Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13

CHAPTER III.

THE TWELVE SPIES—TYPE AND

ANTITYPE.

Num. 13; 14; Deut. 1: 19-46.

 

THE SPIES. COMMISSIONED. SPYING THE LAND. THE REPORT. THE RECOMMENDATIONS. THE EFFECTS. SENTENCE TO FORTY YEARS' WANDERING. EFFORT TO ENTER THE LAND.

 

OUR STUDY of Numbers brings us to Num. 13 and 14, which we will now take up, and in connection with these chapters we will study the parallel statements of Deut. 1: 19-46. These chapters treat of the twelve spies in their individuals, their commission, their searching of the land, their report, their recommendations, their effect on the people, Moses, Aaron, Joshua, Caleb and God, God's sentence of 40 years' wandering upon the people and their disastrous effort disobediently to enter the land. Our Pastor (Tower Reprints, 3064: 5) tells us that Fleshly Israel at the time of the First Advent and during the Gospel-Age fulfilled in considerable measure its antitype. Thus he held that there was also a measure of its antitype that Fleshly Israel did not fulfill, and that is, because in their wilderness journey to Canaan they typed Spiritual Israel in its journey to the Kingdom, a thought which was often brought out by him, e.g., Tower Reprints, 3060: 9, and which he based on Heb. 3 and 4. Accordingly, there was a small antitype and a large antitype of these chapters, the latter on Spiritual Israel at the time of the First Advent. Again, since the Harvests are parallel, we see in addition to the application of the story to Fleshly and Spiritual Israel at the First Advent an application of it to Fleshly and Spiritual Israel in the Gospel-Age Harvest. And the connecting point between the applications to Fleshly and to Spiritual Israel in the Jewish Harvest is this

 

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Out of each of the twelve tribes of Fleshly Israel the Lord drew the Israelites indeed and made them parts of the twelve tribes of Spiritual Israel, whose justified associates became Levites of the Gospel Age and whose non-justified associates became members of the respective nominal tribe of the Spiritual tribe with which they were associated until representatives of these classes during the Gospel Age merged into their pertinent denominations among the twelve denominations as the antitypical nominal twelve tribes of the Gospel Age, as we have already shown.

 

(2) Viewing the matter from the typical application of this story to antitypical Spiritual Israel in the Jewish Harvest, we would construe the type for the Jewish Harvest as follows: The twelve fleshly tribes represent all who professed faith in Christ during the Jewish Harvest—the consecrated, the justified and the unjustified. The bulk of them having been Jews and some devout Gentiles more or less interested in Judaism, they were in their bulk viewed as the twelve tribes of Israel marching toward the Gospel-Age Canaan, the sphere of the Truth and of the Spirit of the Truth, their entrance into which was to have its beginning early in the Jewish Harvest. Out of these twelve tribes the Lord during the Jewish Harvest chose the antitypical twelve spies, who at the time of their selection as such and until the report had been made were Little Flock members, particularly those among them who were "scribes instructed unto the kingdom of God" (Matt. 13: 52). These explored at Jesus' command the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit during the Jewish Harvest and from time to time during those 40 years brought back their pertinent findings, the 40 days of the spying here representing the 40 years of the Jewish Harvest. We are not to understand that no reports of such findings were made until 69 A.D., for facts prove that such reports were made throughout the 40 years. Rather, we are to understand that the

 

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end of the 40 days represents the limit of the time for such reports to be made, somewhat after the way we understand that the 40 days of Goliath's challenging do not mean that no attacks were made on Evolution until 1914, but that they then entered into the final attack by that Servant. Accordingly, the facts prove that the Apostles, Prophets and abler Teachers brought such reports from time to time during the Jewish Harvest, e.g., the New Testament writings, except John's writings, which were produced at least 20 years after 69 A.D., were reports of Apostles' and Prophets spy-findings.

