Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13


than one Little Flock brother working in each of the pertinent movements, so there were more than one crown-loser in each antitypical prince. All of such Little Flock brothers in each movement were the antitypical altar (v. 84). As they faithfully served in, and during the time of the pertinent movement, they received their anointing to a completion (in the day when it was anointed). The dedication gifts of twelve chargers (v. 84) type the twelve sets of teachings, each of which were corrective of misconduct, and which suggested such correctives of misconduct. They constituted a very large body of corrections, covering in their aggregate almost every phase of wrong behavior. The dedication gifts of twelve bowls (v. 84) type twelve sets of teachings, each of which were refutative of all attacks made on the pertinent stewardship doctrine, which attacks occasioned a very large body of refutations, covering in the aggregate almost every phase of opposition to the pertinent stewardship doctrine. The dedication gifts of twelve spoons (v. 84) type twelve sets of ethical teachings, upbuilding to the characteristics suggested by the pertinent stewardship doctrine and growing into a large body of ethics covering almost every phase of character building.


(63) V. 13 and corresponding verses in Num. 7 show that the chargers and bowls were silver, and v. 14 and corresponding verses in this chapter show that the spoons of all the princes were gold. As we have long since learned, in Biblical symbols silver represents Truth, and gold represents that which is Divine. The thought with reference to the chargers and the bowls is, therefore, that truth characterized the corrections of wrong qualities and conduct and the refutations of errors, made by the teachings of the antitypical princes in their pertinent views; while the thought with reference to the golden spoon is that the antitypical princes' ethical teachings were Divine in that they came from God, in that they inured to developing a Divine character,



in that they tended to glory, honor and immortality, and in that they enhanced the Divine glory. The weight of these three vessels—the charger 130, the bowl 70, and the spoon 10 shekels of the sanctuary—totaled 210 shekels. It will be noted that each vessel's weight in shekels was in the denomination of ten or its multiples—130, 70, 10. This symbolizes the fact that they were offerings of those who would ultimately be of a nature lower than the Divine, ten and its multiples symbolizing natures lower than the Divine. But their sum, 210, being a multiple of both 7 and 10, suggests the thought that though their offerers will ultimately be of a nature lower than the Divine, they once were begotten to the Divine nature as New Creatures, having had crowns assigned to them. The weight of the spoon—10 shekels—suggests typically the new-creaturely powers of its offerer as being less than Divine; the weight of the bowl—70 shekels, the product of 7 and 10—suggests typically that Divine New Creatures in reckonedly perfect human bodies were its offerers; and the weight of the charger—130 shekels, 130 being the sum of 70 and 60, the later a multiple of 6, the symbol of evil and imperfection, and of 10, the symbol here of human nature, 60 thus representing corrupt human nature—typically represents that it would be double-minded (Jas. 1: 8), Spirit-begotten persons who would offer the antitypical charger. Thus embedded in the weights of these vessels are typical allusions to various outstanding features of the crown-losers. Thus in another way than that of their sharing in the Sin-offering, does the Lord show us that the princes type crown-lost leaders. The silver charger and the bowl in contrast with the golden spoon seems also to represent the thought that the value of the corrective and refutative teachings was inferior to that of the ethical teachings for Divine purposes—the development of God's people!


(64) V. 85 not only gives the weight of each charger



(130 shekels) and of each bowl (70 shekels), but also gives their total weight in the offerings of the twelve princes. This is 2,400 shekels. Now 2,400 is 12 times the sum of 6 x 10, 7 x 10 and 7 x 10, i.e., 200. The thought seems to be that the things symbolized by these figures as given in the preceding paragraph are found in all the crown-losers of all the tribes combinedly. These things are a totality for all the denominational good and imperfection. Each and all of them in the princes have the same advantages and disadvantages, the same good things and evil or imperfect things, 2,400 being a multiple of six, while in some of its component combinations the numbers 7 and 10 are found, types the fact that all of the offerings of all the antitypical princes fall short of the degree of sacrificial excellence required in those of the Little Flock, this thought also being derived from the fact that 2,400 is not a multiple of 7. The expression, shekel of the sanctuary, implies the sacred use to which the things symbolized were put.


