Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13

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leaders of no other denomination have stressed joy as a state of mind and as an evidence of God's blessing and favor more than they. Indeed, they have stressed these two things to such a degree as to question the Christian standing of those who did not feel the exuberance and prosperity that they have felt. "Shouting Methodists" came to be no uncommon appellation for people of this denomination. Thus we see that this typical tribe came to the name Asher with propriety, and that the antitypical tribe came into the possession of happiness in both senses of the word in propriety with its stewardship doctrine.

 

(23) Unlike the children of antitypical Bilhah, who were greatly abhorred and persecuted by the children of antitypical Leah and Zilpah, antitypical Asher was held at arm's length by the children of antitypical Leah and the other child of antitypical Zilpah only to that degree necessary to show that he was another antitypical tribe than they. Therefore we do not hear of any of these using gross forms of persecution against the servant of the Truth that begat the pertinent Little Flock movement nor against his colaborers nor against the crown-lost leaders nor against their followers. It is true that the more or less non-church-going rabble sometimes mistreated the Methodists, especially charging them with a "holier than thou" spirit, and in various ways showing their contempt even unto riotous demonstrations against them; yet the denominations as such did not engage in gross persecution, and none mistreated them as the Congregationalists, Quakers, Baptists and Unitarians were treated by the other denominations. One illustration that shows the contempt of the more or less non-church-going rabble and the protection of the civil officials will suffice to clarify this point: In a certain place in England the rabble seized on about 20 Methodists and, putting them into a wagon, drove them to the justice. Their accusers, being asked by him to prefer their charge against them, were unable

 

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to express one for a long time. Finally one of the rabble cried out: "Why, they pretend to be better than other people; and, besides, they pray from morning to night." The magistrate asked if they had done nothing else. "Yes, sir," said an old man, "they have converted my wife, an't please your worship. Till she went among them, she had such a tongue! And now she is as quiet as a lamb." "Carry them back, carry them back," said the magistrate, "and let them convert all the old scolds in town! "

 

(24) The prince who offered for Asher was Pagiel, the son of Ocran. The name Pagiel means interventions of God. This significance found its antitype in the fact that God's providences were very marked in the experiences and works of the crown-lost leaders of antitypical Asher, as well as in those of this antitypical tribe itself. Many are the anecdotes related of these leaders illustrating their marked deliverances from danger, the supply of their needs, their manipulation into scenes and environments where they did much good or forestalled evil that otherwise would have wrought much havoc. The world would call them lucky; but the pious Methodists knew how to ascribe these interventions to the Lord's special care, and counted themselves fortunate therein, and were accordingly happy. Indeed, they went to extremes in these matters, often thinking that God intervened for them in the casting of lots and in making their eyes fall on the Scripture that solved their perplexity in a chance opening of the Bible to an appropriate passage while searching for the Lord's intervention in this way. They learned to use these methods from the brother who started the Little Flock movement that was later perverted into the Methodist Church; for he resorted at times to such things in seeking to find out the Lord's will. The name Ocran means troublesome, and seems to apply to the crown-lost leaders under consideration, because their spontaneous religiousness, insisted upon

 

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as against the indifference of a skeptical, sophistical and artificial age like the 18th and the early part of the 19th centuries, made trouble for the formalistic professors of the then current Churchianity.

 

(25) The Methodist Church is one filled with the spirit of propaganda, which has resulted in its far-flung and numerous members and adherents. There are perhaps now 20,000,000 Methodist members and adherents in the world. This implies a very large membership in its prince. The founder of the Little Flock movement that was perverted into the Methodist Church remaining on earth over 50 years after he began his movement, crown-lost leaders did not get a chance to sectarianize this movement until very late in his life—at the time that they finally succeeded in getting him to make (1784) a deed of declaration which gave the annual conferences that he had been holding with his preachers since 1744 a legal constitution, and which gave, after his death, to a board of 100 ministers the controllership over the work that he supervised from 1738 until his death in 1791. This, of course, sectarianized the noble Little Flock movement begun by John Wesley. The following are the leading members of antitypical Pagiel: Dr. Coke, whom, first of all, John Wesley ordained, and that as a superintendent (bishop) for the American field; Francis Asbury, "the John Wesley of America," whom John Wesley charged Dr. Coke to ordain as his fellow-bishop in America; Adam Clarke, the Commentator; Richard Watson, D. D. Whedon, Bishops Simpson and Hurst. Before 1784 the Wesleyan movement was an independent movement almost exclusively within the Church of England; but with the deed of declaration separation was a foregone conclusion; and from that time on, though Wesley, after the same manner as our Pastor, continued to control the general work, the sectarianizing of the Methodist movement gathered momentum; and immediately after Wesley's death Methodism was

