human salvation (restitution, actual or reckoned) is, generally speaking, a summary of the Old Testament message, which is, generally speaking, the song of Moses; for in its wide sense it includes as its presuppositions, nature and consequences, most of what is in the Old Testament. Most of what is revealed in the Old Testament is more or less directly connected with it. Thus it implies man's original creation in perfection, his trial for life and his fall into sin and death. It likewise implies his experience with evil; and it implies the experimental proof, furnished by the Gentiles, left to their unaided selves, and by the Jews, assisted by the Law Covenant and favoring providences, that fallen man cannot save himself, and therefore is dependent on Divine power for salvation. It further implies the propriety of man's exercising repentance as an evidence that he earnestly desires, and does what he can to obtain salvation. It



also implies that God's grace provided a Redeemer who is able to satisfy the demands of Justice against the repentant and believing sinner, and make him reckonedly just during the Gospel Age and actually just during the next Age. It also implies that during the Gospel Age man may exercise reformation toward God to the best of his ability and heartily trust, appropriate and act upon the promise of God for the sake of the merit of Jesus to forgive him his sins, to impute Christ's righteousness to him and to receive him into fellowship as a friend. Thereby one obtains reckoned justification or reckoned restitution. And, finally, the human salvation implies actual justification, or restitution to all that was lost in Adam and redeemed in Christ. These things, it will be readily recognized, are a general summary of most of the Old Testament teachings. It is this message, and its implications, that are typed by the first of the two trumpets of Num. 10.


(4) Again, as a matter of fact, the Divine salvation, or the high calling, is, generally speaking, a summary of the New Testament, which is, generally speaking, the song of the Lamb. Like the human salvation, it has many implications and inseparable accompaniments, which must be considered as belonging indirectly to it. Thus it implies that Christ is made to its recipients wisdom, in that He teaches them all that is presupposed and implied in, belongs to and flows out of the high calling. It implies that He vitalizes their reckoned justification in order to make them fit candidates for the high calling. It concentrates itself in the sanctification of the humanity and the New Creature of those in the high calling. On account of this, it shows and works itself out in maintaining deadness to self and the world and aliveness to God while putting the humanity to death sacrificially on behalf of God's cause. As to the New Creature, it begins with the begettal of the Spirit, proceeds through its quickening, growth, strengthening, balancing, crystallization and birth.



Then, too, in deliverance He rescues the New Creature from sin, error, selfishness, worldliness, Satan and death. The high calling includes the New Creation's predestination, organization, order, discipline, law, rest, trial, baptism, passover, obligations toward man socially and toward the brethren, its foes and besetments and its present and future inheritance. These things, it will also be at once recognized, are a summary of the main New Testament teachings. And this message, and its implications, are symbolized by the second trumpet of Num. 10.


(5) Then there are certain other lines of thought in the Old and New Testaments that belong to either of these messages, dependent on the application made of them. E.g., the kingdom, if considered from the standpoint of reigning over and blessing mankind, belongs to the song of Moses; if considered from the standpoint of the glorious privileges of the Christ, it belongs to the song of the Lamb. Again, the Second Advent considered in its relation to the overthrow of Satan's empire and the blessing of mankind with restitution belongs to the song of Moses; but considered in its relation to the reaping of the saints, their deliverance and glorification, it belongs to the song of the Lamb. So, too, the resurrection in so far as it is unto human perfection belongs to the song of Moses; but in so far as it is unto the Divine nature it belongs to the song of the Lamb. Then there are very many types and prophecies in the Old Testament pertinent to Christ and the Church, both while in the flesh and while in the spirit, which belong to the song of the Lamb (1 Cor. 10: 1-14; Heb. 3: 10; 1 Pet. 1: 10-13). But these are often presented from the standpoint of their relations to the human salvation, though not a few of them are not so presented. Again, there are some things in the New Testament that concern the human salvation both in its reckoned and in its actual aspects, i.e., not only reckoned restitution (justification by faith) but



