Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; Titus 2:13
Gospel-Age Gershonites to serve Jesus and the Church as Libnites by leading sinners to repentance and faith unto justification, and as Shimites by leading justified ones onward to consecration. Thereby they served the Priesthood in two ways: winning new Levites and also new Priests for the Christ class. Thus their being set before Jesus and the Church put them into the Gospel-Age Gershonite Levitical office, wherein they were made available to Jesus and the Church for these two services, wherein they stood ready to perform such services and wherein they stood ready to respond to the Priesthood's calling on them for such services.
(64) The Gospel-Age Levites' service as such was typed (2) by the various services of the Merarite Levites. Therefore they were as Gospel-Age Merarites to serve Jesus and the Church: as Mushites in publishing Bibles and other religious books and religious magazines and tracts, as well as pertinent secular publications, and as Mahlites in editing and correcting such literature. Thereby they served the Priesthood in two ways, putting at their convenient disposal pertinent literature, which was properly manufactured and edited. Thus their being set before Jesus and the Church put them into the Gospel-Age Merarite Levitical office, wherein they were made available to Jesus and the Church for these two services, wherein they stood ready to perform these two services and wherein they stood ready to respond to the calls of Jesus and the Church for these two services. The Gospel-Age Levites' service as such was typed (3) by the various services of the Kohathite Levites. Therefore they were as Gospel-Age Kohathites to serve Jesus and the Church with linguistical, exegetical, historical and systematic helps. They served, the Priesthood in four ways: by preparing for it learned lectures and works of the four kinds just mentioned. Thus their being set before Jesus and the Church put them into the Gospel-Age Kohathite Levitical service, wherein they were
made available to Jesus and the Church for these four services, wherein they stood ready to perform these four services and wherein they stood ready to respond to the calls of Jesus and the Church for these four services. Hence, setting the Levites before Aaron and his sons types the installation of the Gospel-Age Levites into their office before the Christ.
(65) The acts whereby this was done were various. In the case of ministers, evangelists and missionaries, as Gospel-Age Gershonites, it usually took the form of their being graduated from their theological studies, their election and call to a pastorate, to an evangelical service or to a mission field, their being ordained (in some denominations) or appointed (in others) and their being settled in their charges. All these acts set them before our Lord and the Church as Gospel-Age Libnite and Shimite Gershonites, the latter undergoing, additionally, special calls and appointments to service in leading people to consecrate. Less formal was the installation of Sunday-school superintendents and teachers, lay preachers and evangelists and catechists: their recognition as having the proper training for their work by the pertinent bodies, their nomination and election to their respective offices and their being put into the positions to function in them. Almost no formality occurred in inducting into humanly usually unnoticed position zealous laymen, who on their own zealous initiative have done Gospel-Age Libnite or Shimite work. Nor was there much form used in inducting Gospel-Age Merarites into their office as such. But they nevertheless were recognized as being qualified (the equivalent of graduation) for their pertinent positions, were chosen (the equivalent to the election and call) for their positions, and were instated in them, as can be seen from the experiences of pertinent publishers and their assistants and the literary editors and their assistants in religious publishing concerns. Usually with Gospel-Age Kohathites
the equivalents of graduation, election, call and appointment were made by Jesus alone, without co-operating human agencies, since theirs was an individual, as distinct from an organizational work (the Kohathites bore the furniture and vessels of the tabernacle on their shoulders, not in wagons).
