Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13


occur antitypically after the antitype of v. 12 occurs. Yet some of them occur before this; hence the entire subject is, as in the case of the subject matter of vs. 9 and 10, introduced before the type of v. 12 is set forth. This will appear when the antitype of v. 11 is made clear to us.


(43) What, then, is the antitype of Aaron's waving the Levites as a wave-offering from the children of Israel before the Lord? In this type, of course, Aaron represents our Lord as High Priest. The waving of the Levites seems to type the long-drawn-out preparation that is intended to fit the antitypical Levites for the service of the Lord. Its being done "before the Lord" indicates that the service was connected with Divine matters under Jehovah's direct attention. The purpose of this wave-offering is stated as follows: "that they may be [fitted] to execute the service of the Lord." This is evidently a different thing from that which Moses (v. 13) did in waving the Levites, as the last feature of their consecration. The fact that the purpose of it is stated as follows: "that they may be to execute the service of the Lord," the fact that a long-drawn-out preparation has been needed to fit the antitypical Levites for their service, and the final fact that nowhere would this be referred to in the type unless in v. 11, moves us to understand that Aaron's waving them types the long preparation that our Lord gives the antitypical Levites for their service. That they are waved by our Lord as a wave-offering of the antitypical children of Israel, implies that the nominal people of God in the Gospel-Age have been active continually in helping them in their preparation for the Levitical work of the Gospel-Age, a thing shown above.


(44) A consideration of the pertinent facts will make the various features of v. 11 antitypically clear. The preparation of the Gospel-Age Levites has been one of head and heart; and it had its beginning in both respects in the antitypes of v. 8; for the Truth explanations



and promises, typed by the three sacrifices of v. 8, gave them intellectual equipment for their later work. So, too, those truths wrought something of hope and love, and more particularly of faith, in them, which was also a partial heart preparation for their later Levitical service. It is because of the preparatory force of the antitypes of v. 8 that we remarked above that part of the preparation typed by v. 11 was implied as beginning in v. 8; and for this reason v. 11, like vs. 9 and 10, is put before v. 12, where the exercising of faith and the justification of the repentant and believing sinner are set forth typically. Some more of such preparatory work is implied in the publicity of the antitypical acts as typed in v. 9. And still more of such preparatory work is implied in the antitypes of v. 10; for their being made participants in Divine matters under God's direct attention and under the approval of the nominal people of God, prepared them still further for their future Levitical work. Accordingly, we find that, like the thoughts of vs. 9 and 10, those of v. 11 are rightly placed in the chapter under study.


(45) But the main preparation of the antitypical Levites comes to them, both in head and heart, after the antitype of v. 12 sets in, i.e., after a justifying faith is wrought and, as a consequence, justification by faith is effected. This preparation differs somewhat in the three groups of Gospel-Age Levites and also in their eight subdivisions. In all of them the heart's preparation includes their increasingly overcoming human faults, i.e., the human depravities, sins, and their increasingly developing the virtues of the natural man. And we rejoice to recognize that some considerable progress was made by them in a righteous life adorned with human virtues. This phase of their development continued in them for the years of their Leviteship and, of course, made their ministry more acceptable and fruitful in all the phases of their service. And when it became the chief concern of any one of them, it led him



to consecrate himself, thus introducing him into priesthood. But in so far as this feature of the preparation was Levitical it did not imply giving up natural selfishness and worldliness and developing disinterested love, in itself and in its relation to the other graces; it only implied giving up sinful selfishness and worldliness and cultivating duty-love Godward and manward, in itself and in its relation to the other natural virtues. The higher the form of the Levitical service, the higher was the pertinent preparation in the conjoined Levitical virtues. We can see this as we contemplate the various Levites in these varying services: Sunday-school workers, lay preachers, catechists, evangelists, preachers, pastors, publishers, editors of works and scholarly writers and lecturers.