also actual restitution. It is because these two parts of the Bible, so far as subject matter is concerned, lap into each other, as just shown, that we remarked above that generally speaking the Old Testament is the song of Moses and that generally speaking the New Testament is the song of the Lamb. But these two trumpets do not respectively typically cover these exceptions; they respectively exclude them. They are, therefore, not absolutely synonymous, one with the Old, and the other with the New Testament. But antitypically one of these does exclude high calling matters not applied in restitution respects and the other does exclude restitution matters not applied in high calling respects. Thus, while the Old and New Testaments do not exclude things that, strictly speaking, do not specifically belong to their respective general themes, the antitypical two trumpets do, strictly speaking, exclude such things. But these two messages so twine and intertwine into each other as to be in perfect harmony. They are, in fact, the two greatest features practically realized in the Divine plan. It is these mutual relations between them that prove them to be of a whole piece of antitypical silver.


(6) Vs. 2-7 also show the uses to which they were put. These we find to be two: (1) calling the assembly, and (2) journeying of the camps, i.e., the blowing of the trumpets would call the people or the princes to Moses at the door of the tabernacle (vs. 3, 4) and the blowing of the trumpets would signal the four encampments of Israel to start out on their journeys. What is meant by calling the assembly to the door of the tabernacle? In the type it was to gather them before the Lord to the end that they give their attention to something pertinent to the Lord. It will be noted that the assembly was called by the blowing of both trumpets, not by that of one (v. 3); while the princes were gathered to Moses at the door of the tabernacle by the blowing of but one of them. The assembly, of course,



types the nominal people of God, while the princes represent the crown-lost leaders among God's nominal people. We think that the difference between the blowing of both antitypical trumpets and the blowing of one antitypical trumpet is this: the blowing of both trumpets represents giving God's nominal people generalities only on the two parts of God's plan, while the blowing of one trumpet represents the giving of details on a particularized feature of God's plan. The reason why we believe that the above distinction is true is that the facts of the involved conditions in these two classes seem to require it. The nominal people of God at best know but little of the things of God; hence they need the generalities, if they are to be helped; while, if given the details, they would be unable to take them in, and would thus be stumbled. Experience shows this: e.g., in our public meetings we do not attempt to give details to those of the public who attend them. We give them only generalities. This, e.g., is the case in antitypical Gideon's Second Battle.


(7) Still more do we see this to have been the case while the Church during the Parousia had the mouthpieceship toward the world. We gave them simple talks, like chart talks and others, in which we sought to make the general features of the plan (the human and the Divine salvations) plain to them. This also showed itself in the volunteer, colporteur, photo-drama, newspaper and pastoral work, as well as in our conversations with the nominal people of God. It was only when some of them were drawn into the Truth that we would go into detail with them on any particular subject. But in the type when the princes of the thousands (v. 4), which would include not only the twelve princes over the tribes, but also those of their subordinates who were captains over the thousands (Num. 31: 14 [the word here translated captains is the word usually translated princes and is the same word as is used in Num. 7 for the twelve leaders of the twelve



tribes]), met Moses in a private, not a public way, they typed the new-creaturely leaders among the nominal people of God being gathered to our Lord by a more particularized treatment, which would imply that only one general subject would be discussed, i.e., blowing on but one trumpet. And the facts of experience prove that this is just what happened in our contacts as the Lord's mouthpieces with such leaders. Their mentality required going into details so as to meet their mental needs and their difficulties; and giving details precludes covering many subjects, rather it requires lengthy discussions of certain features of but one subject—blowing on one trumpet. Some of us during the Parousia had considerable opportunities to discuss details of certain features of the plan with such new-creaturely leaders among the nominal people of God, and know that we had to limit our discussions to particularities in order to meet their difficulties.