 

(3) After the time of making such reports a change took place in the standing of ten of the antitypical spies (Num. 14: 37). All reported in harmony with one another (Num. 13: 26-29) until it came to antitypical Caleb, the Little Flock exhorting the people to prompt consecration and its prompt fulfilment, when ten groups among the spies made a slanderous report by misrepresenting the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit and by exaggerating the strength of the spiritual enemies and the difficulties of overcoming (vs. 3133), and thereby discouraged the people from entering and taking the Christian inheritance (the prospective sphere of the Truth and its Spirit) from its enemies who inhabited it. For this they lost their crowns, and this was proved by their becoming plague-stricken by some error. Joshua and Caleb encouraging the people to go up in the strength of the Lord represent our Lord and the true Church, particularly its leaders, during the Jewish Harvest, encouraging the people to consecrate and carry out their consecration—the invasion and conquest of that which should become the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. The Israelites in general represent other crown-losers, the justified and unjustified of that time, who became discouraged, then murmured and rebelled against our Lord (Moses) and the faithful Priesthood (Aaron), commanding

 

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That doctrines contrary to those presented by the true spies be used as symbolic stones in refutation of the true spies (commanded to stone Joshua and Caleb, Num. 14: 10). God by the truths that He gave through the true Church (His glory appeared on the tabernacle) called a halt to this course of the unworthy, and then sentenced them, personally and in those following them, to wander during the Gospel Age up to 1874 in the symbolic wilderness, unable to get to antitypical Canaan, the sphere of the Gospel-Age harvest Truth and Spirit of the Truth. Their efforts to enter that sphere before such wilderness wandering was over resulted in disastrous defeats, of which the Gospel Age, in error and evil triumphing, is full of examples. Thus briefly have we sketched the antitype of Num. 13 and 14 in relation to Spiritual Israel in the Harvest of the Jewish Age, because it is not our design here to give details thereon; rather we here design to give details on the antitypes of these two chapters as they belong to the Gospel Harvest, since these are the antitypes that concern us more directly.

 

(4) The 40 years' journeyings of Israel in the wilderness, therefore, type mainly the journeyings of the Christian Church toward the Harvest of the Gospel Age, according to St. Paul's explanation in Heb. 3 and 4, though they also type Fleshly Israel's Gospel-Age wanderings toward 1874. And, according to the parallel, there is a second application for them: their antitypical twelve spy classes of this Harvest have brought them a report on Israel's return to God's favor and Palestine, two of them reporting favorably and ten of them unfavorably, followed by the antitypical murmuring and condemnation to wander during the Epiphany in the wilderness again, and afterwards enter and conquer their antitypical Canaan—the sphere of Truth and its Spirit in the Millennium. This phase of the antitype we will also not discuss further, since it is our purpose to discuss here in some detail Spiritual

 

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Israel's second application of the story of Num. 13 and 14, that of the Gospel Harvest. We repeat it: The fact that Num. 13 and 14, according to Heb. 3 and 4, apply to Spiritual Israel in the Harvest of the Jewish Age, which proves, according to the parallel Harvests, that they also apply to Spiritual Israel in the Gospel Harvest, moves us to trace the antitype of the second application of these two chapters to Spiritual Israel, i.e., the application of the story to Spiritual Israel in the Gospel Harvest. Our readers will recall that we have often told them that in the Epiphany we are living over the Gospel Age on a small scale, and hence are living in a miniature Gospel Age. While telling them this, we never gave them any Scripture on which we base this thought. The main Scripture on which we base it is the Gospel Harvest application of Num. 13 and 14 with the consequent wanderings to Spiritual Israel; for, as we will herein show, according to the second application, the Gospel Harvest is the second antitype of the story of Num. 13 and 14; and Israel's wanderings find their second antitype in the second application in Spiritual Israel's wandering in the Epiphany; for as the wanderings following the Jewish Harvest on the part of Spiritual Israel were those of the Gospel Age, so the Epiphany wanderings following the Gospel Harvest as the parallel of the Jewish Harvest on the part of Spiritual Israel are the parallel of those of the Gospel Age on a small scale. Hence in the Epiphany we are living over the Gospel Age on a small scale, which accounts for our speaking of the miniature Gospel Age, with its little Babylon, its little Protestant churches, its little Catholic Church, its little pope, etc.