(65) In v. 86 the only new thought given beyond what had previously been set forth in Num. 7 is that of the combined weight of the twelve spoons. While the ten shekels' weight of each spoon implies that the offerers will be of a lower nature than the Divine, the total weight of all twelve spoons—120 shekels—suggests several things: As a multiple of six, the thought of evil or imperfection in the offerers is implied in this number; again, the thought that the aggregate of the princes' offering falls short of the sacrificial excellence of the Little Flock's work, is evident from the fact that 120 is not a multiple of 7. It will be noticed that the weight of all 12 bowls, chargers and spoons is 2,520 shekels. This might be intended to suggest the thought of the Times of the Gentiles—2,520 years—from the standpoint that after the end of the Gentile Times no more offerings of the crown-lost leaders would be accepted by God as belonging to their Gospel-Age offerings.



If this is true, our answer to the first question in P '26, 173, will have to be so understood as limiting the time of the acceptableness of such offerings to 1914 as its end, though, of course, they have still been giving forth the pertinent teachings, without God's accepting them after 1914. This seems necessitated by the fact that the Great Company as such began to be dealt with Sept. 20, 1914. The fact that the Little Flock workers in the twelve movements in which they shared, though consisting of different individuals in each movement, are represented by one, and not twelve altars, types the oneness of their antitypes in these several works; while the crown-losers, as princes of the twelve denominations, being represented by twelve princes, types the fact that the antitypical princes would not be one in spirit, but would differ in spirit somewhat as their respective denominations so differ.


(66) The following repetition of a former explanation will serve to clarify our comments on the twelve-fold burnt-offerings, sin-offerings and peace-offerings. Vs. 15-17 show the animal sacrifices of the princes in three forms: the burnt-offering, the sin-offering and the peace-offering. As our dear Pastor has shown us, the burnt-offering represents the manifested acceptableness of the sacrifice to Jehovah; the sin-offering, the atoning character of the sacrifice; and the peace-offering, the covenant obligations which were assumed, and which were fulfilled by the sacrifice. We understand the young bullock in the burnt-offering to type our Lord as the one whose merit is the basis of the manifested acceptableness of the sacrifice; the ram to type the Church as the one whose sacrifice includes that of the crown-losers before 1917, and thus is instrumental in making the crown-losers' sacrifice available as a part of its own; and the lamb to type the manifested acceptableness of the crown-losers to Jehovah through Christ's merit and their inclusion in the Church. In the first part of Chapter IV, discussing the



individual offerings of the Gospel-Age princes, we explained the antitypical significance of the kid of the goats as a sin-offering (v. 16). V. 17 names a number of the beasts sacrificed in the peace-offering. We understand the antitype to be: Through Christ's merit (the two oxen) and on account of their inclusion in the Church (the five rams) as a part of the sin-offering (the five he goats), the sacrifices of the crown-losers are a fulfilment of their consecration vows (the five lambs). The fact that the lamb in the burnt-offering and in the peace-offering was of one year in each case, types the maturity of the crown-losers for the sacrificial work that they performed. We have already used the fact of the princes bringing the sin-offering as proving that certain Gospel-Age sacrificers, and hence crown-lost new creatures, are typed by them. The same thought flows from the fact that they bring a burnt-offering; for the only sacrifice manifested as acceptable to Jehovah, and made during the Gospel Age, is that of the Christ. So, too, the same conclusion follows from the fact that they brought the peace-offering; for the only sacrificial covenant made and fulfilled during the Gospel Age is that of the Christ. The same thought flows from the fact that a special animal in the burnt-and peace-offerings types them as distinct from Jesus and the Church. Thus we have found seven arguments which prove that the princes represent the crown-lost sectarian leaders in the Gospel-Age picture: (1) they offered a sin-offering; (2) they offered vessels whose shekel weight was of ten or its multiples, and whose total shekel weight was 210 shekels, and whose separate weights and combinations type reckonedly perfect human beings, Spirit-begotten human beings and double-minded new creatures; (3) they offered gold and silver vessels; (4) these vessels belonged to the golden altar; (5) they brought a burnt-offering; (6) they brought a peace-offering; and (7) they are typed in the burnt-and peace-offerings by an



animal separate and distinct from the animals that type the Christ.