(8) These two kinds of gatherings served various purposes. With the nominal people of God they partook, in the first place, of a witness to the kingdom, which made us stress general high calling and restitution truths (Matt. 24: 14). Then we had also before them to reprove for sin and righteousness, as well as for the kingdom [judgment] (John 16: 8-11). This implied the preaching of repentance and the rebuking of the errors of the nominal church; and as these errors were against both the Divine and the human salvations, we had to mention things pertinent to these. These same things, though with less clearness, were likewise witnessed to by our dear priestly brethren who lived in the Jewish Harvest and in the time between the Jewish and Gospel Harvests. Thus such calling of general assemblies occurred throughout the Gospel Age. It is even yet occurring in our work as conversationalists, volunteers, sharpshooters, colporteurs, elders, evangelists, extension workers, and pilgrims, as we engage in antitypical Gideon's Second Battle, in John's Rebuke,



in Elijah's Letter and in the Double Herald work. And, finally, so far as the nominal people of God have been concerned, this work of assembling them before the Lord had the purpose of drawing such of them as were amenable to repentance and faith to justification and with those so drawn the effort was later made to lead them to consecration. Then, there were various purposes connected with the private assemblings of the antitypical princes. They almost invariably occurred by methods of conversation, reading of the literature and correspondence, especially the first and second of these. One of these purposes was to draw amenable ones to the Truth, which in some cases proved successful; another was an educational one, to help them to measurably clearer views, which they in turn would give to others. E.g., before 1874 almost all crown-lost princes were post-Millennialists. But during the reaping time a goodly part of them became pre-Millennialists. However, as such, almost none of them accepted the thought that the Millennium was to benefit the non-elect dead. To them an opportunity for the non-elect dead seemed to be a "dangerous doctrine." However, even their brand of Millennialism is better than that of post-Millennialism; for they helped not a few to love the Second Coming who formerly feared it; and they helped a few among them toward the Truth on the subject of the Millennium. And, doubtless, a third purpose in such private assembling to the Lord was to prepare such crown-lost ones for the opening of their eyes after their fleshly minds would be destroyed. A final purpose therein was undoubtedly to warn such of them as were becoming more and more oppositional to the Truth against the danger of their course, a warning that some of them doubtless have taken, and that others of them have refused to take—with fatal results to themselves.


(9) It will be noted that vs. 5-7 show that there were two kinds of blowing on the trumpets. One of



these is described negatively, but is not defined. The other is defined as an alarm. An alarm blown on a trumpet represents the proclamation of a controversial message. That this is true can be seen in a passage that we have already briefly explained (Num. 31: 6). The Hebrew noun here translated alarm is teruah; and the Hebrew verb translated to blow an alarm is rua, from which teruah is derived; while the Hebrew verb used here as meaning to blow, apart from an alarm, is taka. Besides vs. 3, 4 and 7, we find in Ps. 81: 3 a good illustration of the use of the latter word as contrasted with rua and its noun derivative, teruah. One of the best examples that the latter two words mean blowing an alarm typing the proclaiming of a controversial message, is found in v. 9, later to be explained, when we come to it in this chapter. Another very fine example proving that teruah means an alarm in the sense of controversy in the type and antitype is found in Num. 31: 6, where our Pastor's controversial messages toward the nominal-church errorists during the reaping time are typed. The following are some passages in which the verb rua in the typical sense of proclaiming a controversial message is used: Joshua 6: 10, 16, 20; Joel 2: 1; 1 Sam. 4: 5; while the following passages use the noun teruah typically in the sense of the proclamation of a controversial message: Joshua 6: 5, 20; 1 Sam. 4: 5; Zeph. 1: 16; 2 Sam. 6: 15; Amos 1: 14; Jer. 4: 19; 49: 2. Not only do these Scriptures prove such to be the thought underlying the martial use of these words, but the facts of the antitype of the camp's starting to march proves it. In studying the Gospel-Age cloudy, fiery pillar, we saw that the marching of Israel represents, among other things, advance in knowledge, as the advance of the pillar types the progressive unfolding of the Truth. But ordinarily, under what circumstances is it that the Truth progresses? As our Pastor has frequently pointed out it usually is amid controversies.