 

(5) Remembering that we are limiting the study of our texts from Numbers and Deuteronomy to the Gospel Harvest application to Spiritual Israel, we understand that the request of the people (Deut. 1: 22) that Moses send out spies to search out the

 

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land, corresponds to Spiritual Israel's asking, by their needs and words, our Lord to raise up students of the Word to study out the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit (Canaan). and thus enable them to know and act in harmony with that Truth and its Spirit. Apparently this request preceded the charge of God to Moses (Num. 13: 1) to send out the twelve spies, even as the felt needs and words of Spiritual Israel for the antitypical information as it approached the Parousia were requests to God for the antitypical information before God charged the sending out of the antitypical spies to get it. God's response is seen in the pertinent charge (v. 1); and our Lord was pleased with the request and charge (Deut. 1: 23). As we have already learned, Canaan types the sphere of the Truth and of the Spirit of the Truth. Primarily this is the Bible; but as the Bible truths and their Spirit come increasingly into the minds of God's people their minds become increasingly the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit. As before Israel's entrance into Canaan enemies and inimical cities infested it, so before Spiritual Israelites enter antitypical Canaan, it, as the prospective sphere of the Truth and its Spirit, is filled with various evils, i.e., these infest the natural minds of God's people, which, accordingly, become the battlefield of the Truth and its Spirit against these enemies, even as after Israel invaded Canaan it became the battleground of its inhabitants and cities against Israel. The New Creature invades the natural mind and increasingly pervades the increasingly subdued heart and mind. And as Moses sent out the twelve spies (vs. 3-16; Deut. 1: 23), so our Lord sent out their antitypes in the Parousia. The charge was, literally, "Send for thee" (v. 2), implying that the spies were to help the typical and antitypical Moses in the matter on hand.

 

(6) Their selection, one from each tribe, represents the fact that a set of new-creaturely Scripture students

 

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from each of the twelve denominations of Christendom, which we have hitherto sufficiently named and described, were to be chosen as spies. The fact that not all Israelites became these spies, but that twelve individuals became such, and that each of these twelve spies was to be a ruler (literally, a prince) in his tribe, types the fact that not even all new creatures were to be the antitypical spies, but certain selected ones were to be such, and that these selected ones were to be Little Flock members, a group of such leaders being in each denomination. The fact that the ten who brought up a slander against the land died of plague before the Lord types the fact that their antitypes had ceased to be Little Flock members, evidenced by their being made siftlings (died of the plague, 14: 37). Accordingly, we are to understand that at the time of sending out the antitypical spies, all of them were crown-retainers. This is further confirmed by the fact that none of the typical spies were among the princes who brought the offerings of Num. 7 and led the tribes in Num. 10, whom we know type the twelve groups of crown-lost leaders, one group for each denomination. Hence the selection of twelve others was not due to the death of these offering princes and to the former twelve becoming their successors; for the sending out of the spies occurred just about two months after the Israelites left Sinai (Num. 10: 11; 13: 20), within which time these twelve offering princes assuredly did not die. Thus at the sending out of the antitypical spies every member of each of the twelve groups was a Little Flock member; and they constituted all the Little Flock "scribes" (Matt. 13: 52) in each of the twelve denominations of Christendom. But just after making the report a change takes place. Thereafter Joshua types our Lord. This is foreshadowed in the change of name given Joshua (v. 16). At the same time Caleb stood for all the Little Flock,

 

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particularly for their leaders, in the Parousia Truth, the other antitypical spies becoming crown-losers.

 

(7) Moses' sending the spies out by the commandment. [literally, at the mouth] of the Lord (v. 3) types our Lord's sending out the Little Flock "scribes" in all the denominations as antitypical spies, according to God's Word, the Bible. The involved part of the Bible is that of our study—Num. 13; 14; Deut. 1: 19-46. Our Lord, from the Father's clarifying this type to Him, saw that it was God's word to Him to send them out to search the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit. Perhaps God also charged Him directly to this effect. In either case, or in both cases, it would be God's charge to Him. As the typical spies were sent out from the wilderness of Paran (cavernous; v. 3), in which Kadesh-barnea (holy desert of wandering; Deut. 1: 19), their place of departure, was located, so the antitypical spies were sent out in the Parousia part of the Millennium, as in a time of a consecrated wilderness condition. Kadeshbarnea is also called Enmishpat (fountain of judgment; Gen. 14: 7), indicative of the testings in connection with the ransom and the sin-offering doctrines, which took place at antitypical Kadesh (Num. 20: 1-13), as the chief doctrinal tests of the Parousia. As it was emphasized, by repetition (all these men were heads of the children of Israel, v. 3), that the twelve spies were leaders in their respective tribes, so in the antitype it was emphasized that the antitypical spies were the leading students of the Bible in their respective denominations, who were at the same time Little Flock members. It will be noted that neither the tribe of Levi nor Aaron's family is included. This is to show that Little Flock members are typed by the spies. Thus as Moses sent out the twelve spies to search out typical Canaan, so our Lord sent out from the twelve denominations the Little Flock "scribes" to search out the sphere of the Truth and of the Spirit of the Truth.