(67) Wherever in vs. 87 and 88 the twelve-foldedness or the multiple of twelve-foldedness as including the number 6 in the sacrifices typing Christ's sacrifice (12 and 24 oxen) is given, it is not to indicate any imperfection in our Lord's sacrifice, but that His sacrifice made acceptable the twelve imperfect sacrifices of the twelve sets of crown-losers. Wherever the twelve-foldedness or its multiples as including the number 6 (12 rams and goats; 60 rams and goats) in the sacrifice of the Church is indicated in these verses, not imperfection in the Church's sacrifice is thereby typed, but the imperfect sacrifices of the twelve sets of crown-losers, as included in the Church's sacrifice, is thereby represented. The last sentence of v. 88 emphasizes the fact that the princes' offerings were brought after the altar was anointed. This is to show us that in the antitype the Little Flock brethren who served in the twelve movements that were perverted into sects by the crown-losers in every case had gotten their complete anointing before their respective movements were sectarianized by the crown-losers.


(68) Our present study is mainly a brief summary of the preceding twelve, as that summary is typically set forth in vs. 84-88. It, therefore, serves mainly as a review of our study on The Offerings of the Gospel-Age Princes. As such we trust it will refresh our minds on the things already learned. Surely Num. 7 is a remarkable type-prophecy of a wonderful series of Gospel-Age events and is another evidence to Epiphany-enlightened saints of the depths of wisdom and foreknowledge that God has placed in His Word. And this wisdom and foreknowledge becomes all the more remarkable when we consider that these types have an Epiphany and a Millennial application. "O depth of riches, both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! "


(69) Between the account of the Princes' offerings



and the account of the cleansing and consecration of the Levites, the Lord has set forth two items that show how God revealed His will to Moses (Num. 7: 89), and how He arranged for Aaron to light the candlestick (Num. 8: 1-4). We are told in v. 89 that Moses went into the Most Holy whenever he desired information from God and that God spoke to him by an audible voice from between the cherubim and above the mercy seat, i.e., from the glory similitude which represented Him. This account shows that God did not speak to Moses as He did to the high priest— by means of the urim and thummim (Num. 27: 21; 1 Sam. 28: 6). Nor did He speak to Moses by dreams, visions, dark speeches and similitudes, as He did to the prophets; but He spoke to him face to face (Num. 12: 6-8). Thus we see that God and Moses carried on audible conversations with one another (Ex. 25: 22). It was during and through these conversations that God revealed His will and word to Moses for Israel. This account of v. 89, being a part of the Law, was, like every other thing connected with the Law, a type of coming good things (Heb. 10: 1). Moses, among other things, was a type of Christ (Heb. 3: 1-6; 11: 26; 1 Cor. 10: 2). As the leader of Israel, in contrast with Aaron as high priest, for the Gospel Age he types our Lord as God's Executive, Mouthpiece and Leader of spiritual Israel to antitypical Canaan. Such is his typical use in Num. 7: 89; for here he appears as Israel's leader, acting as God's executive and mouthpiece, in contrast with Aaron as high priest, who is treated of in this connection as such.


(70) Moses' being in the holy of holies, as v. 89 shows him to have been, types our Lord in His Spirit-born condition in heaven (Heb. 9: 24). Moses' being in the most holy in order to inquire as to God's will or word with reference to Israel in its various relations, types our Lord's getting from the Father whatever His will or thought may be in connection with every interest