(10) We might point out some illustrations in proof of this. It was amid the Ransom controversy that Lev. 16 became clear to our Pastor, and thus almost the whole tabernacle. Indeed, during that controversy the Ransom doctrine became wonderfully clarified. It was during the Sin-offerings, Covenants and Mediator controversy that these subjects became wonderfully clarified. It was during the Infidelism controversy that the Ransom in relation to Adam and Jesus became clearer, and the universal salvation from the Adamic condemnation, as distinct from eternal universal salvation, became clear. It was during the Second Advent controversy that the Second Advent's time, object and manner became wondrously clear. This opening of Truth amid controversy, e.g., is typically shown, among other places, by the Lord's glory (His wisdom, justice, love and power, as manifest in the Truth is His antitypical glory) suddenly blazing forth on the tabernacle (Num. 11: 25; 12: 5, 10; 14: 10; 16: 19, etc.). It is also evident in the unfolding of the Epiphany Truth. It was during the controversies of the 1917 separation that Elijah's and Elisha's last related acts became clear. The sixth sifting and the slaughter weapons were at that time clarified and the murmuring of the penny parable also became clear. In our annual report we pointed out how the circumstances of the controversy on Ruth, type and antitype, led to Ruth 3 and 4 becoming clear to us in generality and detail, as well as the details of Ruth 1 and 2, whose generalities had for several years before been clear to us. In our controversy with J.F.R. vast parts of Scriptures hitherto not clear to us became clear. We might instance the main parts of Zech. 11, Matt. 24: 48-51 and many other things. Our controversy with Adam Rutherford occasioned the midnight of the ten virgins parable and numerous things about the firstfruit types becoming clear. How vast is the amount of Epiphany Truth that has become clarified through the Great Company and Youthful Worthies



controversy! We do not recall a single controversy into which we have become involved, amid which our need of further light set in, that some advancing light did not come. This has been the experience of God's people all through the Age. Yea, God made the Bible so that it would shed its advancing light through our Lord's ministry as the circumstances, needs and experiences of God's people required.


(11) Accordingly, the trumpet alarm was sounded to cause the camps to move forward. The first of such trumpet alarms (v. 5) was to signal the advance of the camps to the front of the tabernacle—Judah, Issachar and Zebulun. This alarm types the proclamation of a controversial message on God's Power as it affected the teachings of the Calvinistic, Campbellite and Second Adventist Churches; and these camps' marching represents these denominations controverting on the special aspect of power, often as centered in their stewardship doctrines. At the second trumpet alarm the camps to the tabernacle's south advanced, viz., Reuben, Simeon and Gad. This alarm represents the proclamation of a controversial message centering in God's Wisdom as it affected the teachings of the Greek, Roman and Anglican Churches. And these camps' advancing represents these denominations controverting, usually on the special aspects of wisdom in their stewardship doctrines. While Num. 10 does not specifically speak of the soundings of the third and fourth alarms, apart from the general summary at the end of v. 6, this was not due to their not sounding, but to the fact that their recording was not necessary, seeing these soundings were self-evident. That the third and fourth encampments marched is recorded in vs. 22-27. Hence we know from this and other recordings of Israel's journeys that the third and fourth trumpet alarms were sounded. Accordingly, the third blast aroused the third encampment, that to the west, to march, viz., Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin. This blast typed the proclamation



of a controversial message along the lines of God's Justice, often on the special aspects of the stewardship doctrines of the Lutheran, Congregational and Quaker, etc., Churches; and the marching of the pertinent typical tribes typed these denominations entering into a controversy along the lines of justice, often as this affected their stewardship doctrines. And, finally, the fourth trumpet alarm started the camps to the north to march, viz., Dan, Asher and Naphtali. These three tribes type the Baptist, Methodist and Unitarian Churches. The fourth trumpet alarm represents the proclamation of a controversial message, often along the lines of Divine Love as it affected their stewardship doctrines; and the three pertinent tribes marching types these three denominations entering into a controversy in defense of their stewardship doctrines and a refutation of attacks thereon. And the advance that the twelve tribes made represents the growth of these denominations in the truths implied in their stewardship doctrines. Thus their advancing in the truths of their stewardship doctrines amid controversies is typed in vs. 5 and 6.