 

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recognized as separate and distinct from the Church of England. Thus, through his control of the movement until his death, the complete sectarianizing of the movement was delayed longer than that of any other Protestant Little Flock movement. Wesley's concessions to the sectarianizers was his part in antitypical Samson's blindness and captivity.

 

(26) Because of the strong emphasis that Methodists place on several doctrines, its peculiar stewardship doctrine, in a manner similar to that which we pointed out among the Presbyterians, Episcopalians and Baptists, has not been recognized by the usual student of the Methodist body. Some will say that what they style conversion— contrition for sin and assurance of forgiveness, culminating in a triumphant victory over sorrow for sin through faith in Christ's death, amid much emotion—is the central or stewardship doctrine of Methodism. Others would say that the great stress that they place on peace and joy in a consciousness of sins forgiven proves that the feeling of peace and joy for sins forgiven is their stewardship doctrine. While these things are stressed by Methodists, as they also were by John Wesley, and that because somewhat related to their stewardship doctrine, they are, neither of them, their stewardship truth. This will at once be recognized, if we keep in mind that the place of the Methodists is at the North of the antitypical Tabernacle— love. Hence their stewardship doctrine must in some way be connected with love. From this point of view, as we look at John Wesley's teachings, we find very little difficulty in locating the stewardship doctrine of the Methodist Church. While he stressed "conversion" as he understood it, and also the feeling of peace and joy in the consciousness of sins forgiven through faith in Christ's death, this was from his standpoint merely a means to an end.

 

(27) And what was that end? The answer to this question brings us face to face with what is his stewardship

 

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doctrine—the Divine love as the heart of sanctification is the Divine ideal for the Lord's people. The reason why he emphasized "conversion" and the feeling of peace and joy in the consciousness of sins forgiven, is that they, in his view, constituted "the first blessing" that had to be experienced preparatory for the advance toward "the second blessing," as the introduction to a life of sanctification in the Divine love as the ideal of the Christian life. Hence the great stress that Wesley laid on such a sanctification as has perfect love as its heart. He usually called this, "Christian perfection," which expression his theological enemies perverted into meaning absolute perfection in the flesh. This was not his thought, though Wesley did not always guard his explanations sufficiently to refute the charge that he taught that some Christians, i.e., those who experienced this second blessing, came into a sinless condition. His most extended presentation of his teachings on this subject is in a 24 mo. book of 175 pages, entitled, A Plain Account Of Christian Perfection. Repeatedly he states in this book that by Christian perfection he does not mean faultlessness, nor absence of weaknesses and mistakes, but such disinterested love to God and man as conquers sin, self and the world. For this love he claims that it takes away sinful, selfish and worldly inclinations and makes the heart pure and full of goodness. As we have seen in all other cases (except St. John) of the members of antitypical Jacob who started Little Flock movements, later perverted into sectarian systems by crown-lost leaders, Wesley failed to see clearly the full light on his stewardship truth. And, as was the case with them, so this was due in his case to the full Truth not yet in his time being due on the subject in its various relations, the due time for this being reserved by the Lord for the Harvest. But his central thought that the Divine love as the heart of sanctification is the Lord's ideal for His people, was undoubtedly true.