(66) Moses' waving the Levites as a wave-offering unto or before the Lord is the final act of the Levites' consecration. This act gave them to God for continued service, in which they were to elevate and keep elevated their best powers and qualities for the service of God. This types how our Lord has given the Gospel-Age Levites to God as His own Levites, to serve Him continually as the last clause of v. 14 shows: "So shall the Levites be[come] Mine." Accordingly, the Gospel-Age Levites have been consecrated to God, not indeed to sacrifice, as were the Priests, but to serve God by serving the true Priests and the nominal people of God. This act of our Lord was invisible to us and was performed on the Levites by our Lord to God directly. We have learned of its having been done, not by the sight of it, but by our learning to understand the Word thereon and by beholding the subsequent works of the Levites implying such a consecration. The typical wave-offering further implies that the Gospel-Age Levites, as long as they remained such, were in their highest and best powers and qualities to be used for the Lord's service. This means that they were to serve in this way unto death, either as persons, or as Levites, i.e., when they were, by consecration to sacrifice, graduated into the Priesthood, which occurred with all Levites who proved thoroughly faithful, and which made them cease to be Levites, and thus made them die as Levites. This waving of them implies that they were not to backslide; nor were they consecrated for a little while, after which they would be justified in giving up their service. It was, therefore, intended to last until their death as persons, or as Levites by becoming
Priests. Any Gospel-Age Levite who would go back to the camp by casting aside repentance and faith would be grossly violating his Levitical consecration. V. 14 simply gives us a summary of vs. 5 to 13: "Thus shalt thou separate the Levites from among the children of Israel; thus shall the Levites become Mine." Therefore, as sufficiently explained, it will call for no further comment.
(67) So far in this chapter we have studied vs. 5-14 of Num. 8. It will be noticed that these verses were commands directing what should be done in the cleansing and consecration of the Levites. The rest of the chapter, except v. 15, consists mainly of explanations and narrations on the cleansing, consecration and service of the Levites. The antitypes of these narrations have almost entirely been given above while commenting on the charges whose execution the narrations give. Accordingly, our study of the second part of this chapter will not be so long-drawn-out as was that of the first. Nevertheless, there are not a few things antitypical of the explanations found in vs. 16-26 that call for comment; and these we will now study.
(68) Several interesting items are found in v. 15. Its opening sentence shows that the typical Levites were not to serve in the tabernacle until the completion of their consecration. This, too, has been true of the antitype. The faith-justified had to await their being set before the Priesthood and waved unto the Lord by Jesus before they could begin their work of leading people to justification and consecration and of acting as publishers and editors and as authors of linguistic, exegetical, historical and systematic helps for the Priesthood and nominal people of God in the Gospel-Age. This is indicated in the first clause of v. 15: "And after that [their consecration] shall the Levites go in to the service of the tabernacle of the congregation." At first sight the second and third clauses of this verse may be thought to be repeating the summary of
vs. 5-14 given in v. 14. But this would scarcely be necessary so soon after the same summary, differently worded, given in v. 14. Nor would it well fit in after the charge of the first clause of v. 15. And when we consider the antitypes that set in along with the antitype of that first clause, we are the more led to the thought that the cleansing and waving typed in v. 15 are such as set in after the Gospel-Age Levitical service has been entered into by the pertinent Levites. In other words, we understand the cleansing and waving of v. 15 to type such cleansing and waving as follow the consecration of the Gospel-Age Levites and as accompany their subsequent service until that service ends. Let us notice this more particularly.
(69) We are not to understand the cleansing of the Gospel-Age Levites that preceded their consecration to have been a completed cleansing in the sense of making them actually perfect and flawless. If this is not true of the cleansing of the Gospel-Age Priests (1 John 1: 8), it certainly could not be true of the Gospel-Age Levites. So far as this cleansing concerned their justification it was a reckoned perfection; and so far as it concerned their actual condition it delivered them from the dominion of sin, which henceforth they could conquer, but not without more or less wounds incidental to the warfare against it. In other words, they were still more or less actually contaminated by sin, even if it was no more their lord. This made them frequently guilty of sins of weakness and ignorance, and sometimes of mixed sins—sins that had a measure of willfulness along with ignorance and weakness. Thus like, and, generally speaking, more than the Gospel-Age Priesthood, they have had filthiness of the flesh and of the spirit (2 Cor. 7: 1), from which it was necessary to cleanse themselves; and in this cleansing work our Lord assisted them daily as their need was; and in so doing He fulfilled throughout their justification standing the charge of v. 15 to cleanse them.