(12) V. 7 brings out the contrast between growth in advancing Truth amid controversy and increasing in the knowledge of the Truth already had from previous unfoldings. The thought of not blowing an alarm, but of simply blowing ordinarily on the trumpet in gathering the assemblies, is emphasized by way of contrast in v. 7. In a typical way it teaches how ordinarily the Truth should be presented to the non-combative nominal people of God. We are to resort to controversy when opponents fight the Truth with error, but in the ordinary circumstances of life a controversial presentation of the Truth interferes with its acceptance. It arouses contentiousness in the hearer, and is liable to make him an opponent of the Truth, rather than its friend. If our design is to win hearers, we should avoid controversy as much as possible. If we are seeking



to repel, then controversy is to be resorted to. The positive non-combative presentation of the Truth normally is the best and most winsome method for its spread, even as shown in pp. i and ii of the Foreword to Studies, Vol. I. Controversy has its place in Christianity—to repel attacks and to attack errors during theological wars, but its place is not so much in the field of winning for the Truth. Here the non-combative method used in Vol. I is decidedly better. "You can catch more flies with sugar than with vinegar." Therefore in public and in parlor meetings, and in our conversations, when our object is to win, let us avoid blowing an alarm on our trumpet, but use it for constructive teaching. But in such public meetings, in such class meetings and in such conversations as antitypical Gideon's Second Battle, John's Rebuke and Elijah's Letter and leading the Truth section of Azazel's Goat to the Gate furnish the subject matter, the object being controversial, we will have to blow the alarm on our trumpet. Thus vs. 5, 6 show the controversial side of our work in destroying error; and v. 7 shows the upbuilding side of our work in spreading Truth.


(13) V. 8 shows whose was the privilege of sounding the trumpets. The sons of Aaron here, of course, represent the Gospel-Age Under-priesthood. The antitypical sounding was always, in each epoch of the Church, begun by its angel, and that, with the single exception of the Ephesian Church, by the principal man in the star. St. Paul, the principal man of the Ephesian Church, is the one exception. He not yet being in the Church, St. Peter was given the privilege of beginning to sound that trumpet first, which he did in opening the door of access to the Church for Jewish believers at Pentecost and for Gentile believers nearly 3½ years later. In every other case the principal man of each star led off the rest of the members of each star. This is true historically, as can be seen in the



case of John in the Smyrna Church, Arius in the Pergamos Church, Claudius of Turin in the Thyatira Church, Marsiglio in the Sardis Church, Wessel in the Philadelphia Church and Russell in the Laodicean Church. In the five churches between the two Harvest churches apparently the special helper of each member of each star followed shortly with the symbolic blowing, in support of his leader companion (these seventy, antitypical of the seventy in the Jewish Harvest, as antitypes went out two by two). Thereafter the rest of the Priesthood then functioning, according to Spirit, talents and opportunities joined in the symbolic blowing-proclaiming the message then due to the real and nominal Church.


(14) Let us illustrate by the Philadelphia star-members. John Wessel began to sound forth the Reformation message in its four main features: justification by faith, the Bible as the sole source and rule of faith, the priesthood of all the consecrated and Christ's sole headship in the Church. Thereupon he was followed by his companion and these then by others. Thereafter arose another star member, but not as a principal man—Jerome Savonarola. He in turn was followed by his companion, Fra Domenico, then by other members of the Priesthood additional to the companion, and of course not members of the star, in giving out the pertinent message. Later on Luther, as a member of this star, began to trumpet forth his part of the message—a re-emphasis of the four parts of Wessel's message; and soon Melanchthon, his assistant (two by two), joined him in it; then others of the priests joined it. On justification by faith alone, the Bible as the sole source and rule of faith, the sole priesthood of the consecrated and Christ's sole headship in the Church, these went into great detail and thus by the trumpets on the human and Divine salvation appealed to the crown-lost leaders. But whenever they appeared before the public in general, they gave generalities on