 

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(28) Keeping in mind what was his stewardship truth, and realizing that his heart was filled with such a love, we are prepared to see why he devoted so much of his time to evangelistic work; for he is undoubtedly the greatest evangelist that ever lived. Seeing so many Church members about him who, while they should have been enjoying "the second blessing," were not even enjoying "the first blessing"—justification by faith—his love for them, combined with the error that they were liable to eternal torment, prompted him of necessity to seek to bring them to justification. Therefore he and his associates so greatly stressed repentance in the sense of contrition, and faith in the sense of the assurance of sins forgiven through Christ's death. Hence, also, after the consciousness of remorse for sin had crushed the heart and faith in the death of Christ had received forgiveness for sin, he and his associates insisted on a contrasted feeling of peace and joy possessing the heart freed from the sense of remorse by the assurance of forgiveness. However, these brethren stressed such teachings in order that these teachings, bringing people through the first blessing, might furnish them candidates for them to lead onward to "the second blessing." Thus we see that these two doctrines—repentance and faith, peace and joy in forgiveness—while not being their stewardship doctrine, were so related to it as to force the brethren to preach them, as well as their stewardship doctrine, to make the latter workable.

 

(29) This doctrine with its two preparatory doctrines were due at that time. The 18th century was a period of religious decline. In international relations there were much friction, envy, land grabbing, wars of conquest and oppression, culminating in the War of Independence between the American Colonies and Britain and in the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars in Europe. The aristocracy of Britain had become especially power, money and pleasure lovers. The clergy

 

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of the Church of England were as a rule aristocratic in feeling, worldly in their ambitions and clericalistic in their religion, to whose hearts the religious welfare of the common people meant but little. The religiousness of the middle class was as a rule purely formal, as can be seen, e.g., in the decision of a magistrate who felt that, having in his town Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Baptists and Quakers, there were enough ways to get to heaven to suit any reasonable man, and that if any one in his town was not satisfied to go to heaven by one of these, he would not allow him to go there by any other, and therefore forbade the Methodists to live or propagate their faith there! The unutterable poverty, in religious respects, of England's lower class was extreme. The basest and most bestial conduct, surroundings and mental outlook were theirs. And the deplorable religious condition of all these classes, as sheep scattered and fainting without real shepherds, touched the hearts of Wesley and his colaborers to do, to dare, to sacrifice and to suffer for these lost souls. Having such sad conditions facing them on all sides, and having hearts filled with Divine love, and fearing eternal torture for the unbelieving, is it any wonder that their stewardship doctrine, as a living power in their hearts, made revivalists of them, that they might lead their converts to the saintliness of Divine love in sanctification, as their privilege as God's people? Accordingly, we see that their stewardship doctrine in itself was meat in due season, and led them to help others through "conversion" to come into a condition in which it would be meat in due season for them.

 

(30) We now desire to give some general thoughts on John Wesley, whom Divine providence raised up to be the part of antitypical Jacob used in the begettal of antitypical Asher. He was born in 1703 at Epworth, England, and died in his 88th year in 1791 at London. His father was a Church of England clergyman and a

 

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noted writer on Biblical subjects, and his mother was an especially able helpmeet to her husband. The children of this couple are a splendid illustration of how good parents may raise good children. John and Charles were the most gifted and saintly of these children, the former becoming one of the foremost members of the Philadelphia star, and the latter the greatest hymn writer of all ages, giving the Church upward of 6,000 hymns, some like, Jesus Lover of My Soul, being among the finest ever composed. But as great as Charles was, John was even greater, though the former's inferior as a poet. At six, John barely escaped cremation in the burning of his father's home, set on fire by "some of those of the baser sort" who resented his father's preaching. He was educated until twelve by his gifted, wise and saintly mother, then was taught for six years at Charterhouse, London, whence in 1720 he entered Oxford University. In 1725 he was ordained a deacon, and in 1726 was elected a fellow of Lincoln College at Oxford and ordained a presbyter. In Oct., 1726, he became Greek lecturer and moderator of the classes at Oxford, acquired the title of M.A. in 1727, and then for two years became his father's assistant in the Epworth parish. In 1729, returning to Oxford, he became the leader of "The Holy Club," a company of pious students who devoted themselves, apart from their regular studies, to the Greek New Testament, fasted Wednesdays and Fridays, communed every Sunday and visited the sick, the poor and the imprisoned. The members of this club, because of their methodical religious practices, were nicknamed "Methodists," and because most of them later became sympathetic with Wesley's great religious movement, the name "Methodist" went over to the movement and the people of that movement as a nickname. From 1729 to 1735 Wesley taught at Oxford University; then he, accompanied by Charles as Gov. Oglethorpe's secretary, went to Georgia as a missionary to the Indians