This we have doubtless observed in others and experienced ourselves. As we look back at our justification experiences we can doubtless recall many a fight that we had with sin and our Lord's faithful help of us by the Word and providence. In executing this part of His charge as given in the second clause of v. 15 our dear Lord showed us much kindness, mercy, longsuffering, forbearance, patience and love, as He helped us from victory to victory, and as he lifted us up from defeat after defeat, ever encouraging, supporting, comforting, warning, correcting, uplifting us as our varied cases required. Had it not been for this gracious ministry of His, we would have fallen by the wayside and never have attained to consecration; but by His pertinent activities He brought us on to consecration. Thanks be to God, who so graciously arranged for such a ministry, and to Christ, who so faithfully exercised it to our profit.
(70) The charge to wave the Levites as a wave-offering (v. 15), given for execution after their consecration, implied that Moses was to continue furnishing opportunities of service to the Levites, encouraging and influencing them faithfully to use them; otherwise they doubtless would have failed to serve as such many a time. In the antitype this would mean that after faith-justified ones had become serving Gershonites, the Lord Jesus was charged to furnish them opportunities of bringing people to justification and consecration, which He did as abundantly as their loyalty and the need warranted. So, too, after faith-justified ones had become serving Merarites, our Lord Jesus was charged to furnish them opportunities to engage in the work of publishing and editing Bibles and other religious books and religious magazines and tracts and pertinent secular books, which He did as much as their faithfulness and the conditions required. It also means that after faith-justified ones had become serving Kohathites, our Lord Jesus was charged to furnish
them with opportunities of writing linguistic, exegetical, historical and systematic books, magazines and tracts, which He did as largely as their zeal and the pertinent calls for them occasioned. Not only so, but He encouraged them to go on in their work amid the obstacles that confronted them therein. He saw to it that all needful helps for their service were placed at their disposal. Nor did He do this for a little while and then, wearying, give it up. He persevered in it unto a completion, as is implied in the word waved. Not only so, but He assisted them to keep their highest powers elevated to God in their service, which also is implied in the waving. We have observed this as His dealings with the Gospel-Age Levites; and when we were such ourselves we experienced it ourselves in the Levite group to which we belonged. Thus Jesus not only received the charge to wave the Gospel-Age Levites unto the Lord after their consecration; but also faithfully fulfilled the charge.
(71) The following is Rotherham's rendering of v. 16, based on a better reading of the Hebrew text than the one used as the basis for the translation of the Authorized Version: "For given, given they are unto me out of the midst of the sons of Israel instead of every firstborn that a mother beareth; from among the sons of Israel have I taken them unto me.'' In the type the firstborn were one set of persons, and the tribe of Levi, except the firstborn among them, were another set of persons. But in the antitype the firstborn and antitypical Levi (including both Priests and "Levites") are the same persons. The two sets of persons in the type were used to represent, not two sets of persons, but one set of persons having two relations. As firstborns their higher position than that of the afterborns is brought to our attention; and as antitypical Levi their religious office (Priests and Levites) is emphasized. Other offices of the Gospel-Age new creatures are brought out by other names, like: chosen generation,
holy nation, peculiar people, etc. From the standpoint of their relation to the finished picture the Gospel-Age firstborn may be classified into two kinds: (1) tentative and (2) final. All the justified and all the new creatures, the latter until their calling and election is made sure, i.e., until the death of the Faithful, are the tentative firstborn. By this is meant that they are conditionally of the firstborn; for, so far as the finished picture is concerned, those of the faith-justified who fail to consecrate cease to be Levites in the finished picture; and those of the new creatures who fail to win out cease to be Priests in the finished picture. From the new creatures in the finished picture in the end of the Age emerge the actual firstborn: those crown-losers who, cleansed, remain loyal as antitypical Levites and those crown-retainers who remain faithful as antitypical Priests. The Youthful Worthies, accordingly, are of the tentative firstborn now, as they and the Ancient Worthies will also be such during the next Age. But in its finished picture both of these classes as final overcomers will be of the final Levites and firstborn. The above distinctions should be kept in mind in order to be able to see how the Gospel-Age Levites—the faith-justified—could have been of the firstborn. They are of the tentative, not the final firstborn.