justification by faith (human salvation) and the priesthood of all the consecrated (the Divine salvation), also on the sole source and rule of faith and practice for humans and the sole headship of Jesus to the Church. So, too, like Wessel and Savonarola, their right-hand helpers and other assistants, they made couples of these four doctrines, giving only generalities to the public. A little later Zwingli appeared as a part of the Philadelphia star, joined soon by his special helper, Oecolampadius, and later by other Priests, blowing on the silver trumpet the justification and high-calling features of the Lord's Supper, in generalities to the people and particulars on one subject at a time to the crown-lost leaders. They also stressed the four general reformation truths above-mentioned, as the case might require, before the public and before the crown-lost leaders. Throughout the whole Age the Truth or truths that were due were treated in this same general way ("They shall be to you for an ordinance for the Age throughout your generations"). We have seen it witnessed in this way throughout the Parousia and the Epiphany, and believe that more illustrations for clarifying this subject are not necessary.


(15) V. 9 treats of the controversial use of these antitypical trumpets ("if ye go to war"). The Christian warfare is waged against sin, error, selfishness and worldliness, as these are led against us by Satan, the world and our flesh. Against all four of these principles in all their forms of manifestations as they are led against us by Satan, the world and the flesh, the Christian has to wage warfare. These certainly oppress ("the enemy that oppresseth") the New Creature in their multiplied forms; for many indeed are the forms of sin, many indeed are the forms of error, many indeed are the forms of selfishness and many indeed are the forms of worldliness. Every one of these forms of sin, error, selfishness and worldliness oppresses the New Creature; and against all the forms



of these four principles of evil must the New Creature fight. Our readers' familiarity with the forms of these makes it unnecessary for us here to enumerate them. These enemies oppress us in the Gospel-Age Canaan ("in your land"), which is the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit, out of which we must dispossess these evils. The inhabitants of Canaan, whom Israel was to dispossess, type the various forms of these four principles of evil. Our hearts and minds are the sphere for the operation of Truth and its Spirit. So much of them as is under the sway of the New Creature corresponds to so much of Canaan as Israel wrested from the inhabitants of the land; while so much of them as is not under the sway of the New Creature corresponds to so much of Canaan as the inhabitants of the land possessed. Hence it is, as shown in Studies, Vol. V, that the hearts and minds of the Lord's people are the battle ground of the Spirit, the New Creature. And Satan, the world and the flesh are continually seeking through the inhabitants of antitypical Canaan to drive back out of this antitypical land its antitypical Israelitish inhabitants, the various forms of the Truth, of Justice, of Love, of Power, of Heavenlimindedness. These, then, are the armies involved. In command of the antitypical Israelitish armies are Jesus, the Truth and its Spirit. The issue at stake in this warfare is the antitypical land—shall it be the possession of the inhabitants of antitypical Canaan or of antitypical Israel? That will depend on who will prove conquerors in this warfare.


(16) It will be noted that the blowing of the alarm was given (v. 9) to Israel as the pledge from God of victory ("shall blow an alarm … shall be remembered before the Lord"). In Israel's typical battles this was the case. A good example of this is found in Israel's warfare with the Midianites (Num. 31); for Phinehas sounded the trumpets while the warriors fought (Num. 31: 6); and a wonderful victory was won.