 

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In their searching some of the members of each one of the twelve groups of antitypical spies came into the Truth movement, while others remained in their respective denominations, becoming enemies of the Truth.

 

(8) Let us here, as at the appropriate place, pause awhile and consider the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit— antitypical Canaan. It embraces Bible and Bible-pertinent knowledge and its Spirit in all their ramifications. In Vol. VIII, Chap. II we showed the main forms of such knowledge, when we described the work of the Gospel-Age Kohathites. But the Gospel-Age Kohathites did not penetrate so deeply into these matters of Bible knowledge and Spirit as did the twelve Parousia spies, and that for several reasons: they were not new creatures, as were the antitypical spies; many features of such knowledge were not due until the Parousia; and the antitypical spies could discern such features of the Truth and of the Spirit of the Truth as the unconsecrated natural man could not see. In Vol. VIII, Chap. II we mentioned some as Gospel-Age Kohathites whom further light shows not to have been such, but who were new creatures, some ministering before, and some during the Parousia. We will, among others, mention hereinafter the main new creature spy-members whom we there mistakenly set forth as Gospel-Age Kohathites. While on this subject we might remark that while the Gospel-Age Kohathites did such work as came under the heads of learned works along linguistic, exegetical, historical and systematic work on Bible matters, they were not the only ones who did such work, for crown-lost leaders and other crown-losers did such work, e.g., Chrysostom, Augustine, Chemnitz, Calvin, Socinus, Menno Simon, Jeremiah Taylor, Alex. Campbell, etc., wrote, variously, commentaries, or on apologetics, doctrine and ethics, as well as on historical religious subjects. Yea, almost all Little Flock leaders did such work: e.g., Luther, Melanchthon, Tyndale, Ulphilas and Alfred the

 

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Great did Bible translation work, and the first two of these produced many interpretational, apologetic, doctrinal and ethical works. Hence we are not to think that it was the exclusive function of the Gospel-Age Kohathites to do linguistic, exegetical, historical and systematic work on Bible lines. In most of these departments of Bible knowledge Priests have done best of all, e.g., our Pastor.

 

(9) That the Parousia was the time of all times for the most searching investigations and the most fruitful results in the sphere of Bible knowledge and of the Bible Spirit, is evident from an examination of pen products of that and previous times. Never was there a time in which more and abler new creatures worked on such lines of thought; never was there a time in which such produced so many books on such lines of thought; and never was there a time when the results of such investigations were so rich and excellent. Such new creatures worked on every phase of the four branches of Biblical learning—linguistic, exegetical, historical and systematic. We will particularize: The best editions of the Hebrew Scriptures ever to appear were then produced. The best of these is Ginsburg's Hebrew Old Testament and the next best is Kittel's Hebrew Old Testament, the former specializing on the variant Hebrew readings and the latter on the variant readings of the ancient versions. So, too, the best editions—recensions—of the Greek New Testament ever to appear came out during that time. Here we may particularize five recensions: Westcott end Hort, Weiss, Souter, Nestle and Von Soden, the first two named working 28 years on their recension and the last named 18 years, cooperated with by 45 specialists in this department of Biblical knowledge, resulting in his producing by far the greatest recension of the New Testament. Also Gregory and (Ezra) Abbott did well on this subject.