 

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and pastor of the colonists, remaining until 1738 with but poor success, ending in his flight to England.

 

(31) On May 24, 1738, in a London meeting, occurred what he called his "conversion." After telling that it occurred at a service where Luther's introduction to the Epistle to the Romans was read, he describes it as follows: "About a quarter before nine [P. M.] while he [Luther in this introduction] was describing the changes which God works in the heart through faith in Christ, I felt my heart strongly warmed, I felt I did trust in Christ, Christ alone, for salvation; and an assurance was given me that He had taken away my sins, even mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death." Mr. Lecky points out the significance of this event as follows: "It is scarcely an exaggeration to say that the scene which took place at that humble meeting in Aldersgate St. forms an epoch in English history. The conviction which then flashed upon one of the most powerful and most active intellects in England is the true source of English Methodism." (History of England in the Eighteenth Century, Vol. 2, 588.) It was through the Moravian Brethren that this change occurred in Wesley. We think that Wesley was mistaken in using the word "conversion" in his sense of that word to describe this experience; for he had for years been, not only a justified, but also a consecrated man. The true explanation of this experience is that it was the quickening of his New Creature, which gave him a deeper and more vivid conviction than he had ever had before of his justification and of his new-creatureship, which in an unquickened manner he had for years had. But, call it what one might, from that time forward Wesley entered a new activity wherein he for nearly 53 years remained until a few days before his death—Mar. 2, 1791.

 

(32) At first he preached justification and sanctification in perfect love in churches of the Church of England as an ordained presbyter of that Church; but

 

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his pointed preaching offended the worldly clergy and soon most of the churches were closed to him. On April 2, 1739, he began preaching in fields and other open-air places, the churches becoming closed to him and his congregations becoming too large for any church building. He not infrequently, even in his eighties, addressed audiences of 30,000, and was at that age heard by listeners with perfect ease 140 yards from him, so clear and penetrating was his voice. One of his historic open-air series of services was conducted at Epworth, June, 1742. Being refused the use of his father's and his own former pulpit by the then time-serving rector, he stood on his father's grave and, filled with the solemnities of the sacred associations of his surroundings, preached with superhuman power to several thousands who gathered to hear him. The effect was electrical; hundreds were converted; and the one service was increased to several. As a preacher Wesley did not attempt the tricks of oratory. His language was simple; his style was argumentative; his manner and speech were direct and quiet, almost conversational; his appearance was not awesome, he being under average size, though his face was distinguished looking and his eye attention-arresting. But there was a power in his voice, thoughts and words that was generated by the dynamo of his wonderful character that made him one of the most persuasive preachers that ever lived. He preached about 900 times a year for about 53 years, traveled about 5,000 miles a year, until in his seventies on horseback, reading and studying as he rode, and from then on until in his 88th year by horse and carriage. Often he would arrive in a town, go to the market place, begin to sing a hymn, which attracted the people to him, offer a prayer and then preach to the assembled crowd. Earlier in his crusade he met much opposition from the rabble, which was usually stirred up by some fanatical cleric. Sometimes he was struck, frequently pelted with stones, mud, ancient

 

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eggs and vegetables, and filth. But he never flinched, he always faced the crowd and usually so overawed them by his strong character, fearless manner and kind words as to disarm their opposition.