Num. 31 types the harvest work, considered as a war against error; and Phinehas in that chapter types our Pastor. Phinehas' blowing the alarm types our Pastor throughout the reaping time proclaiming the controversial aspects of the Truth against the pertinent errors. And by these the antitypical 12,000 (the faithful brethren as they shared in the controversies of that time) completely and without loss on their part refuted the errors of the errorist (the antitypical Midianites). By our dear Pastor's pertinent activities we may also illustrate the phases of this subject as they concern the warfare against sin, selfishness and worldliness. He proclaimed the Truth against the various forms of sin, as well as exposed the evils that characterize the many forms of sin. This he did especially in his character-development articles and in his articles on cleansing from filthiness of the flesh and spirit. He certainly wrote much on these two phases of Truth against sin. And it was by the appropriating to themselves of these truths that the faithful brethren waged a good warfare against sin in their members, and helped other brethren in their battles against sin to do the same. He also proclaimed the truths against the various forms of selfishness, whereby the flesh sought to save itself from being sacrificed. These truths especially pertained to consecration, to the development of sacrificing love and the hope of victory over the flesh, as they also referred to keeping dead the human will and putting to death the human body as the warfare against the flesh. And the faithful brethren, appropriating such truths to themselves, fought by their power against the efforts of the dead will to become alive and its efforts to spare the human body the sufferings of the sacrificial death. In so far, therefore, as such truths were put and used controversially, they were the antitypical blowing of the alarm in the warfare against the flesh. And, finally, in the warfare against the world, which fought the faithful



in the family, in the state, in the nominal church, in business, in employment and in ordinary social contacts, our dear Pastor proclaimed the truths that pertained to the heavenly family, Kingdom, Church and the study, spread and practice of the Truth, as our business and employment and fellowship with the brethren, and that in contrast with the variety and transitoriness of even the best the world could give, and thus he blew the alarm on the antitypical trumpet in the warfare against the world. As the faithful brethren appropriated these truths to their development against the worldliness that was attacking them, they fought the war against the world.


(17) It will be noted that God pledged (v. 9) to remember Israel and give them victory in their wars, if the trumpet alarm was blown. So, too, God has remembered antitypical Israel in their wars who heeded the alarm sounded on the antitypical trumpet. The expression here translated, "before the Lord," may just as well be rendered, "in the face [favor] of the Lord." The word remember might be used either for a favorable or for an unfavorable recollection, but the words, in the face [favor] of the Lord, imply that it would be a favorable remembrance. Hence we prefer here this translation to that of the A. V. So understood we find a promise of victory given in v. 9. This promise can safely be made, because Spiritual Israel is fighting a good fight, and that for the Lord, the Truth and the brethren. Hence God naturally would regard their fighting favorably. As a result He gives the Faithful victory ("saved from your enemies"). This He does against sin, error, selfishness and worldliness, in any and every form that they assume. The fact that the 144,000 prove more than overcomers proves this. The history of the Church in the war against error is replete with examples of such victories. Especially do we see this in the Parousia and Epiphany battles against error. And to the degree of



the pertinent faithfulness will the Lord grant the commensurate degree of victory, as defeat in each fight sets in wherein unfaithfulness is manifested. This accounts for some defeats of Little Flock members, e.g., Peter's compromise at Antioch, Mark's forsaking Paul and Barnabus on returning from Cyprus, the compromise of James, Paul, etc., as to the temple service, in connection with which Paul was captured, etc. This accounts for such repeated defeats of New Creatures as make them lose their crowns—Great Company brethren. Their later properly disposing themselves to the alarms of the antitypical trumpet makes them become eventual victors. The same principles are illustrated in the experiences of Youthful Worthies. And in the case of Second Deathers and fully lapsed Youthful Worthies, the alarms of the antitypical trumpet were grossly and with full willfulness disregarded in the time of their warfare, which resulted disastrously.


(18) From our preceding discussion of the two antitypical trumpets, we readily recognize that the blowing of the trumpets represents the Priesthood's proclaiming God's Word—preaching, teaching, speaking the Truth—on the human and Divine salvations, ordinary blowing representing the constructive proclamation of the Truth, alarm blowing representing the refutational and correctional proclamation of the Truth. Hence when we sing Hymn No. 24, "Blow ye the trumpet, blow the gladly solemn sound," we encourage one another to spread God's Word on the two salvations. This becomes all the more apparent when we understand the antitype of v. 10. In the type there were three kinds of occasions, apart from war, the marches and the assemblings, when, and that in connection with the burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, the trumpets were to have their ordinary (not alarm) blowings: days of gladness, festivals (solemn days) and new moons. The festivals are enumerated