(46) The foregoing preparation was mainly an internal one and, therefore, was not very palpable to outward sense as a process, but quite palpable as a result and attainment. The clearest expression of the Levitical preparation is that which applied to the head—the intellectual preparation. As to that of the antitypical Gershonites who became pastors, as a rule it implied quite a long-drawn-out matter. As a rule, both the antitypical Libnite and Shimite Gershonites went through a careful college and seminary training. As a rule, in the college this implied the classical course, in which usually Latin, Greek and Hebrew, as well as the native tongue of the student, were cultivated, and other more or less related secular branches were studied. In the seminary the various branches of linguistic, systematic, exegetical, historical and practical theology were studied. Thus they there studied the Scriptures in the Greek and Hebrew (linguistic theology); dogmatics, apologetics and ethics in systematic theology; isogogics, interpretation and harmonetics in exegetical theology; Bible history and biography, church history and biography, sacred archeology, geography and chronology in historical theology, and liturgics, evangelistics,



homiletics, catechetics, hermeneutics and poimetics in practical theology, with opportunities of exercising themselves in the application of their knowledge in practice as evangelists, preachers, catechists and pastors, especially during their vacations before entering the ministry. In countries where there were no seminaries, e.g., during the earlier Colonial period in America, prospective preachers would study under the supervision of some competent minister. Frequently missionaries would be additionally trained in special missionary schools after completing their seminary course, while in other cases they were sent directly from the seminary to the mission field, and in some cases their seminary course was limited to the mission schools. In the case of Sunday-school workers, lay preachers and evangelists, usually individual effort in the school of experience was their preparation. Usually local conferences and synods, as well as individual training, were the schools where pastors were educated in the ways of antitypical Shimite Gershonites, i.e., leaders of others into consecration. But whether by one method or another, a long-drawn-out preparation was undergone by the antitypical Gershonites, and the continuity of this preparation is typed by Aaron waving the Levites as a wave-offering before the Lord; and the nominal people of God giving such for, and supporting them in this work, is indicated in the Levites being given as a wave-offering from the children of Israel for God and the Priesthood.


(47) The antitypical Merarites likewise were by our Lord waved as a wave-offering from antitypical Israel. For the publishers this implied a careful business training in general and in publishing work in particular. They had to learn much of the art of printing and planning the publication and circulation of Bibles and other religious books, as well as of magazines and tracts. This required, as a rule, at least a long-drawn-out clerkship in a publishing house; often it implied



the learning of the printer's trade and a position in the office of a publishing firm. Thus were the antitypical Mushite Merarites waved by our Lord as a wave-offering from antitypical Israel before the Lord. Similarly were the antitypical Mahlite Merarites given preparatory training for their editing work. Their editing the writings of various authors sometimes required a high degree of scholarship in them. Hence, as a rule, these were college and university graduates. Some of them as such have prepared notes that are as valuable as the books in which they appear as notes. Sometimes their introductions and appendices to, and indices of the works that they edited, give special value to such works. And, of course, a long period of training was necessary to fit them to do such work. Even those antitypical Mahlites who have been only proofreaders have frequently had a good education to do their work properly, and their being given such education was their waving by our Lord as a wave-offering from antitypical Israel before the Lord.


(48) The Gospel-Age Kohathites had to undergo the most careful training of all its Levites because of the character of their work. In most cases the Gospel-Age Kohathites have been Gospel-Age Gershonites as well, and in a few cases Gospel-Age Merarites, especially of the Mahlite branch. Noted exceptions to these usually having been Gospel-Age Gershonites were Edward Robinson, one of the ablest Kohathites of the 19th century, and James Strong, only a little less fruitful as a Kohathite, both of whom were laymen, and both of whom, however, were theological professors. Accordingly, the Gospel-Age Kohathites, as a rule, had the training mentioned above as undergone by the Gershonites. Additionally they underwent a very specialized training, enabling them to qualify for their specific Gospel-Age Kohathite work. Those who furnished linguistic helps in the way of Greek and Hebrew recensions of the New and Old Testaments, or Greek and



Hebrew dictionaries, grammars or concordances, or Bible translations and vernacular concordances, had to undergo a very intricate and detailed training to fit them for their work. The same thing is true of the scientific exegetes on Biblical matters. Careful, specialized and learned training did the Biblical and ecclesiastical historians, biographers, archeologians, geographers and chronologians have to undergo, as also did the systematic theologians in their dogmatical, apologetical and ethical works. In the preparation that the Gospel-Age Kohathites had to undergo we witness the most individual preparatory work manifested; for evidently their work was too technical and minute to be given in schools. It could come only by individual study, partly originally undertaken and partly done from books of other Kohathites and of priests, crown-losers, etc. Accordingly, the Gospel-Age Kohathites have been the specialists, the experts and the scholars among the Levites. Their long-drawn-out preparation for their work was the antitype of the Kohathites being made wave-offerings. Our Lord's part in such preparation was typed by Aaron waving the Kohathite Levites and the nominal people of God furnishing them and helping them for this purpose was typed by the Kohathites being furnished and helped by the Israelites. And this being done in Divine matters, under Jehovah's direct attention, was typed by the waving of the Kohathites before the Lord. And all this antitypical waving for all three groups of the antitypical Levites was "that they might be to execute the service of the Lord."