 

(10) During this time the greatest activity in

 

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Hebrew and Greek lexicons for the Bible took place, resulting in the production of such fine Hebrew lexicons as Brown's, Buhl's, Davies', Siegfried and Stade's and Koenig's, and of such fine Greek New Testament lexicons as Thayer's, Preuschen's, Kremer's and Abbott-Smith's. Moulton and Milligan's Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament Illustrated By The Papyri, etc., was prepared and appeared in part at this time. Splendid Hebrew grammars, like the various editions of Kautzsch's Gesenius and of Stade's and Koenig's grammars, were prepared and published during the Parousia, as also fine Greek grammars for the New Testament, like various editions of Winer, Blass, Moulton and Robertson, were written at this time. During this time Ginsburg prepared his Massorah which is also a Hebrew concordance to the Old Testament, and Rabbi Mandelkern prepared the best Hebrew concordance in existence, but he was very largely assisted by Christian scholars; and hence his work may be regarded as largely a Christian product; for it is, among others, based on the two Hebrew concordances prepared by two Hebrew converts, Fuerst and Davidson, and it received important revisions, by Christian scholars during the Parousia. During this time Hatch's and Redpeth's Concordance to the Septuagint appeared, the best in its field. Then, too, appeared the three best Greek New Testament concordances; Bruder, Moulton and Geden, and Schmoller. In English during this period Drs. Young's and Strong's concordances were prepared, the latter giving every word in the A.V., R.V. and A.R.V. everywhere that it occurs. Walker's Concordance also appeared then. So, too, during the Parousia our finest translations appeared, e.g., the R.V., A.R.V., Drs. Young, Rotherham, Moffatt, etc. Splendid translations of the Bible appeared during the Parousia in other languages than English, notably in German and French. Thus the very best and most numerous linguistic helps to the

 

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Bible have appeared during the Parousia, as a part of the antitypical spies' work for our Lord.

 

(11) The same applies to the branches of Bible knowledge belonging to exegetical helps—introduction, interpretation and harmonetics. In the department of introduction, which treats of the canon, text, books and circulation of the Bible, mainly from the standpoint of a history of these, are the great works of Green and Buhl on the canon and text of the Old Testament, of Zahn, Charteris, Lightfoot, Sanday, Abbott and Westcott on the canon of the New Testament in its parts or whole, of Zahn and Westcott on the books of the New Testament, of Weiss on the canon, text, books and circulation of the New Testament, of Salmon on the canon and books of the New Testament and of Harmon on the canon, text, books and circulation of the entire Bible. These are the greatest of introductional works. We pass over higher-critical introductionist works here as not having come from the antitypical spies, as we also pass by their pertinent works on other branches of Bible Knowledge and Spirit. In the realm of interpretation, as the second branch of exegetical knowledge, the greatest works of all times appeared in the Parousia as the products of the pertinent spies. Thus Keil and Delitzsch, in their later editions prepared in this period, give the ablest commentary on the Old Testament; and Zahn and Weiss and their co-laborers wrote the two ablest commentaries on the New Testament. The various scholars who prepared the Expositors' Commentary and Geikie wrote commentaries on the whole Bible. Most of the volumes of the Speakers' Commentary were written in this period. The Expositor's Greek Testament, written in this period by various scholars, and Weiss' Shorter Commentary on the New Testament contain some good work of antitypical spies. Then, men like Green on Genesis, Douglas on Isaiah, Spurgeon on the Psalms, Westcott on John, Hebrews and

 

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1, 2 and 3 John, Lightfoot on Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, Philemon and in his post-humous unfinished works on other Pauline epistles, Ramsey on Galatians, Godet on Luke, John, Romans and Corinthians, Luthardt on John, Philipi on Romans, as antitypical spies brought back valuable information on interpretational lines. Schaff's revision of Lange's commentary on the whole Bible, originally prepared by a number of German scholars and translated into English, falls into this period and brings back from the spying of antitypical Canaan valuable finds. Some of the works mentioned above were produced before 1874, but their later revisions fall in the Parousia, and from the standpoint of such revised editions are referred to above as the works of editions cited as antitypical spies' work.