 

(33) Many are the stories told of his encounters with mobs bent on mischief, and of his successful handling of them. The house where he was at Warsal was beset by a crowd which cried out: "Bring out the minister; we will have the minister!" He asked one of his friends to invite the captain of the mob to come into the house. The captain with several companions entered and was either so soothed or awed by Wesley's words and manner that he seemingly changed into an entirely different person; moreover, two or three of this man's companions were so won by Wesley's kind words and gentle manner as to experience the same change of feeling. Thereupon Wesley went out to the mob, stood on a chair and addressed them. His words changed the attitude of the mob. Changing their cries, the mob began to call out: "The gentleman is an honest gentleman; and they that seek his blood must spill ours first!" At another time, at Walsal, he had been seized and bruised by a mob. He appealed to them to give him a hearing, and finally gaining silence for a brief space, he began to pray in that clear and moving voice of his. A former prize fighter was the mob's leader; and so greatly was he moved that he turned to Wesley saying: "Sir, I will spend my life for you! Follow me and not one here shall touch a hair of your head." At Plymouth, amid his sermon, the rabble became grossly violent. He left the platform, walked to the midst of the most violent, went up to their leader and courteously took his hand in greeting. The leader immediately said: "Sir, I will see you safe home. No man shall touch you. Gentlemen, stand back. I will knock down the first man that touches him." "And so," says Wesley, "he walked to my lodgings; and we parted in much love."

 

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(34) At Penfield the rabble sought to force a bull through his audience up to the platform. At Whitechapel they drove cows among the congregation. At other places they blew horns, rang church bells, sent the town crier to howl in front of him, hired fiddlers and ballad singers to drown his voice. Sometimes people in his audiences defended him against attacks, e.g., in Bawden, Ireland, a clergyman, a little drunk, made for him with a big stick; but two or three resolute women by main strength pulled him through the house into the garden, where he attempted to make love with one of them, who gave him such a ringing cuff that it sent him sprawling to the ground. Another assailant came on in great fury, but the town butcher, not a Methodist, knocked him down as he would an ox. "This," says Wesley, "cooled his courage, and so I quietly finished my discourse." These experiences were accompaniments of many of his services from 1740 to 1745. These are only few examples among very many of Wesley's earlier experiences. But in later years, especially in old age, conditions greatly changed. The utmost respect was increasingly accorded him; and his comings became the occasions of holidays for entire towns. At the time of his death he was perhaps the most influential, respected and loved man in England, Scotland and Ireland.

 

(35) One might think that Wesley's traveling and preaching were more than enough for one man; but they were only a part of his work. He spent much time in pastoral visiting while riding his circuits. He wrote many thousands of helpful and thoughtful letters that are even yet edifying. Moreover, he did much work as an author. Twenty years before his death his works were collected and published in thirty volumes. And many more were added afterwards. His Journal, his Notes on the New Testament and his four volumes of sermons, are his best known literary productions. He wrote not only on religion; but he also produced

 

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good text books, used in schools, and a book on medicine that was in his days in the forefront of works on the healing art for home use, going through some thirty editions during his lifetime. He also edited several magazines, the ablest being the Arminian Magazine, for which he wrote much. Moreover, he published what he called, The Christian Family Library, which included several hundred of the best books of religion, morals, literature, history and philosophy, compiled from the pen products of the world's best pertinent writers. This proved a very fruitful piece of work and actually educated his followers as the followers of few other religious leaders have been. He founded and fostered special schools and colleges. He raised money for and supervised the building of hundreds of chapels. He directed the work and appointments of his preachers. He had the care of all the churches. He organized and conducted the annual conferences of his preachers, and gave much time to advising people who sought his counsel in their difficulties. He founded and fostered orphanages and homes for the aged. His charities were manifold. He would not spend on himself more than £50 a year, and the rest he gave to the poor and needy, as he gave to them the profits of his publications, giving away of his own means in the course of his life about £100,000 (about $500,000.00). To do the above-mentioned mass of work he seldom retired before 10 P. M., and arose at 4 A. M. daily. When he died there were 100,000 Methodist members and perhaps 400,000 others who were counted adherents. Perhaps his genius shone the brightest as an organizer; and the results he attained, while coming from a combination of his activities, were under God mainly due to his ability as an organizer. As a genius he has been favorably compared with Napoleon, who was about to begin his career as Wesley ended his.