(49) We now come to the discussion of v. 12, which is perhaps the richest in contents of all the verses of Num. 8; for in very few words it gives us a wonderful typical description of all of the features of the acts embraced in justification by faith. We have already sufficiently proved that it is properly placed in the chapter, showing how vs. 9-11 properly come between it and v. 8, which at first thought we would naturally



conclude it should follow. The first clause of this verse reads: "And the Levites shall lean their hands upon the heads of the bullocks." This action represents, so far as the bullock of the sin-offering is concerned, faith leaning on, relying upon, reposing upon, Jesus as the substitute of believing sinners in death as a sin-offering. The Bible clearly teaches that Jesus became the sinner's substitute in death (Is. 53: 4-12; Dan. 9: 26; Matt. 26: 28; John 1: 29; 6: 51; 10: 11, 15; 11: 50-52; Rom. 3: 24-26; 4: 25; 5: 6-21; 8: 3, 4; 14: 15; 1 Cor. 8: 11; 15: 3; 2 Cor. 5: 14, 18-21; Gal. 1: 4; 4: 4, 5; Eph. 1: 7; 2: 13-16; 5: 2, 25; Col. 1: 20-22; 1 Thes. 5: 9, 10; 1 Tim. 2: 5, 6; Heb. 2: 6-9; 9: 12-15, 28; 10: 4-9, 12; 13: 12; 1 Pet. 1: 18, 19; 2: 21, 24; 3: 18; 4: 1; 1 John 2: 2; 3: 5, 16; 4: 10; Rev. 5: 9). In the foregoing citations two kinds of passages are quoted: those that directly teach that Jesus as a human being became our substitute, and those that impliedly teach it by showing that He died for us. How He died for us, i.e., in our interests, is shown in those passages that tell us that He suffered in our stead, i.e., as our substitute. Hence by dying as our substitute He died for us, in our interests. And in v. 12 the idea of His substitution for us is brought out typically by the Levites' leaning their hands on the bullock of the sin-offering.


(50) But their leaning their hands on the bullock of the sin-offering types faith relying on Christ as such a substitute. We have seen how laying on of hands symbolizes representation, standing for another. The idea of substitution is a phase of representation and is the one here indicated; for according to the Scriptures it is in the sense of substitution that Christ is our representative in death. This being so, laying hands on a substitute implies acceptance of him as such; hence the Levites' laying hands on the bullock of the sin-offering types that the faith-justified accept Jesus' humanity, the sin-offering, as their substitute as such, i.e., rely upon His death for sin as substituted for their death for sin.



The exercise of faith in Christ's death as an acceptable sacrifice before God for the believer's sins is, therefore, the thing typified by the Levites' leaning their hands on the bullock of the sin-offering. Their leaning their hands on the bullock of the burnt-offering types the faith-justified as exercising faith, reliance, on God's manifested acceptance of Christ's sacrifice as a substitute for them in death. This means that they believe that God accepts the Substitute's death for the forgiveness of their sins, the Substitute's fulfillment of the Law as their righteousness and that peace between them and God results from their forgiveness and the imputation of Christ's righteousness to them. These are the antitypes of the Levites' leaning their hands on the bullock of the sin-offering and the bullock of the burnt-offering.