 

(12) Antitypical spies have done good work in the harmonetical branch of exegetical knowledge, called harmonetics, which embraces: harmonies of Old and New Testament histories, reference or parallel passages and Bible indexes. Little and Crockett have produced fine harmonies of Old Testament histories. Riddle, Broadus, Clark, Robertson, Stevens and Burton did the same kind of work for the New Testament histories. Interwoven accounts of the Old Testament parallel histories are given by Little, and the same is done for those of the New Testament parallel histories by Pittinger, while Clark and Burton have made harmonies of the Acts with the Epistles. Then, Riddle, Kramer and Huck furnished harmonies of the Gospels in Greek. Many editions of the Bible appearing during the Parousia contained good sets of reference passages. Johns has furnished a New Testament with references not simply cited, but quoted in full, with the Gospels printed in parallel columns, thus also a harmony of the Gospels. Baxters published a similar work covering the whole Bible, without the harmony of the Gospels. They published it under the title, A Commentary Wholly Biblical, but do not give the date,

 

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which we rather opine was before 1874, but are not sure. But the largest compilation of reference or parallel passages, 500,000 of them, is contained in a book entitled, The Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge, which is a compilation of many collections of reference passages, interspersed here and there with notes. Then, several fine indexes of Bible subjects appeared at this time, the most elaborate being that of Butler and that of Monser, who was assisted by eleven able Bible scholars. Almost all Bibles containing teachers' helps have such indexes, though on a smaller scale. The American Tract Society and Thomas Nelson have published rather elaborate Bible indexes. Thus the antitypical spies have brought back from their searching of antitypical Canaan much useful harmonetical Bible knowledge and, of course, its Spirit.

 

(13) In the third general branch of Biblical knowledge, the historical, there was a very lively activity during the Parousia, as an expression of the antitypical spies' searching. The first department of this branch of Bible knowledge covers the ground of Bible history and biography and Church history and biography (the third and fourth being Biblical knowledge, because in their main features they give the antitypes of much of the Bible history and biography). In Bible history Kurtz, Edersheim, Blaikie, Ramsey, Smith, Schuerer, etc., have brought back from their search of antitypical Canaan much valuable knowledge. Under the general editorship of J.S. Exell, 17 volumes of biography on the main Biblical characters, written by ten able authors and containing much profitable knowledge, were published under the general title, Men of the Bible. But it is especially in New Testament biography that wonderful finds by the antitypical spies were made. At least 150 lives of Christ appeared during the Parousia, chief among which are those by Weiss, Edersheim, Farrar, Geikie, Andrews, Smith and Clarke. The following fine lives of St. Paul

 

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appeared during this period: Conybeare and Howson, Farrar, Ramsey, Lewin, Pfleiderer and Smith. MacDonald has written a good life of St. John; Renolds likewise a good life of John the Baptist. Schaff and Farrar have brought out much that is fine on the whole of the New Testament notables, and Ramsey, Lechler and Weizsaecker on the chief actors and events in the Acts of the Apostles. In Church history much good material was discovered by the antitypical spies: Kurtz, Moeller, Hase, Geyer, Hurst, Trench, Ayer, Sheldon, Newman, Dwyer, Fisher, Lea, Nippold, Schaff (father and son), the Krueger, the Fulton, the Briggs and Salmond and the Creighton series of books on various epochs of Church history. Likewise in Church biography many fine nuggets of information on various servants of God were then discovered. We will mention here some biographies of star-members: McCabe's Abelard, Hausrath's Arnold of Brescia, Emerton's Marsiglio, Lechler's Wyclif, (David) Schaff's Huss, Miller's Wessel, Villari's Savonarola, Koestlin's Luther, Jackson's Zwingli, Vedder's Hubmaier, Willis' Servetus, Polland's Cranmer, Dexter's Browne, Penney's Fox, Curnock's Wesley and White's Miller. Other fine biographies appeared then.

 

(14) The second branch of Biblical historical knowledge is chronology. As there was a correct one in the hands of God's people during the Miller movement, i.e., before the Parousia, the only uses that antitypical Moses could have made of the antitypical spies as to chronology was for them to discover corroborations of pertinent and connected matters. And various of such corroborations were then brought to light, particularly by such of the spies as were in the Truth, e.g., Bro. Russell and the five brothers who antityped the Gabriel of Dan. 9. Yet others who did not come into the Truth did some things on this line of thought, e.g., Piazzi Smyth, Rawlinson, Beecher, Hippisley, etc. Archeology is the third branch of Biblical historical

 