 

(36) The brethren associated with Wesley were colaborers and co-sufferers with him in the early years of

 

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his movement. Whitefield, the peerless orator, and Charles Wesley, the peerless poet, had their persecutions to meet as they toiled side by side with him. Another of Wesley's finest associates was the saintly Fletcher, the rector at Madeley, whose able and mild pen defended the principles of Wesley even better than Wesley himself was able to do. His preachers labored and suffered in the same self-denying love of the truly sanctified; and there were gathered about him multitudes who, like him, gloried in the cross and its saving work and self-denying services. Their view of sanctification as centering in disinterested love made them godlike in character and burning and shining lights amid a crooked and perverse generation. The effect of this great demonstration of the Lord's Spirit was deep and widespread. This movement quickened the religious life of England as no other movement before or afterward. Their emphasis on the Divine love made it the natural thing that they would espouse Arminianism—God's love for all for salvation, Christ's death for all for salvation and the Spirit's work for all for salvation—as against Calvinism. This stress produced a split among Methodists, resulting in a small minority becoming Calvinistic Wesleyans. But the glowing love of the many gave them greater access to the multitudes than that of their Calvinistic brethren. King George III, who very much appreciated Wesley, remarked to a nephew of his, Charles Wesley, Jr., that John and Charles Wesley, Whitefield and Fletcher did more good for religion in England than the entire clergy of the established Church. This was quite an impressive testimony for "the head" of the Church of England to give to the movement that most of his clergy held in disdain and wished anathema.

 

(37) Wesley lived to within four months of being 88 years of age. Very few persons ever accomplished more than he did. His health remained good almost to the end, and only in the last few years of his life did

 

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his eyes begin to weaken. His marriage was a most unhappy one, due to the ugly disposition of his wife. He said his married experiences enabled him to sympathize with Job and Socrates! It seems almost impossible to believe, yet it is true that on one occasion his wife dragged him, unresisting, about the house by his hair until she had pulled one of his locks out, when Charles Wesley, entering the house, saw the happenings, which put an end to her disgraceful act. She took some of his letters and interpolated flagrantly some of her own inventions to his disparagement, and sold them to a newspaper which published these interpolated letters as his. After a number of years she deserted him; but her children, his step-children, took his side against their own mother, blaming her as a shrew. Wesley shed no tears over her death, of which he received no word until after her burial; for he received the news without any visible emotion and went, unconcerned, right on with his work. Before their marriage she promised him that she would put no hindrance in the way of his itinerant work; then after tiring of accompanying him therein, and failing in a prolonged effort to make him give it up, she turned into the most spiteful and oppositional enemy imaginable. His experiences in this particular were much like our Pastor's.

 

(38) If he was hated by the shrew whom he took as his wife, he was all the more generously loved by the brethren. As he approached and was in old age, he was, indeed, a venerable person. His unchilled cheerfulness, unfailing courtesy, self-denying service and holy life, gave him a most noble, distinguished and benevolent countenance, especially an unforgettable eye. On one occasion, in his 87th year, when so weak as to be unable to stand, he yet insisted on preaching, which he did, while two of the circuit riders supported him, one on each side, holding him up under the arms, and thus this brave warrior of God preached his sermon. The effect of this was most impressive and edifying

 