of God's people. This implies that our Lord gets all of the Truth and works for Jehovah's plan and its execution from the Father. It is still true of Him, as it was in the days of His flesh, that whatever He reveals to us or does for us is not invented by Himself, but is received by Him from the Father (John 14: 10; 5: 12; 7: 16). He does not, like many others, boast of originating His thoughts and acts. Just as Moses always had access to the most holy and got a hearing from the Lord whenever it was necessary for His office work as God's executive, mouthpiece and leader for Israel, so our Lord always can approach the Father at every requirement of His office as God's Gospel-Age Executive, etc. As the Voice of God always answered Moses upon such occasions, so the Father always speaks to the Son in the antitype. As Moses always gave the Lord's responses to others whenever this was due to be given them, so does our Lord in the antitype do with Jehovah's responses. Sometimes Moses was given information for his exclusive use, e.g., when he asked to see God (Ex. 33: 18—34: 9), when he was instructed as to how to deal with Korah, Dathan and Abiram (Nom. 16: 5-33), etc. In such cases he did what he was told, without explaining his actions to Israel, the Levites, or priests. So, too, our heavenly Father directs our Lord to do certain things in the carrying out of the Plan, and to let us know nothing of them. Frequently, some things have never been explained to those who observed the facts. But all things that are contained in the types, prophecies and dark sayings of the Bible, will, before the Epiphany will have ended, be made known to us. Thus we see that our Lord in His capacity as being antitypical Moses, as God's Gospel-Age Executive, etc., has gotten all of the Truth that He has revealed to us, and all of the works that he has done in the carrying out of God's Plan, from the heavenly Father. This is one great truth that we learn from Num. 7: 89.



(71) Very meaningful is the typology as to how God spoke to Moses. It is stated that the Voice spoke from above the ark's mercy seat and from between the cherubim. Properly did our Pastor teach that the mercy seat types justice—righteousness. This is very apparent from the fact that the propitiating blood was sprinkled upon it, i.e., justice was the thing that was given propitiation, as it necessarily should have been, since it was dissatisfied with letting the sinner live and could only then let Him live, if propitiation was made for him, which the blood on the mercy seat wrought. It is also evident from the fact that our Lord in His human perfection, righteousness, is called the propitiatory (not "propitiation"), mercy seat, in Rom, 3: 25. Additionally, in this connection his [human] faithfulness, righteousness, is shown to be the thing that propitiates— His perfect justice satisfied justice; and it is also called God's righteousness, because God provided it, and because it is the same in principle as God's righteousness. The two cherubim overshadowing the mercy seat are also mentioned. Our Pastor has rightly defined these as God's power and love. The symbolism of their eyes being directed to the blood-sprinkled mercy seat and of their wings outstretched, suggests this, because as soon as, and only as soon as, power and love recognize justice as satisfied with it can and do they fly to deliver the pertinent reconciled ones. It is further evident from the name, cherubim of glory, that St. Paul gives them (Heb. 9: 5). In the Bible the word glory has, among other things, a very fine meaning for this line of thought; for it refers to perfection of character. When we speak of the glory of God, we are not to understand a literal light or splendor, but the spiritual splendor of His holy character to be meant (Num. 14: 21; Ps. 96: 3; Is. 40: 5; 60: 1; Rom. 3: 23; 1 Cor. 11: 7; Tit. 2: 13). Repeatedly is the word glory used in the sense of a character like God's (Rom. 2: 7, 10; 5: 2; 2 Cor. 3: 18; 1 Pet. 1: 7; 4: 14).



These considerations prove that the expression, cherubim of glory, refers to two of the leading attributes of God. The two leading attributes of God that wait on, and act after propitiation is made are, of course, power and love. When we shall shortly show how the wisdom of God is symbolized in connection with the ark, the proof conclusive that the two cherubim represent God's power and love will be given, we trust.


(72) The fourth thing that was above the chest of the ark—the mercy seat and the two cherubim being three of the four—was the Shekinah, a non-Biblical Hebrew word meaning, that which dwells, used to designate the glory, as the representation of God, dwelling between the cherubim (Num. 12: 8; 1 Sam. 4: 4; 2 Sam. 6: 2; Ps. 99: 1). Some have mistakenly taken this glory to represent wisdom. But repeatedly the Bible speaks of God as dwelling between the cherubim, and by this expression evidently means this glory as the representation, "similitude, of the Lord" (Num. 12: 8). Hence it does not represent wisdom. Certainly, we are not to understand that God in His body dwelt between the cherubim; for His body was in heaven. Evidently the expression, "similitude of the Lord," means a representation of the Lord. Thus the glory between the cherubim and above the mercy seat was a representation of God. This use of language is very much like that connected with our Lord's appearing to Saul of Tarsus near Damascus. Saul did not really see our Lord's glorified body, which "no man hath seen, nor can see" (1 Tim. 6: 15); but he did see a vision, a representation (Acts 26: 19), of it in the glory that, shining out of it, blinded him before his eyes could penetrate it to the body out of which it came, and which it represented. So we are not to understand that the Shekinah was God; rather that it was a representation of God. But if the Shekinah does not represent wisdom, is not wisdom represented in