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knowledge. More fruitful and useful have been the archeological finds of the antitypical spies who have brought to light many Biblical and Church antiquities revelatory of Biblical countries, customs, conditions, occupations, trades, social, business, religious, civil and political arrangements, etc. Very much of this information was gotten by excavating the sites of buried cities and towns. The chief workers in Biblical archeology during the Parousia were Lenormant, Naville, Maspero, Schrader, (George) Smith, Sayce, Petrie, Deissmann, Hommel, Pinches, Cobern, Smith, Cheetham, Stubbs, Plumptre, Wace, Schaff, Besant, Riehm, VanLennep, Barton, Hilprecht, Clay, Bissell, Keil, Kyle, Ramsey, Jeremias, Edersheim, Conder, Harper and a host of others. Likewise the geography of Bible and Christian lands, as the fourth branch of Biblical historical knowledge, has been diligently explored by antitypical spies, of whom the following are some of the main ones: Conder, Ramsey, Bliss, Dawson, Stewart, Hoskins, Merrill, Trumbell, Thompson, Bovet, Schumacher, McAllister and a host of others, who worked mainly in Palestine. Some of those mentioned under archeology did good geographical work in other Bible lands than Palestine. Thus we see the antitypical spies investigated questions of Biblical and Church history, using the word history in its widest sense, i.e., to include events; institutions, movements, persons, chronology, antiquities and geography of Bible and Christian lands as such.

 

(15) The fourth branch of the sphere of Truth and its Spirit that antitypical spies searched is that of systematic Bible knowledge and its Spirit, embracing apologetics, dogmatics (doctrine) and ethics. It has been a time of special apologetical activity because of the atheistic, agnostic, materialistic, pantheistic, deistic, evolutionistic, higher-critical and heretical attacks on the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. Apologists, like Bruce, Dean, Harrison, Luthardt, Fisher, Rishell,

 

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Shields, Redford and the numerous writers of the Present Day Tracts, etc., have investigated the general field of apologetics and have brought back many fine arguments in defense of the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit and in refutation of anti-Biblical theories. Apologists, like Dawson, O'Neil, Calderwood, Maccoll, Hall, Wright, De Pressense, McCosh, Romaines, Bateson, Mendel, etc., defended the Bible idea of creation as against evolution, having in their investigations of the pertinent subjects found many valuable arguments. Apologists, like Urquhart, Green, Bartlett, Bissel, Cook, McGarvey, Reich, Finn, Robertson, Orr, Cave, Douglas, Sayce, Rawlinson, the fourteen authors of the book, The Law of Moses, who include the preceding two, Wiener, Moeller, Koenig, Zahn, Sanday, Westcott and many others, through their investigations have found many fine lines of thought against higher criticism. Historical evidences of the Truth and its Spirit were ably examined by Zahn, Sanday, Bowman, Westcott, Koenig, Sayce, Rawlinson and many others.

 

(16) In the domain of dogmatics the antitypical spies that remained in their respective denominations did good spy work in their respective denomination's stewardship doctrine. Their other efforts were mainly erroneous. The following are the principal representatives of such spies: Philipi, Hodge, Miley, Pope, Shedd, Strong, Edersheim, Riehm, Koenig, Weiss, Pfleiderer, Oehler, the last two writing on Biblical theology, an analysis of the Biblical thoughts, and the third from the last writing on it as well as on doctrine as such, Weiss, Koenig, Zahn and Westcott, often mentioned above, were perhaps the most many-sided and fruitful of the antitypical spies not in the Truth. In Christian ethics there was a great activity in the Parousia, during which ethicists like Martinsen, Janet, Porter, Harless, Weidener, Smyth, Henderson, Peabody and many others, did good work. Nominal church apologetical and ethical spies used much more

 

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Truth and decidedly less error than its doctrinal spies. Among the large number of contributors to the various Bible and theological dictionaries and encyclopedias produced during the Parousia were many antitypical spy members, in fact many hundreds of them, who wrote for those works on almost every branch of the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit. But the greatest and most fruitful of any individual member of the antitypical spies was that Servant, who furnished excellent matter on almost every branch of the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. Among them he was supreme in interpretational, chronological, apologetical, doctrinal and ethical findings. Though not a Greek or Hebrew scholar, his definitions of certain Greek and Hebrew words are better than those of the greatest lexicographers, e.g., ruach, nephesh, elohim, Yahveh, adon, shaphat, mishphat, pneuma, psuche, anastasis, krino, krisis, krima, gennao, parousia, epiphania, apokalypsis, etc. Good, too, were his corrections of mistranslations. In fact all of the Truth brothers who were among the "scribes" of Matt. 13: 52 were parts of antitypical Caleb when the report was made. We thus have very briefly, in paragraphs 8-16 described the various ways in which the antitypical spies searched antitypical Canaan.