(72) The expression, "given, given," is a Hebraism, like, "holy of holies." It is used to indicate the superlative degree in which the giving was done. The A. V. by the expression, "wholly given," renders the sense properly, for it means given in the highest, fullest sense of the word. The Levites' being chosen in the place of the firstborn is described in Num. 3: 40-51, which we expounded while treating of that section in Chap. II. It will be noted that Rotherham's rendering of parts of this verse is quite different from that of the A.V. Rotherham follows a better reading of the original than did the A.V. Dr. Ginsburg, who has given us the
best edition of the Hebrew Old Testament, offers the reading followed by Rotherham as the correct one, while that followed by the A. V. is scarcely intelligible in the Hebrew. The literal rendering of the correct reading as Rotherham gives it in his notes is: "Every firstborn bursting open a matrix." His text rendering given above is more euphemistic, giving the sense aright.
(73) The character of Levites, as being devoted to God exclusively, is taught with emphasis in this verse. Not only is this emphasis indicated by the expression, "given, given," but also by the twofold mention of their being taken out from among the rest of Israel and the twofold statement that they were God's. Emphasis on this thought is further implied by the fact that as such Divine possession they were taken instead of the firstborn. This emphasis stresses the importance of the antitypical tribe of Levi, the Gospel-Age Priests and Levites. These are God's in a peculiar sense, the Gospel-Age Priests as sacrificers who work at-one-ment between God and men, and the Gospel-Age Levites as servants who render needed assistance to the people as their religious teachers and to the Priests as leaders of people to justification and consecration, as lecturers and as writers of learned linguistic, exegetical, historical and systematic works and as the editors and publishers of these, as well as of Bibles. This emphasis, doubtless, is intended to be a very solemn lesson and exhortation to the Gospel-Age Priests and Levites to remember the purpose of their calling to their respective offices and to fulfill these carefully and faithfully as persons who do not own themselves, but who are owned by God (1 Cor. 6: 20; 7: 23). Accordingly, unfaithfulness therein would be unfaithfulness to God, who would require a full accounting for it; and faithfulness therein would be faithfulness to God, who would give a full reward for it. Therefore, faithfulness on the part of the Gospel-Age Levites
therein led to promotion to the Priesthood; and, when this was no longer possible, to Youthful-Worthiship, while unfaithfulness therein would result in their being remanded to the Camp. And faithfulness on the part of the Priests would lead to promotion to the Kingdom, while measurable unfaithfulness therein would result in their forfeiting their crowns, and full unfaithfulness would result in their loss of life altogether.
(74) V. 17 explains how the firstborn became the Lord's. It was in connection with the Passover in Egypt (Ex. 12: 3-13, 21-23, 29, 30). Wherever the lamb's blood was sprinkled on the lintels and door posts the firstborn of man and beast remained alive. Wherever no lamb's blood was sprinkled on the lintels and door posts the firstborn of man and beast died. By having their lintels and door posts sprinkled the Israelites were passed over by the destruction; hence their firstborn of man and beast were spared from death. But the Egyptians having no lamb's blood sprinkled on their lintels and door posts, their firstborn of man and beast were destroyed in death. Each Israelite's house represented God's household in its tentative and vitalized aspect. The door represented Christ, the door posts represented Divine Justice and the lintels the ones to whom the merit is tentatively and vitalizedly imputed. The lamb represented our Lord's humanity (John 1: 29; 1 Cor. 5: 7, 8); its blood, His right to life and His life-rights. The sprinkling of the blood represented: (1) Christ's imputing to justice His right to life and life-rights for believers and (2) God's imputing these to believers. As the Israelites who remained in their houses, and thus under the blood's protection, were passed over; so those who remain in God's household during the Gospel-Age, and thus under the protection of Christ's blood, escape the second death. This picture is tentative for the tentative firstborn of the justified class, of course. Those
who will become of the final firstborn, of course, have the real danger and the real deliverance, while the tentative firstborn of the justified, losing their tentative standing, drop back among the afterborn. The firstborn of man represented the New Creatures in the finished picture, and the firstborn of beast represented their humanity. Israel's firstborn of man represented in the finished picture, therefore, the New Creatures of the final Little Flock and Great Company, while Israel's firstborn of beast represented in the finished picture their humanity. Egypt's firstborn of man represented in the finished picture the New Creatures of the second death class, while Egypt's firstborn of beast represented their humanity. It will be noted that it was by the blood that the firstborn were spared. The blood as typical of the ransom-price typically purchased them for God, and by their abiding in God's household He retained them. Thus God became their owner, and that on the day of God's smiting the firstborn of Egypt, when He separated Israel's firstborn to Himself. This is the thought stated in v. 17. The firstborn being owned by God, and He exchanging them for the tribe of Levi, of course that tribe became His, even as vs. 16-18 teach it to be the case.