connection with the upper part of the ark, where justice, power and love, as we have just seen, are represented? We answer, Yes. The light which that glorious Shekinah radiated represents wisdom (Ps. 80: 1; 97: 11; John 1: 9; comp. 1 Cor. 1: 30). Thus we see that above the chest part of the ark, which represents the Christ, God is represented in the Shekinah and His four main attributes are represented in the mercy seat, the cherubim and the light which shone out of the Shekinah. It will be noticed that v. 89 shows that the Voice of God speaking to Moses came out of the Shekinah—"speaking unto him from above the mercy seat … and from between the two cherubim." The things uttered by the Voice also represent wisdom—when God's wisdom expresses itself to our Lord in speech, as true wisdom.


(73) In this piece of symbolism there are weighty truths. Not only does it picture forth the great Jehovah, but also His character. And not only so, but the Voice coming forth from the representation of God, encompassed as it was with the symbols of His four chief attributes, suggests the thought that God's words and acts flow out of, are uttered or done in harmony with, and bring forth fruits in keeping with, His character. It also suggests that our Lord, as Jehovah's Executive, speaks and performs nothing but what is in harmony with Jehovah's character and commands. It also teaches His subordination to Jehovah in all things, more particularly as to getting information, arrangements and works for executing God's Plan. It proves God to be the Source of the Plan, its arrangements and works, as it also proves Jesus to be His Executive. It suggests that neither the Father nor the Son do or say anything contrary to God's character. Our Lord's loyalty in His office work is also implied in the symbol of Moses' always coming loyally to God for direction and performing His will learned in hearing the Voice. As in the type Moses was greatly honored in the prerogative



of his office privileging him to enter the presence of God on every needed occasion; so in the antitype is our Lord highly honored in the pertinent antitypical prerogative. Surely, the Father has highly honored and exalted His Son in this feature of His office, as the Truth Receiver and Dispenser for God's Plan and people. These facts should give us very great confidence in our Lord as God's Executive and Mouthpiece, leading us to the heavenly Canaan. In God's and Moses' conversing together in matters of their personal interests and God's purposes for Israel, etc., what a remarkable type we have of the communion and cooperation of the Father and Son in all their personal interests and in the matter of God's Plan and people!


(74) The foregoing remarks complete our study of Num. 7, the next longest chapter in the Bible. Certainly, the chapter, from the standpoint of its antitypical teachings, is a most remarkable one. And our long-drawn-out study of it should have the effect of enhancing God in our hearts and minds, whose wondrous wisdom foreknew the twelve leading Little Flock movements between the two Harvests and the relations of the crown-lost leaders to these movements and their pertinent teachings. The narrative in v. 89 is a fitting close to this wonderful chapter, since it shows antitypically how our Lord received from the Father the teachings with which the Little Flock leaders started the twelve movements, and how He also received from the Father the pertinent corrective, refutative and ethical teachings which He gave the crown-lost leaders for their Divinely-pleasing service toward the stewardship teachings of those twelve movements. Furthermore, when the antitype of Num. 8: 1-4 is understood, it will be seen that these verses should be in the same chapter with Num. 7: 89; for, from the standpoint of the priestly figure, Num. 8: 1-4 shows how the Scriptural information that God gives our Lord as His Executive in the Most Holy is given to the rest of the



Priesthood. Thus, as seen to be logically connected, Num. 7: 89—8: 4 should be in the same chapter. It is for this reason that we are discussing them together in the same chapter. So far as these verses in themselves are concerned, the antitypical distinction between them is the following: Num. 7: 89 shows how our Lord gets all the information He needs for His office as God's Executive, Mouthpiece and Leader for God's people; while Num. 8: 1-4 shows how He gives as much of this information as is contained in the Bible to the Priesthood. Some "secret things" that are not revealed in the Bible constitute a part of the information that Jehovah gives our Lord. These He does not make known to the Priesthood. Such "secret things" are for His exclusive guidance, as the Lord assures us in Deut. 29: 29.