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to the audience. Children loved him and thronged him for his caresses, smiles, encouragements and blessing. He continued to preach until but a week before his death. His last sermon was delivered Feb. 23rd. He wrote his last letter the next day, to Wilberforce, the great anti-slavery advocate, encouraging him in his work, a work that Wesley was one of the first to begin. His death-bed scene is one of the most marvelous in history. All night this dying man led eleven devoted watchers, who were with him to the end, in an informal prayer, praise and testimony meeting, which perhaps never had, nor ever will have an equal, and which ended at his last breath. Very often he repeated the words, "The best of all is, God is with us." Repeatedly he led them in a brief prayer and joined them in their prayers. Repeatedly he cried out, "Praise God,'' and then they joined in a hymn of praise. Repeatedly, as death was gaining ground, he called out: "I'll praise; I'll praise," unable to say more. Repeatedly he called out: "Pray and praise," and the little company, sinking on its knees complied. At 10 A. M., March 2nd, he cried out, as his last word, "Farewell," and gathered up his feet in the presence of his brethren and died, without a groan or a sigh. Joseph Bradford, the devoted traveling companion and helper of his latest years, and the mouthpiece of the other ten watchers, just as Wesley died, said: "Lift up your heads, O ye gates; and be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors; and this heir of glory shall come in." Thus passed away from this earth one of the very best and greatest of God's servants and sons, full of years and good works.

 

(39) On the basis of such a glorious stewardship doctrine as sanctification centering in disinterested love, the Divine ideal for God's people, we should expect the crown-lost leaders of antitypical Asher—the Methodist Church— to offer a splendid antitypical charger, bowl and spoon; and therein we are not disappointed. Their charger, therefore, consists of corrections

 

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of anything contrary to entire sanctification as centering in disinterested love. Everything selfish or worldly would come under the rebukes and corrections that they had to offer, as well as everything sinful; for sin, while primarily an offense against duty love, of necessity is an offense also against disinterested love, since the latter implies the former. This stewardship truth will, among other things, account for the singularly unworldly life of the early Methodists. Worldly amusements, like sports, prize fights, games, gambling, dancing, card and other parties, theatre attendances, racing, etc., were strictly forbidden in the Methodist discipline; and the writings of antitypical Pagiel abound in rebukes and corrections of conduct on these lines. And when they were not desisted from, disfellowshipment set in; for he reasoned that for the brethren to become worldly was death to the sanctification that centered in disinterested love, in which reasoning he was doubtless right. Therefore he also inveighed against all acts that implied a panting after human applause, reputation, honor, approval and glory, with their accompanying pomp, show and ostentation, especially if this took the form of desire for man's praise for one's religiousness. Therefore, to live for vainglory and popularity was taboo with antitypical Pagiel, and met his outspoken disapproval, rebuke and correction. If any of the Methodists sought after titles and other human distinctions, antitypical Pagiel corrected them. If they began to show hankering after riches or highly esteemed positions and offices, antitypical Pagiel was sure to rebuke and correct them. If any of them began to show an over-weaning devotion to earthly relatives, even of the family circle, rulers, friends, associates or native land, they were sure to hear from antitypical Pagiel in correction. He treated panting after human knowledge in the same way. Thus he rebuked and corrected worldliness in every form in which he saw

 

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it, because it was a violation of that sanctification that works by disinterested love.

 

(40) The same course marked his activities toward expressions of selfishness, as distinct from worldliness. Wherever he saw pride parading as arrogance, haughtiness, disdain, conceit, self-assertiveness or self-assurance, he rebuked and corrected it, as opposed to disinterested love. All shams, pretenses and hypocrisies were sure to meet his disapproval and correction, because at variance with true sanctification. All indolence was, for the same reason, rebuked and corrected by him. Whoever betrayed that he loved his life more than God, Christ or the brethren, was corrected as sinning against disinterested love. Inordinate anger, stubbornness, wrath, implacability, unforgiveness, harshness, hardness of heart, as opposed to Divine love, were rebuked and corrected by antitypical Pagiel. Cowardice, especially in the presence of attacks on the Truth, was set forth in its true colors by him. Over-indulgence of appetite, whether along lines of food or drink, fared the same way at his hands. He acted the same way as to sin in all its forms, which, having in connection with antitypical Abidan been described, need not here be repeated. It was his use of that part of his office which required him to correct all—especially sinful—things contrary to his stewardship truth, that made him so mighty in leading many to the "mourner's bench" and to "conversion." He, therefore, certainly suitably offered his charger for the correction of many.