(75) Leaving vs. 16-18 as sufficiently discussed by the above, we now take up the discussion of v. 19. In this verse are a number of matters that call for explanation, both in type and antitype. Literally translated, as the margin shows, the first clause reads: "And I have given the Levites, given to Aaron and his sons." The italicized word given serves to emphasize the gift as fully made. In the type the Levites were fully given to Aaron and his sons to take down, put up and carry the tabernacle and its appurtenances, also to teach the people their duties and privileges as to the tabernacle and its services. In the antitype, not only have the Gospel-Age Levites had the service of helping the people in their relations toward Christ and the
Church and their services, but especially did they have the work of serving Jesus and the Church as leaders of people to justification and consecration by speech and writings, as writers of learned linguistic, exegetical, historical and systematic works and as editors and publishers of the same writings. This was more especially their work than the work that they did in teaching the people, though both were their service. This twofold service is called in the literal translation of the Hebrew a laborious service, and it doubtless was laborious. The Levites in this verse are first of all spoken of as having been given, given to Aaron and then to his sons. This implies that they were primarily Aaron's as the high priest and secondarily his sons' as under-priests, for their help. In the antitype, accordingly, the faith-justified as Levites are primarily given wholly to our Lord Jesus as High Priest and are secondarily given wholly to His Under-priests. Accordingly, they help our Lord to execute His office as High Priest. We can readily see how they have done this; for the Gershonites have certainly furthered His work by serving Him in bringing people through repentance and faith to justification and consecration; for by so doing they have assisted Him in winning new Gospel-Age Levites and Priests. The Kohathites have certainly helped Him by their writings to give the antitypical Camp needed information to keep them from error and to make them, generally speaking, more believing in Christianity's general Truth. And they have certainly helped Him by giving the Under-priesthood scholarly writings that furnished them help, making them more available to our Lord for His service in various ways. So, too, the Merarites, by acting as publishers and editors of Bibles and of Gershonite writings helpful to justification and consecration and of Kohathite writings helpful on linguistic, exegetical, historical and systematic subjects, assisted our Lord to help both the people and the Under-priesthood. In all these things
these Gospel-Age Levites assisted our Lord to carry out the above features of His work as High Priest toward the Under-priests and the people.
(76) We will now study how they have assisted the Under-priests as wholly given to them. In several ways the Gershonites helped the Under-priests. It will be recalled that to the Church was given the commission to preach throughout the Gospel-Age repentance and remission of sins (Mark 16: 15, 16; Luke 24: 47; John 16: 8-11; 20: 22-23; Acts 13: 38; Is. 61: 1, 2). And this was a part of her special mission up to the Harvest, when her attention was given to the reaping as her special work. Accordingly, beginning with Pentecost, throughout the Age the Elijah class has sought to turn sinners to God (Mal. 4: 6). This being the case, we are prepared to see how the antitypical Libnite Gershonites, whose work was to bring people through repentance and faith to justification, assisted the Church in winning such as might become candidates for consecration. For thus they helped the faithful Church in the first part of the work of taking out of the nations a people for His name (Acts 15: 14). The first part of that work, of course, was to bring people to justification. The second part of that work was to bring people to consecration. In this second part of the work the faithful Church also had to engage, as we can see from St. Paul's exhortation in Rom. 12: 1. And naturally as the antitypical Shimite Gershonites influenced people to consecrate, they assisted the Church in winning certain ones for the high calling. Therefore in doing their respective works these Libnites and Shimites served the Under-priests.