(75) Num. 8: 1 tells us of a separate message which, according to the method of revelation outlined in Num. 7: 89, God gave to Moses; and v. 2 tells us the contents of this message. It was a charge as to where Aaron was to stand when he would light the seven lamps of the candlestick. As worded in the A. V., this fact is not recognized. Indeed, theA. V. rendering of vs. 2 and 3 is almost unintelligible and meaningless. The A. R. V. renders these much better: "When thou lightest the lamps, the seven lamps shall give light in front of the candlestick, And Aaron did so; he lighted the lamps so as to give light in front of the candlestick." This charge was given in order that Aaron should so stand while lighting the candlestick as not to darken by his shadow the space between the first vail and the candlestick; for this is the space that was in front of the candlestick. Hence in lighting the candlestick Aaron was to stand between it and the second vail, i.e., back of the candlestick. This charge was given typically so that if any under-priest should enter the holy while Aaron was lighting the candlestick, having a clear vision of the space between the first vail



and candlestick, the first thing at which he would look after coming up from under the first vail, would be the candlestick, with no obstructing object between. It was done, also, to indicate that the lampstand got its light from the Most Holy, toward which the high priest stood. Furthermore, it was done so that the high priest should be somewhat in the shadow behind the lampstand, so far as it concerned a priest entering the Holy and standing before the lampstand. It will thus be seen that, not only did the high priest supply all the oil to the lampstand and exclusively trim its wicks and keep the lampstand polished (Lev. 24: 2-4), but, also, he was the only one to light it. All these things are typical.


(76) We will now consider the antitype. We have indicated the main feature of the antitype by the expression used above in this chapter reading as follows: The Gospel-Age Aaron as Truth Giver. Some explanations will make this clear. Our Lord, Himself, explains that the candlestick types the whole Church, seven of them being used to represent the whole Church in its seven epochs (Rev. 1: 20). The under-priests also represent the Church (1 Pet. 2: 5, 9). These two facts puzzle not a few brethren who think that the above two antitypes contradict each other. The following will reconcile the seeming contradiction: The lampstand, giving light to the priest in the holy, types the Church in its capacity of causing the light to enlighten— teaching the Truth to—the brethren; while the priest, seeing the light of the lampstand, types the brethren getting enlightenment (getting the Truth) from their Truth-teaching brethren. Thus whenever we teach any of our brethren a Biblical truth, we are in that activity represented in the light-dispensing lampstand; and whenever we are enlightened on any Biblical truth by our brethren, we are in such activity represented in the priest as he saw the light of the lampstand. The wicks in the lampstand represent the humanity of the brethren in their capacity of enlightening



their brethren. The high priest's trimming the wicks represents our Lord ridding us, in our capacity of enlightening one another, from sin, error, selfishness and worldliness, by teaching and disciplining us. As the trimmed wicks gave a brighter and steadier light, so we teach the Truth more clearly and strongly, the more effectively such teaching and disciplining are received by us from our High Priest. This results in our better enlightening one another. This was the first work in the high priest's ordering the lampstand.


(77) The work of filling the candlestick with oil was the second activity that belonged to the ordering of the lampstand, with which duty the high priest alone was charged. As already seen in some detail, oil in this connection represents the spirit of understanding the Truth (Matt. 25: 3, 4, 8-10). This definition implies two things: (1) the Truth and (2) its proper understanding. Both of these our High Priest gives us in our capacity of teaching and understanding the Truth (1 Cor. 1: 30). The carbon parts of the oil would represent the Truth and the parts of the oil containing these carbon parts would represent the spirit of understanding which embraces the Truth. The burning of the carbon parts of the oil caused the light to radiate in the holy. This represents that the service of the Truth is that which causes the Truth to shine forth and give enlightenment. Thus our Lord poured this antitypical oil— the Truth and its understanding—into our hearts and minds; and we, by teaching one another the Truth, hold up to them the light which gives them insight into spiritual things. Under a somewhat different use of this general figure of the lampstand, some differing details are brought out in Zech. 4: 2, 3, 10-13, not so symbolized in Num. 8: 1-4. In both passages the lampstand represents the Church. In Num. 8 our Lord is represented by Aaron, while in Zech. 4 He is represented by the bowl into which the oil flowed and by the two pipes connecting the bowl with the olive