 

(17) In pointing out above the work of the antitypical spies we did so from the standpoint of the various branches of the knowledge belonging to the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. We did not do it from the standpoint of the denominations to which the antitypical spies belonged, i.e., we pointed out the main spy members in the pertinent branches of Christian knowledge, regardless of their denominational affiliations: But we are to understand that the abler crown-retaining new creatures in every denomination participated in this work, even as Num. 13: 4-15 indicates. We have not, except in the cases of four special Romanists and the Quaker Penney, mentioned the names of any

 

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representatives of the Roman and Greek Catholic Church and of the fanatical sects. This does not mean that they have not participated therein, but that for the most part they were not the most eminent in the lines of thought presented above. The best pertinent work of Romanists was done in France, especially as represented in the massive French theological encyclopedia. Particularly the following parts of it belong to our subject: Bible Dictionary (4 vols.), Biblical Greek and Hebrew and other sacred languages Dictionary (4 vols.), dictionaries of Bible and Church history in its widest sense, distributed under various of its departments (48 vols.), dictionaries of systematic theology (27 vols.). There are 85 other volumes belonging to this gigantic work of 168 volumes, each of which is a quarto of over 1,000 pages. Much of the matter of the pertinent 83 volumes is good spy work. Some German Romanists did some good spy work, especially in an encyclopedic, apologetical and archeological way. Next to the fanatical sects the Greek Catholic spies did the least spy work of any of the denominational spies, though men like Byrennios did some good work therein. The spies of the Lutheran, Calvinistic and Episcopal Churches, in the order named, did the most and ablest of such work, except the work of the eventual Caleb, which is the ablest of all, not, however, from the standpoint of scholarship, but from that of the Truth and its Spirit.

 

(18) Having treated in general of vs. 3-16, we will now take up the rest of the chapter. The change (v. 16) of Oshea's (deliverance) name to Jehoshua (ordinarily written Joshua,—Jehovah is salvation, or saves) types the fact that Joshua from typing the Little Flock spies of the Lutheran Church would be changed into typing our Lord. It was our Lord who sent out the antitypical spies (Moses sent, etc., v. 17). Our Lord by God's Word, Spirit and providence aroused in them the determination to do the pertinent

 

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studying (spying). Thereby He charged them to surmount all the obstacles that Satan's kingdom (the mountain, v. 17, the one immediately north of Kadesh-barnea, Deut. 1: 24) would place in their way of entering the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit for its thorough investigation. The translation "southward" is false, for the word (negeb) here means south country, which is the name given to the southern part of Canaan. The location of the mountain north of Kadeshbarnea is on its face a clear proof of the erroneous translation, as also the ascent from the south mentioned in v. 22 and the course given in v. 21 disprove it. To enter Canaan from its southern end types the investigation of the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit on the curse in Christendom nearest the viewpoint of the antitypical spies as belonging to the nominal churches, which in antitype would imply diverse branches of study. They were to study the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit to learn just what they are (see the land, etc., v. 18). They were also to study the evils of sin, of error, of selfishness and of worldliness that infested the minds and hearts of God's people (and the people … therein). They were to note particularly whether these evils in the natural mind and heart were strong or weak, few or many (strong … many), and then report on them.

 

(19) Particularly our Lord charged them to investigate the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit from the standpoint of its spiritual qualities (whether these were good or bad, v. 19), which, of course, they found to be good. He likewise charged them to search out the fortresses of evil (the cities; 2 Cor. 10: 4, 5), and to note particularly whether these fortresses of evil were weak (tents) or strong (strongholds). They were to investigate the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit to the intent of finding out whether it was fertile or barren (fat or lean, v. 20) as to developing the fruits of the Spirit, as well as to find out whether it