(77) But the Gospel-Age Kohathites helped the Church more than did the Gershonites and Merarites. This is indicated both by the typical Kohathites' nearer blood relationship to the typical under-priesthood and by their work of bearing the tabernacle's furniture and vessels, the most sacred things of the tabernacle. And
in the antitypical Kohathites' service they have helped the whole Under-priesthood, but more especially such of these as have been the Lord's special mouthpieces. All of us can readily recall how many helps we have got, especially from the antitypical Amramite Kohathites, whose work has been to render the Priests helps on linguistic matters. By bringing various readings, interpolations, etc., to our attention in their recensions of critical texts of the Greek and Hebrew—as antitypical Gershonite Amramites—they have helped us out of many a difficulty as to what is the proper reading of the original, e.g., how many of us have been helped to recognize as fallacious the proof that the orthodox offer for the creedal trinity, based on 1 John 5: 7, in which, by the investigations of antitypical Gershonite Amramites, like Drs. Tischendorf, Westcott, Hort, Weiss, etc., we have learned that the pertinent words are interpolations. Time and again these in the New Testament, and Dr. Ginsburg in the Old Testament, have offered us better readings of the original that enabled us to see clearly the Scripturalness of certain phases of Truth obscured by false readings on which some of our translations are based.
(78) The antitypical Eliezerite Amramites have also greatly assisted us by their word studies and helps. Many are the helps that we have thus gotten from various translations, some helping us along lines from which we could get no help from others, the latter in turn giving us shades of thought required by the Truth, that we could not get from the former. The makers of concordances have helped us to gain a better Scriptural insight into the meanings of Bible words. How many of the Priests have, therefore, been helped by Dr. Cruden's Concordance! Still more help, especially on the various shades of meanings in the original words, have we gotten from Dr. Young's Analytical Concordance. And Dr. Strong's Exhaustive Concordance has given us even more help than the
others, since by its Greek and Hebrew Dictionaries it combines all the excellencies of Dr. Young's Concordance, plus others that the latter does not have, and minus several deficiencies that the latter does have. For general use as a passage finder, Dr. Walker's Comprehensive Concordance, which does not refer to the Greek and Hebrew, but which contains about 250,000 references, about 60,000 less than Dr. Young and 50,000 more than Dr. Cruden, is very convenient. For convenience and time saving it is preferable to the last two mentioned. If one can have only one concordance, Dr. Strong is much to be preferred. Not only as helps on the meaning of Bible words, but as passage finders and helps for general Bible study and for preparation of elders' and pilgrims' discourses and other lessons, these concordance-makers have been very helpful to the general Priesthood. So, too, have Greek and Hebrew concordances helped the Priesthood on the meanings and uses of Greek and Hebrew words in the Bible. Our Pastor often expressed his appreciation of the great help that he derived from the Englishmen's Hebrew, Chaldee and Greek Concordances of the Bible. Many another Priest who did not understand these languages got splendid help from them, because they cite in English under the pertinent original words all of the verses in which they occur. Thence the name Englishmen's Hebrew, Chaldee and Greek Concordances. Then, there are concordances, like Bruder's and Moulton's and Giden's, that cite under every New Testament Greek word all of the verses in which it occurs in Greek. Davidson's and Mandelkern's Concordances do the same for the Old Testament in Hebrew. Greek and Hebrew dictionaries and grammars likewise have given their need of help to various of the Priests in the various meanings and forms of Greek and Hebrew words and the various uses of the forms and constructions of Greek and Hebrew.