trees, the bowl representing Him as the depositary of the Truth and its understanding for the Church and the two pipes representing Him in His mental powers, through which the Truth is drawn into His mind from the Old and New Testaments, the antitypes of the two olive trees (Rev. 11: 3-12). In both passages the seven branches of the lampstand represent the seven stages of the one Church; and the seven pipes represent the Lord's special mouthpieces to the Church, i.e., the seven angels of the seven churches (Rev. 1: 20). These seven messengers are called (Zech. 4: 10) the Lord's eyes, because the Lord sees for the Church through them. The olive tree to the right of the lampstand represents the New Testament and the one to the left represents the Old Testament. The Zechariah passage shows that our Lord is the depositary of the Church's Truth and its understanding, drawn to Him (the bowl) through His mental powers (the two pipes) from the Old and New Testaments (the two olive trees) and given by Him to the Church through seven composite messengers (seven pipes), one of such for each of the seven stages of the Church. Thus the set of symbols connected with Aaron's ordering the lampstand, so far as the oil is concerned, shows that, under God, our Lord is the depositary and dispenser of the Truth to the Church.


(78) A third thing associated with the ordering of the lampstand was to keep it well polished. This, too, the high priest must have done, as it is implied in such lampstand ordering, which he was commissioned to do. This would represent our Lord by God's Spirit, Word and providences, developing, strengthening, balancing and perfecting the brethren in their capacity of shining the Truth upon one another, and while they are engaged in such activity. Thus as they are engaged in helping one another with understanding the Truth, He so adapts His teachings, Spirit and providences to them as to enable those faithful in such teaching of



their brethren to develop in every good word and work and to become strengthened, balanced and perfected therein (1 Cor. 1: 30; Heb. 13: 20, 21).


(79) Another exclusive function of the high priest was to light the lampstand. This is apparent from Lev. 24: 2-4 and Num. 8: 1-4. This brings us to a special consideration of the antitypes of Num. 8: 1-4. Aaron's lighting the lampstand types our Lord, after He has given us the necessary enlightenment thereto, putting us into circumstances wherein we have opportunities to enlighten our brethren and arousing us by His Spirit, Word and providences to give them such enlightenment. Nobody but the high priest having the right to light the lampstand types the fact that nobody but our Lord is to put himself or others into circumstances wherein they have opportunities to enlighten the brethren, and to arouse them to such activity. This shows the evil of attempting "to set" oneself as a (supposed) enlightener of the brethren and the evil of any one, apart from the Lord's clearly manifested will, attempting "to set" and support another as a (supposed) enlightener of the brethren. It also implies the evil of a private attempt to become or help others to become a (supposed) enlightener of the brethren, apart from the Lord's manifest will, indicating such an activity. The most crying evils of error now so widespread among the Lord's people are in part due to our High Priest's prerogative in this particular having been ignored. The light being made to shine before the lampstand—between it and the first vail— types the facts that all Divinely-approved enlightenment of the brethren comes from the Church and that it is given to those only who humbly, meekly, desirously, honestly and holily dispose themselves to the Church in its capacity of being the Divinely-constituted enlightener of the brethren under Christ. Such an attitude is typed by the priest standing before the lampstand. His first of all seeing the light on coming up from under the



first vail types the fact that the first privilege of the newly-begotten New Creature is to see the Truth. His seeing that it comes from the lampstand types the fact that he recognizes that he gets the Truth from his brethren.


(80) The high priest's not lighting the lamps while standing in front of them types the fact that our Lord's personal visible ministry, without human instrumentality, is not given us in our enlightenment. The shadow that the high priest would have made for a priest coming up to the lampstand, had he stood before it when he lit it, types the fact that for our Lord to teach us visibly, without human instrumentality, would have the effect of bewildering instead of enlightening us. The high priest's standing behind the lampstand when, among other things, in ordering it he lit it, types our Lord's hiding Himself behind His mouthpieces while teaching us, giving us the light, not directly, but through others. His being a spirit being while the pertinent light is being given is typed by the semi-shadow in which the high priest stood, relatively to our approaching priest, while engaged in any part of the ordering of the lampstand. Furthermore, this position was taken by the high priest to type the fact that lighting the lamps came from the direction of the Most Holy—heaven, and thus pointed to God as the final Source of the light which enlightens the Priests. Thus the Gospel-Age Aaron as Truth Giver is set before us from many standpoints in this type.