 

(41) He also offered his bowl—refutative teachings against all teachings opposed to his stewardship doctrine. In his over-emphasis of his stewardship truth in a way that represented the fully sanctified as sinless, he was weak and certainly met defeat in controversy; but in every conflict on the reality of the second state of grace—sanctification, as a thing entirely separate from and beyond justification—and that its heart was disinterested love, he successfully met and refuted all

 

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attacks. On the basis of the separate and distinct Scriptural uses of the words justification and sanctification, he proved that they were not two words for the same thing, as some contended. He showed it also from the fact that the former was by faith alone, while the latter was by faith and good works. He showed it on the basis of the contrast between the two experiences of Rom. 5: 1, 2. He showed it from the fact that the former is an instantaneous work of God for us, and that the latter is, after its beginning, a life-long work of God in us. He showed that the former is one of the foundational matters for the Christian, while the latter pertains to perfection of a Christian, as shown in Heb. 6: 1, 2. He showed that justification is to do away with the condemnation and power of sin, while sanctification has to do with the sacrifice of the humanity and the perfection of the New Creature; that the former gives peace with God and the latter gives the peace of God; that the former implies giving up sin and doing right and the latter implies giving up self and the world and becoming in all things like Christ. These clear-cut distinctions enabled him to refute all arguments that fused these two acts and later two states into one. While, on the other hand, he showed that disinterested love is the heart of sanctification, because it is the indispensable, all-permeating, always-enduring and greatest grace (1 Cor. 13: 1-13); because its attainment is the purpose of all God's dealings with us, and because its support is in the other great graces (1 Tim. 1: 5); because it witnesses to our begettal of the Spirit (Rom. 5: 5; 1 John 4: 7), to our having life (1 John 3: 14), to our sonship with God (1 John 4: 7), and to our perfection of character (1 John 2: 5; 4: 12), when it is crystallized in us (Phil. 3: 13-16; 1 Pet. 5: 10). Thus, against all opponents he was able to defend refutatively his stewardship truth against all attacks that were launched against it.

 

(42) Antitypical Pagiel offered his spoon—ethical

 

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teachings, instructions in righteousness. In this respect he had the finest of all ethical teachings to set forth, even more pervasive than the Baptists had, whose disinterested love feature was toward God in its earlier stages; for the greatest of all graces is all-embracing love (1 Cor. 13: 13). He therefore exhorted that it be given to God, to Christ, to saints, to justified ones and to sinners, whether friendly or inimical. He showed how it produces joy (Ps. 5: 11), is given in answer to prayer (Ps. 116: 1), leads to hatred for sin and practice of obedience (Ps. 97: 10; 1 John 5: 2), gives courage and casts out fear (1 John 4: 17, 18), brings God's approval, constant care, mercy, deliverance and protection (Deut. 7: 9; 1 Cor. 8: 3; Ps. 145: 20; 91: 14; Ex. 20: 6), makes all things work for its possessors' good (Rom. 8: 28), is a proper subject for prayer (2 Thes. 3: 5) and receives God's and Christ's special love (John 14: 21, 23; 16: 27). He encouraged to it by adducing examples of it as it worked in Joseph of Arimathaea (Matt. 27: 57-60), in the penitent woman (Luke 7: 47), in the women at the cross (Luke 23: 28), in Thomas (John 11: 16), in Mary Magdalene (John 20: 11), in Peter, John and Paul (John 21: 15-17; Acts 21: 13). He commended it to his hearers because it is of God (1 John 4: 7), was commanded by God and Christ (1 John 4: 7; John 13: 34; 15: 12), was taught by God (1 Thes. 4: 9), is worked by faith (Gal. 5: 6), is a fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5: 22), purifies the heart (1 Pet. 1: 22), is pertinent to saints (Col. 3: 14), should be abounded and continued in (Phil. 1: 9; Heb. 13: 1), should be encouraged in others (Heb. 10: 24), should be fervent (1 Pet. 4: 8), and all things should be done through it (1 Cor. 16: 14). In giving these instructions, exhortations and encouragements, antitypical Pagiel certainly offered his spoon and a precious one it was; and his instructions therein should do all of us the Divinely intended good; and they surely will if we permit ourselves to be rightly exercised thereby.