(79) While the antitypical Amramites have given
the Under-priests more and better help than the other antitypical Kohathites, yet the other branches of the antitypical Kohathites have also rendered them welcome assistance. The introductionists, as antitypical Zichrite Izeharites, have rendered them good help in the way of proving what books belong, and what books do not belong, to the Bible, by giving an account of the development of the canon of the Bible, and in the way of giving histories, settings, descriptions and analyses of each of its separate books. The exegetes, as antitypical Nephegite Izeharites, have brought to the attention of the Priesthood many a fact, many a linguistic, historical, geographical and archeological hint, that helped to a better understanding of Bible verses. And, surely, the antitypical Korahite Izeharites, by their harmonies of the Gospels and parallel Old Testament histories, by their indices of Bible topics, by their collections of passages topically arranged and by their reference Bibles, have helped the Priesthood to compare Scripture with Scripture and to get quickly together goodly lists of passages under their pertinent topics. Especially helpful on lines of antitypical Korahite works to some of the Priests have been Robinson's Harmony of the Gospels, the American Tract Society's Bible Text Book, Nave's Topical Bible, and The Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge. The latter, in connection with the pertinent words or phrases of the Bible verses, which are given in the order of their Biblical occurrence, contains 500,000 Scriptural references to parallel passages, beside many notes, some of which are quite valuable. These have proven helpful to the Priests who use them, as the writer knows.
(80) So, too, have the writings of the antitypical Hebronite Kohathites ministered assistance to the Priests. In their Biblical histories and biographies many a fine archeological, chronological and geographical fact, many a contemporary heathen and Jewish event and many a rabbinical side light, have they
brought out, shedding light or corroboration on the Biblical account. On this phase the pertinent writings of Edersheim, Prideaux, the earlier Lightfoot and Ramsay have been very helpful. The writings of the Church historians and biographers are indispensable to the Priests for tracing the prophetic and typical fulfillments of Biblical prophecies and facts during the Gospel-Age. On these points the pertinent writings of John Foxe, Mosheim, Neander, Fisher and Kurtz have been and will yet be very useful, and, additionally, the pertinent writings of Giesseler, Schaff, Milman, Lea, etc., will yet doubtless prove very helpful. Books treating of the geography, archeology and sociology of the Bible lands, especially of Palestine, not only have lent clarification and corroboration to Biblical matters, but are especially helpful in construing such typology as is connected with the Biblical lands and their places. For this reason the pertinent writings of Robinson, Thompson, Ramsay, Palmer, Conder, Van-Lemmep, Trumbull, Sayce, etc., have proven very assistful. The same remark applies to the writings of some of the Biblical and secular chronologians; for these have helped the Priests in their study of the times and seasons of the Word, especially in construing chronological prophecy. Here men like Priestly, Hengstenberg, Tregelles, etc., have done good work
(81) From the systematic theologians the Priests have gotten the least help obtainable from the four groups of the antitypical Kohathites. Especially is this true of the dogmaticians, the antitypical Elzaphanite Uzzielites. Apart from when these explain, prove and defend from attacks the stewardship doctrines of their respective denominations, these have usually been in such darkness and error as to be hindrances, rather than helps to the Priests. But in their stewardship doctrines many a helpful hint will be found, e.g., Dr. Hodges the famous Presbyterian divine, will be found to give splendid arguments in favor of the bread and
wine as representing the body and blood of Christ, against the doctrine of the real presence in its forms of transubstantiation (the Romish view) and instrumentalization (the Lutheran view); and Dr. Philippi, the famous Lutheran theologian, gives excellent points in explanation, proof and defense of justification by faith alone. And so we could go on referring to dogmaticians of all twelve of the denominational groups of Christendom. These have doubtless been helpful to the Priests in their respective denominations; and the aggregate of them on the twelve stewardship doctrines of Christendom's twelve denominational groups would give even present Priests some good helps on points involving these stewardship doctrines. About the same remarks, but more widely favorable, may be made on the ethicians, the antitypical Mishaelite Uzzielites, in so far as their corrections and instructions in righteousness as to their denominations' stewardship doctrines are concerned. These, e.g., Martinsen, Harless and Weidener, give excellent points on correction of misconduct and on instruction in righteousness in the relations of these to justification by faith; so, also, Smyth in his book, Christian Ethics, will be found very serviceable in corrections and instructions in righteousness in respect to matters related to the Lord's Supper. But the ethicians are more reliable than the dogmaticians, because on most questions of ethics there is fair harmony among those of different denominations, while such is not the case with dogmaticians of the different denominations.