(51) The expression, shall lean, which is the literal meaning of the word translated, shall lay, is meaningful in this connection. Faith is, more than any other quality, the hand of the heart, because of its supreme energizing power in a faith dispensation. While love is and forever will be greater than faith; faith, in a faith dispensation, is more important than love; because it is the foundation of all our relations toward the Lord in wisdom, righteousness, sanctification and deliverance. And in justification, especially its leaning, relying, character is prominent. Properly has our Pastor defined it as mental appreciation and heart's reliance (Heb. 11: 1; Hab. 2: 4; Matt. 6: 25-34). As typed by v. 8, it comes from hearing God's Word (Acts 15: 7; Rom. 10: 13-17; 1 Cor. 1: 21; Gal. 3: 1, 2; 1 Thes. 2: 13; John 1: 7; 3: 11, 12; Acts 2: 40-42). Its basis is mental appreciation, whereby one has knowledge, understanding and belief with respect to matters of faith; and its superstructure is heart's reliance, whereby one trusts, appropriates and acts responsively as to matters of faith (John 3: 36; Rom. 10: 14; 4: 18-21; Heb. 11: 1, 13). A justifying faith exercises these two



features—mental appreciation and heart's reliance—in Christ as an acceptable sin-offering (John 3: 14-18; Rom. 1: 16; 10: 6-10; 1 Cor. 15: 3; Gal. 3: 13, 22; Heb. 9: 14, 15; 1 Pet. 1: 18, 19; 1 John 2: 1, 2; 4: 10). It also exercises these two features toward God as the Forgiver of one's sins for the sake of Christ's merit (Luke 24: 47; Acts 2: 38; 10: 36; 13: 38, 39; Rom. 3: 24-26; Rom. 4: 3-8; Eph. 4: 32; Heb. 9: 22; 1 John 1: 7, 9; Rev. 1: 5). It likewise exercises these two features toward God as the Imputer of Christ's righteousness to the believer (Rom. 3: 20-26; 10: 4; 1 Cor. 1: 30; Gal. 2: 16; 3: 22; Phil. 3: 9; 2 Cor. 5: 21; 1 John 2: 1). And, finally, it exercises these two features as to peace with God (Acts 10: 36; Rom. 5: 1; Eph. 2: 14-17; Phil. 4: 9; Col. 1: 20). Therefore faith not only exercises mental appreciation and heart's reliance in Christ as an acceptable sin-offering, but also in God as being, for Christ's merit, the Forgiver of the believer's sins, the Imputer to him of Christ's righteousness and the Peace-Giver to, and Peace-Receiver from the believer. All of this is typed by the Levites' leaning their hands on the two bullocks, as set forth in v. 12.


(52) The next thought brought to our attention is the charge that Moses should offer one of the bullocks as a sin-offering and the other as a burnt-offering to God, in order to make atonement for the Levites. We would naturally expect that Aaron, as high priest, would have been charged to offer the sin-and burnt-offerings, to make an atonement for the Levites. Yet the text tells us that Moses was the one so charged. But we notice that in v. 21 Aaron is said to have made the atonement for them. How are we to harmonize these things? So far as the type is concerned, we would say that both acted together in offering the sin-and burnt-offerings; and, so far as the antitype is concerned, our Lord as the antitype of both acted as God's Executive (antitypical Moses) and as High Priest (antitype of Aaron). The reason, therefore, in the



antitype is to bring out both the executive and high-priestly actions involved in the antitype, i.e., Jesus in the antitype acted as God's Executive in so far as what He did served to carry forward God's plan, and as High Priest in so far as what He did worked reconciliation in God toward the believer. These considerations are a further proof of the thought that Moses in Numbers, as a rule, types our Lord as Jehovah's Executive, while Aaron there, as a rule, types Him as High Priest. They also show that these two official capacities of our Lord not infrequently unitedly work in some features of God's plan.


(53) We are not to understand that the offering of the bullock of the sin-offering as set forth in v. 12 types our Lord's sacrificing Himself from Jordan to Calvary; because the offering of the sin-offering in v. 12 is, both in the type and in the antitype, subsequent to the typical and antitypical Levites' laying their hands respectively upon the typical and antitypical bullocks, which means, so far as the antitype is concerned, after the repentant sinner exercises faith in Christ as an acceptable sin-offering—substitute— for the sinner. Furthermore, we know that Christ's sacrifice from Jordan to Calvary preceded the sinner's exercise both of repentance and faith; hence it cannot be typed in the statement of v. 12. What, then, does Moses' and Aaron's offering of the sin-offering to God type? We reply, it types Christ's reckonedly imputing His perfect humanity, His human right to life and its conjoined life-rights, on behalf of repentant and believing sinners. This use of the word offering occurs in Heb. 10: 14 in relation to our Lord's actually imputing His merit, effecting vitalized justification in part. This offering of v. 12, then, types, not acts done on earth, but acts done in heaven (Heb. 9: 24). The reasons just given prove this view of the matter to be correct. This fact enables us to see all the more clearly the truthfulness of our dear Pastor's later distinctions as to the