(81) There is another high-priestly type that represents our High Priest as God's Truth Dispenser to the Church. We refer to the high priest's activity in getting from God responses to Israel's inquiries by the Urim and Thummim. We have in The Present Truth explained that the Urim (lights) represent the Scriptural teachings and that the Thummim (perfections) represent the four great attributes of God: power, wisdom, justice and love. Since we gave that



explanation, the Lord has given us a little further enlightenment on both the type and the antitype. Hitherto it has been an unanswered question as to what were the typical Urim and Thummim. The following are all the passages in which this expression, Urim and Thummim, occurs: Ex. 28: 30; Lev. 8: 8; Num. 27: 21; Deut. 33: 8; 1 Sam. 28: 6; Ezra 2: 63; Neh. 7: 65. It will be noticed that the breastplate is called such before the 12 precious stones were placed in it, yes, even before the settings for the stones were made in it (Ex. 28: 15-17). It was also called such before the Urim and Thummim were given to it (Ex. 28: 30). They are spoken of as being upon Aaron's heart (Ex. 28: 30), just as the names of the tribes, engraved on the precious stones, and these stones themselves were said to be upon his heart (Ex. 28: 29). Furthermore, as our study of the offerings of the Gospel-Age princes suggests, the twelve stewardship doctrines had connected with them ethical teachings which correspond to the twelve stones on which the names, typical of teachings and characteristics, of the twelve tribes were inscribed (Ex. 28: 21). The proper translation of the pertinent parts of Ex. 28: 30 and Lev. 8: 8 is as follows: "Thou shalt give to the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim [give it the office of acting as such]" and "He gave the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim [gave it the office of acting as such]." These facts, coupled with the antitypical meaning of Urim (teachings) and Thummim (attributes) seem to identify the Urim and the Thummim with these stones as to their lights (Urim) and as to themselves in their beauties (perfections— Thummim). Hence we are inclined to think that the Urim were the lights that these precious stones radiated when in the light of the most holy and that the Thummim were the precious stones in their beauties brought out perfectly by that same light. Perhaps the answers yes were given by the light shining in one direction, and the answers no by the light shining



in another direction—up or to the right for yes, down or to the left for no; but on this the Bible is silent.


(82) While the exact nature of these items is not demonstrable, we do know it to be a fact that our High Priest in answering our queries by the antitypical Urim and Thummim does give His answers by and according to the Bible's teachings and its Divinely prescribed chief graces. Hence the antitype of the Urim and Thummim is clear. The former are the Bible doctrines and the latter are the chief graces. These graces are twelve in number and are the threefold elaboration of the four great attributes of God, which are typed as such by the four right angles of the breastplate and the four-foldedness of the rows in which the typical stones were arranged (Ex. 28: 17). The typical high priest, therefore, by the harmoniousness of the typical lights radiated from the twelve precious stones and the twelve stones in the breastplate in their beauties was given to understand God's answers to his queries for Israel. This types our Lord getting from God the answers to the queries of spiritual Israel from the harmonious blending of the Bible doctrines and the twelve main graces that the Bible inculcates. Here we have another type of how our Aaron is the Dispenser of God's Truth to us. We should here add that, as we saw in the case of the seven pipes, so with the answers by the antitypical Urim and Thummim, our Lord usually has given His answers through those symbolized by the seven stars. How these facts should exalt Him in our appreciation! How these facts should cure us of the pride that seeks the glory of man as the supposed originators ("original thinkers") of the Truth. Our highest privilege in this connection is to be parts of the lampstand that shines with a borrowed light that Another—our great High Priest—lit. Thus the praise is God's, not ours.


(83) Num. 8: 4 gives a brief description of how the candlestick was built. Its gold represents the