(82) The apologists, antitypical Zithrite Uzzielites, have been the most helpful to the Priests of all the antitypical Uzzielites. Indeed, there is much less of error in their writings than in those of the other two groups of systematic writers. This is due to the fact that their work is to prove the Bible to be God's revelation and to defend it from infidelistic attacks. Therefore, their writings give many arguments to prove the
Bible to be from God and worthy of acceptance. This makes them refute false ideas of God, such as Atheism, Materialism, Evolutionism, Agnosticism, Pantheism, Deism, Rationalism, Polytheism, etc. Next, it has been their work to prove the Bible to be credible from the standpoints of contemporary history, prophecy, miracles, contents (especially Christ, as its center) and its effects. Accordingly, they have defended it against all attacks from infidelism and higher criticism. The writings of Butler, Paley, Keith, Rawlinson, Bruce, Green, Orr, Urquhart, Zahn, Koenig, etc., have been very helpful to various Priests and are still so whenever used on the pertinent questions. These scholars, as well as a host of others, have well defended the outward works of the citadel of faith against myriads of so-called philosophical, higher-critical and scientific attacks, and have beaten these off, to the security of the citadel of Christianity itself. These attacks have not only been numerous, but as varied and learned in character and tactics as the ingenuity of devils and men could make them; and for Christian scholars to have driven them back is one of the proofs of the Divine source of the Bible, which under assault has been an impregnable fortress.
(83) It has been the work of representatives of all four groups of antitypical Kohathites, the antitypical Amramites, Izeharites, Hebronites and Uzzielites, to produce the numerous Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias, as well as ecclesiastical and theological and pertinent secular encyclopedias, in which for ready reference the main features of antitypical Kohathite helps are to be found. Of course these do not give the many details that can be found in other forms of antitypical Kohathite works; nevertheless for purposes of reference they give their information in convenient form. The chiefly helpful works of this kind in English among Bible dictionaries are Smith's Bible Dictionary, which has appeared in many editions of
varying sizes, dependent on the amount of their abridgement, Hasting's Dictionaries of the whole Bible (which in the Old Testament is much tinctured with higher criticism) and of the Gospels and of the Apostolic Church. Chiefly helpful among Bible encyclopedias are the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia and the pertinent part of McClintock and Strong's Cyclopedia. Chiefly helpful among theological encyclopedias are the last mentioned work, Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, Smith's Dictionaries of Christian Biography and Antiquities and Hastings Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. The above are Protestant works. To these may be added the Catholic and Jewish encyclopedias as more or less helpful. Among English secular encyclopedias that have proven most helpful to the Priests may be mentioned Chambers', the Britannica and the Americana. Of course, in other languages, there have been works similar to the above-mentioned. Since such works have been compendious depositories of antitypical Kohathite learning for quick help for Priests, they have been very advantageous. But one must not look to these for great details on antitypical Kohathite subjects; these must be sought in antitypical Kohathite works especially devoted to the pertinent subjects. Our readers have in many cases the large abridged Smith's Bible Dictionary and from experience with it know the above remarks to be true.
(84) While various antitypical Kohathite works have been helpful to all the Priests, they have been especially helpful to the mouthpiece Priests all during the Age after the Ephesian period, especially since the Thyatira period. We will instance several recent illustrations of these. Our Pastor is a case to the point, as he frequently witnessed to this fact. As is well known; he was not a Greek or Hebrew scholar, a fact of which nominal-church mouthpieces frequently sought to make capital, to his disparagement. But this fact,