pertinent matters. In his earlier ministry he taught that the ransom was paid, the atonement Godward was completed, at Calvary; but later on he correctly taught that at Calvary the ransom price was only deposited (Luke 23: 46), and that only after Jesus appeared in heaven (Heb. 9: 24) did He use the price for an actual imputative purchase—a credit loan—of the Church; and so far as the faith-justified are concerned, as a reckoned imputative purchase of them. It is of this reckoned imputative purchase that our texts treats; and it is another strong typical proof of the Biblical teaching of a tentative justification as operative during the Gospel-Age. How beautifully in the typology of this verse, in so far as it treats of the offering of the bullock of the sin-offering to God, is this truth hidden! We thank God for this and every other assurance of the correctness of our faith, as taught by that Servant.


(54) Certainly, the Bible teaches tentative justification (Rom. 4: 1-12). The Ancient Worthies (Heb. 11: 7; Rom. 4: 18-22), the Youthful Worthies, the immature children of the consecrated (1 Cor. 7: 14) and Gospel-Age unconsecrated believers (Rom. 10: 4; 4: 5; Acts 13: 38, 39), certainly are illustrations of tentatively justified persons; for the tentatively justified are such as do not have an actual imputation of Christ's merit made on their behalf, though God temporarily treats them as though such was done on their behalf. Certainly, the merit of Christ could not have been actually imputed before it was deposited at Calvary. Hence the Ancient Worthies could not have had more than a reckoned imputation of that merit. Of course, the Youthful Worthies must fare like them. Very evidently, the same is true of the immature children of the consecrated. In Rom. 4: 3-8 St. Paul gives Abraham and David as illustrations of a justification operative during the Gospel-Age; and as their justification was without an actual imputation of Christ's merit, of necessity those of the Gospel-Age who have had exactly



the same kind of a justification as the Ancient Worthies, must have had a tentative justification—one wrought, not by an actual, but by a reckoned imputation of Christ's merit; for be it remembered that the difference between tentative and vitalized justification, so far as God's and Christ's activities therein are concerned, consists in this: that in tentative justification God and Christ do not actually, but only reckonedly impute Jesus' merit on behalf of the believer, while in vitalized justification they actually impute Jesus' merit on behalf of the consecrated believer. But the Bible just as emphatically teaches a vitalized justification—that which was experienced when a justified believer so thoroughly believed as to consecrate himself, and when God was about to give him the Spirit-begettal (1 Cor. 6: 11; Heb. 10: 14; 9: 24; 1 John 2: 2; Jas. 2: 17-26). Such a consecrating faith is brought out in the Greek by the expression, Pisteuein eis, i.e., to believe into (John 3: 15, 16, 18, 36; 7: 5, 31, 38, 39, 48; Acts 10: 43; 14: 23; 19: 4; Rom. 10: 14; Gal. 2: 16; 1 Pet. 1: 21; 1 John 5: 10, 13); while a justifying faith as distinct from a consecrating faith is brought out in the Greek by the expression, pisteuein epi, to believe on, or upon (Luke 24: 25; Acts 9: 42; 11: 17; 16: 31; 22: 19; Rom. 4: 5, 24; 1 Tim. 1: 16).


(55) Both tentative justification and vitalized justification are acts performed in heaven (Heb. 9: 24). While the passage just cited, strictly speaking, refers to vitalized and not to tentative justification, it teaches that in heaven is the place where justification is performed; and it therefore implies that there is where tentative justification is performed. And that which is implied in Heb. 9: 24 is directly taught in Rom. 3: 25, 22. In v. 25 Christ in His being righteousness for the believer is called the antitypical Mercy Seat—a thing that is in the antitypical Holy of Holies—heaven—whereas in v. 22 He is set forth as the righteousness of all believers—hence for justified, as well as for consecrated



believers. Accordingly, both kinds of justification are performed in heaven. According to Heb. 1: 3 our Lord made a general imputation of His merit for the entire Church as a class on His ascending to heaven, as a thing making operative the Gospel-Age salvation. But this did not affect individuals as such until individually they availed themselves of it tentatively, by a justifying faith, when Jesus made a reckoned imputation of His merit for them as individuals, and vitalizedly by a consecrating faith, when Jesus made an actual imputation of His merit for them as individuals. In other words, the general imputation at Pentecost was made for the class, while the individual imputations were made for each one as he exercised the pertinent faith (Rom. 3: 22-26; 10: 4, 10). The distinction here is somewhat like the one in election: Before the world was created the class was elected (Eph. 1: 4), but the individuals have been selected during the Gospel-Age at their Spirit-begetting (2 Thes. 2: 13). Additionally, whenever we sin after our tentative justification or vitalized justification and make proper request for forgiveness Jesus tentatively or vitalizedly makes the pertinent imputation for our forgiveness and covers us with His righteousness (1 John 2: 1, 2). This phase of the imputations for the Gospel-Age Levites is likewise implied typically by Moses' offering the bullock of the sin-offering, in v. 12.


(56) How has the antitypical Moses made these reckoned imputations? We understand the matter as follows: It was, of course, Jesus who wrought repentance through the preaching of the Law, and faith through the preaching of the justification features of the Gospel, in the Gospel-Age Levites. These began to long for forgiveness while they were in the process of repentance and asked for it; but it was only by heartily accepting the preaching of the justification features of the Gospel that they came to a justifying faith—a faith that believes heartily that God for the



merit of Christ forgives the sinner his sins, imputes to him Christ's righteousness and enters into peace with him. The moment such a faith was wrought in the heart of a repentant sinner, Jesus indicated to the Father that He was reckonedly (not actually) imputing His merit on his behalf; and therefore God reckonedly (not actually) forgave him his sins and reckonedly (not actually) imputed to him Christ's righteousness, and on that account entered into a reckoned peace with him. It is because all four of these acts were reckoned and not actual that the faith-justified are tentatively, not vitalizedly, justified. Again, when after their original experience of tentative justification, the Gospel-Age Levites have sinned and then repented and believed that Christ imputed His merit to cover that sin and that God accepted it for him, Jesus made the necessary reckoned imputation for such repentant believers and God made the necessary reckoned imputation to them. Thus He has been the continued Preserver of their tentative justification, as God has been its continued Maker.


(57) How has our Lord been making the actual imputations during the Gospel-Age, i.e., how has He, in distinction from tentative justification, been vitalizing the justification of believers? We answer that after He by the Word had wrought in responsive hearts a consecrating faith and love, and thereby had enabled them to make an entire consecration of themselves to God, when God was ready to accept their consecration, our Lord appeared before the Father (Heb. 9: 24) and made an actual imputation of His merit with the Father on their behalf. According to an understanding between the Father and Him He let go, so far as tentatively reckoning is concerned, of all further hold on the amount of His merit needed to bring the consecrated believer up to perfection by actually imputing it before God for that believer; and that actually enabled the Father, in harmony with His plan, to forgive this



pertinent consecrated believer, actually to impute to him Christ's righteousness and actually to enter into peace with him. This actually forever freed the pertinent believer from the Adamic sentence, as well as from the condemnation of his own actual Adamic sins, and actually counted him perfect in righteousness (Heb. 10: 14). Henceforth, it is impossible for him to die in Adam, i.e., die the Adamic death. Moreover, any sins of weakness or ignorance that he may thereafter commit are forgiven and covered with righteousness on his exercising repentance and faith as to it; for thereupon our blessed Advocate (1 John 2: 1, 2) actually imputes on his behalf before the Father the required merit for his forgiveness and perfection in righteousness; and as a consequence God actually imputes this to him, whereby he is forgiven, is reckonedly brought up to human perfection and is at peace with God as respects those sins. If it were not for this gracious provision of the Lord on our behalf, we would all long ago have irretrievably fallen; but by it we can stand and win out in the high calling by grace Divine. Praise Jehovah for such a Savior! While vitalized justification is not referred to in v. 12, for it is not experienced by the Gospel-Age Levites, it is yet well for the sake of clearness and completeness to consider it in this connection, which accounts for our introducing it here.


(58) But v. 12 not only charges Moses to offer the sin-offering. It also charges him to offer the burnt-offering. This types, in His offering of the sin-offering, that our Lord was charged to impute His merit reckonedly on behalf of the repentant believer; and it types, in His offering of the burnt-offering, something that our Lord does connected with God's forgiving the believer, imputes to him Christ's righteousness and takes him into peace with Him. In paragraph (53) we saw that Moses' (v. 12) offering the sin-offering does not type our Lord's sacrificing Himself from Jordan



to Calvary, but His reckonedly imputing the merit of that sacrifice in heaven for the Gospel-Age Levites. So, also, we recognize that His offering the burnt-offering does not type God's personally manifesting His acceptance of Christ's sacrifice; for God acts in that manifestation, i.e., by forgiveness, by imputation of Christ's righteousness to the sinner and by drawing him into peace with Him. While the burnt-offering represents these acts as God's manifested acceptance of the sin-offering, the offering of the burnt-offering by Moses types a work that our Lord does as to that manifested acceptance before, during and after the repentant sinner comes to faith. What, then, does Moses' offering the burnt-offering type? It would seem to be those services of Jesus on working a justifying faith in the repentant sinner, peace with God, an increase of knowledge and righteousness and incitements toward consecration in the justified, as evidences that God has accepted His sacrifice for each individual who experiences faith-justification. And He works these things in them as often as their experiences call for them. All of these acts He performed through the Word, backed by suitable providences. And thereby He has been offering the burnt-offering for the Gospel-Age Levites.


(59) As we who are consecrated look back at our experiences with Christ's offering His burnt-offering (understood as just explained) in relation to us as justified believers, we can all testify that He did perform such a ministry on us by the pertinent teachings of the Lord's Word and by varied experiences into which He brought us. These teachings He ministered to us by pastors, by Sunday-school teachers and superintendents, by more or less other mature believers, by testimonies of others, by conversations and by reading pertinent books, especially the Bible. Doubtless all of us can recall such teachings; and our memories dwell with more or less fondness upon them. And, doubtless, we can all recall how by these our faith in the pertinent



pre-justification acts of God and Christ was developed; our faith in the justification acts of God and Christ, i.e., in our being forgiven, in our being clothed in Christ's righteousness and in our having peace with God, was sustained, increased, confirmed and completed; as also thereby our peace, joy and righteousness were increased. Doubtless all of us can recall various experiences that contributed to the same result. Sometimes our meeting with a fine Christian character or worker providentially proved refreshing. Sometimes an opportunity of helping a sinner toward repentance and faith strengthened our faith. Sometimes the fellowship of kindred souls, especially after "rubbing up" with the world, gave us a boost in our justified life. Sometimes a successful effort in service proved a stimulus to our confidence. Sometimes a rebuke or correction or encouragement was providentially used to strengthen a faltering faith. Sometimes a sore affliction or disappointment or loss or fault proved to be the providential experience needed to bring us closer to the Lord in our justification blessings. Whatever the experience was, whether toward or untoward, it was our faithful, loving Lord who manipulated it into our lives in order to preserve, increase, confirm and complete our faith in our forgiveness and possession of Christ's righteousness and peace with God. Thus our dear Savior in His faithfulness and untiring devotion to us while we were proceeding toward justification and while we were no more advanced than Gospel-Age Levites, ministered on our behalf and by so doing offered the burnt-offering for us as Gospel-Age Levites, even as He has done for all the others of the same class.


(60) The last clause of v. 12 tells of the effect to be wrought by Moses' offering the sin-offering and the burnt-offering. They were to effect an atonement for the Levites. This types the atoning effect of our Lord's sin-offering and burnt-offering with respect to the Gospel-Age Levites. Our Lord is the Agent who works



reconciliation (Rom. 5: 10, 11; 2 Cor. 5: 18, 19; Eph. 2: 16; Col. 1: 20, 21). But God is the source of the work of reconciliation (2 Cor. 5: 18, 19; Col. 1: 20). The word reconciliation presupposes that two individuals or parties are at variance with one another; and it means that both are made pleased with one another, are made one with each other, at-one-ed. In this case it is God and the sinner who are at variance with one another, God being displeased with the sinner because of his sin, and the sinner being displeased with God for His justice and for His punishing sins against that justice. God as the source of atonement or reconciliation provided for every step of its outworking: (1) by carnating His Son; (2) by enabling Him to sacrifice unto death; (3) by raising Him from the dead; (4) by having Him impute tentatively for the justified, vitalizedly for the Church, His merit for pleasing God with them during the Gospel-Age; (5) by making the justified pleased with God's righteousness and the Church with His righteousness and holiness; (6) by having Him apply His merit for the world for pleasing God with them; and (7) by making the obedient of the world pleased with God. It will be seen that the points marked (1), (2) and (3) are the preparatory parts of the reconciliation work, while the points marked (4), (5), (6) and (7) are the actual parts of the reconciliation work; and point (2) is the meritorious foundation of pleasing God with all, shown in (4) and (6).


(61) Christ's death is the meritorious cause of reconciliation, at-one-ment (Rom. 5: 10; 2 Cor. 5: 18, 19; Eph. 2: 16; Col. 1: 20, 21). He cooperated in every one of the seven parts of the atonement above mentioned, passively in parts (1) and (3) and actively in the other five parts. In all seven of them He is God's Agent to effect the atonement. God and our Lord have been using human instruments to assist them in this work. These have been the apostles, prophets,



evangelists, pastors or teachers and non-official members of the true Church, as well as official and nonofficial members of the nominal church (2 Cor. 5: 1820). These remarks prepare us to see more clearly the antitype of the atonement work referred to in v. 12. By offering the antitypical bullock of the sin-offering of v. 12, i.e., reckonedly imputing His merit on behalf of the Gospel-Age Levites, our Lord performed the pertinent work of part (4), i.e., made God pleased with the Gospel-Age Levites; and by offering the bullock of the burnt-offering, i.e., ministering to the Gospel-Age Levites by the Word and providence, a creation, sustenance, increase, confirmation and completion of their faith in God's having forgiven them, reckonedly imputed to them Christ's righteousness and drawn them into peace with Him and working in them more pertinent knowledge and righteousness, our Lord performed the pertinent work of part (5), i.e., made the Gospel-Age Levites pleased with God. These two things, then, are the intended effects—the making of atonement— of our Lord's offering the antitypes of the sin-offering and the burnt-offering of v. 12. Surely our study of v. 12 has brought some wonderful truths to our attention. It completes the charges given to Moses covering the cleansing of the Levites.


(62) V. 13 gives the charges laid upon Moses for the consecration of the Levites. They consist of two things: (1) The one commanding Moses to cause them to stand before Aaron and his sons and (2) the one commanding Moses to wave them as a wave-offering before the Lord. The expression, to stand before one as an official, which is the use of the term here, means to make them serve him in an office (Num. 16: 9; Deut. 10: 8; Judges 20: 28; 1 Sam. 16: 22; 1 Kings 10: 8; 12: 6, 8; Prov. 22: 20; Jer. 35: 19; Dan. 1: 5, 19; Rev. 7: 9; 8: 2). Accordingly, the charge to Moses here is to induct the Levites into their office as servants of Aaron and his sons. This, of course, means a consecration



of them to serve the priesthood. The other charge, to wave them as a wave-offering unto or before the Lord, means a consecration of them to a continuous service of the Lord in which their powers were to be uplifted unto a completion for the Lord's service to His glory. No mention is here made of a charge to make them stand before the congregation of Israel (Num. 16: 9), because in so far as this involved a work on their behalf it is implied in the other two charges, and because they were not to be made subordinate to the congregation of Israel, as they were to God and the priesthood. In other words, their service of Israel was a form that their service of God and the priesthood assumed and was not as such an independent service of the congregation. And it was only after the consecration of the Levites to the Lord and to the Aaronic priesthood was completed that the Levites were fully constituted the sacred tribe; and hence only thereafter was it lawful in the type for the Levites to enter into the tabernacle to perform their service therein. Thus were the Levites separated, as described in vs. 6-13, from the children of Israel, and became the Lord's Levites, according to v. 14.


(63) The types of v. 13 have some remarkable antitypes, which we will now study. In v. 13, as elsewhere, Aaron represents our Lord as High Priest and Aaron's sons represent the Church as the under-priesthood, while Moses here, as in the rest of this chapter, represents our Lord as Jehovah's Executive. Moses, therefore, causing the Levites to stand before Aaron and his sons, types our Lord as Jehovah's Executive putting the Gospel-Age Levites into the Levitical office as official servants of the Gospel-Age Priesthood—Head and Body. This means that their office was to serve the Priesthood, and that they were by God given that office through executive acts of our Lord. Their service as such was typed (1) by the various services of the Gershonite Levites. Therefore they were as