Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13

CHAPTER VII.

DANIEL—TYPE AND ANTITYPE.

DAN. 1—12.

 

HISTORICAL PARTS OF DANIEL. PROPHETICAL PARTS OF DANIEL.

 

AS FORMERLY stated, it is our intention to bring out the Scripturally forecast features of our Pastor's life and activities. And with this thought in mind we are in this chapter bringing out the pertinent features as typed in Daniel. That our Pastor knew that he was the antitype of Daniel is indicated by two paintings prepared for, but not used as, Photo-Drama slides, one on his interpreting the antitypical handwriting on the wall and one on Pastor Russell in the critics' den, which was reproduced in plate cut on the back of a Bible Students' Monthly and in the 1913 Convention Report. Daniel does not type our Pastor in all the latter's relations, but only in his relations to the world as a teacher on subjects pertinent to the world and on some of the relations of the Church to the world. Had it not been for many personal items that he gave us on himself, more particularly a detailed description of his religious development from his 17th to his 30th year, i.e., from 1868 to 1881, in a six-hour recital elicited by our asking him in 1903 how he came to the understanding of the Bible set forth in his writings, we would be unable to expound a number of items in Daniel relating to him. Some of these items are not generally known, yet are so important that a record of them should be made. This will account for many of them that are to appear in this chapter, one of the series giving the Divinely forecast account of his life and work. Not in the spirit of an hero or angel worshiper, but in that of an appreciative biographer, do we write this book on that wise and faithful Servant. To save space we will, without quoting the passages, indicate those on

 

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which we are commenting by giving the number of the involved verses.

 

(2) In Chapter I the account of Daniel's education for the position of a statesman in Babylon is set forth. Here Nebuchadnezzar types the nominal people of God. Ashpenaz (v. 3) types the chief leaders in the nominal church, such as supervised the subordinate teachers of the nominal church, and such as particularly supervised the educational arrangements of Christendom's prospective teachers. It was the desire of the nominal people of God (vs. 3, 4) that the most gifted and promising young men be selected for training as teachers of their views in symbolic Babylon. As Daniel (v. 6) was one of those chosen for such educational opportunities in literal Babylon, so was Bro. Russell chosen by those nominal Christians with whom he associated as a religiously and intellectually promising young man to teach in the nominal church. And as the king (v. 5) provided that such students be fed from the royal table, so the nominal people of God arranged that the future teachers and leaders in symbolic Babylon be nourished on the religious diet that they themselves ate. As Daniel determined not to defile himself with the Levitically unclean meats (v. 8) of the king's table, so Bro. Russell determined that he would not defile himself with symbolic Babylon's unclean doctrines. Since the story of how this happened is not generally known and should be preserved, we give it here in fair detail.

 

(3) Bro. Russell was born with a most exceptionally fine religious endowment. Before he was born his mother consecrated him to the Lord, and afterward gave him the most careful religious training within her ability. As he often said, he could not remember a time from childhood's first memories onward when he was not consecrated. Early he showed his zeal in seeking to save people from eternal torment, among other ways, by his writing at the age of 14 Scripture passages

 

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on the sidewalks and walls of houses, urging people to repent and believe. In such evangelistic zeal, when 16 years old, he sought to convert an infidel acquaintance. The latter asked him if he believed God to be perfect in wisdom, justice, love and power. On his replying, "yes," his acquaintance asked him how such a God could have absolutely predestinated the vast majority of the race to eternal torment. The boy answered that he could not understand it. Up to this time he had not thought deeply on this feature of his (the Congregational) church's creed. Troubled by the question, he raised it in the circles of his church. Unable to get any satisfying answer, he expressed his doubts on the matter. The report spread in the church that he was on the way to becoming an infidel. The pastor and elders of the church appointed a special meeting to solve his questions. But instead, they only increased his doubts. They told him that the Bible taught the absolute predestination of the bulk of the race to eternal torment, quoting such passages as they thought so taught. They convinced him that the Bible taught that doctrine. He then said to them, "I believe God is perfect in wisdom, power, justice and love, and I will not believe anything contrary to His character to be a revelation from Him. Therefore I do not believe He gave the Bible as His revelation; for if He had given it as such, it would agree with His wisdom, power, justice and love." It was at this stage wherein he decided he would never believe as a revelation of God anything contradictory to His character, that he antityped Daniel (v. 8), determining not to defile himself with Levitically unclean meats; for he concluded that any doctrine contrary to God's character is false. It will be noted that the stand that Bro. Russell took on this matter of God's character as a test of revealed religion, when he was 16 years old, he retained until death ended his course.

 

(4) His pastor and elders, as representatives of the highest church authorities (v. 9) thought highly of

 

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him; and his determination to accept only what harmonized with God's character (pulse—v. 12) put them into considerable difficulty with the pertinent nominal people of God who would cut them off from their positions ("endanger my head to the king," v. 10), if they did not require of him to accept the Congregational creed in whole. But rather than lose so promising a young man, they conceded to him temporarily (ten days, v. 12) the privilege of subjecting all teachings to the rule of harmony with God's character. Accordingly, we find Bro. Russell as a youth of 16 a disbeliever, not actually, though ostensibly, in the Bible, but actually in the Calvinistic creed, which he was mistaught to be the right interpretation of the Bible. He was of too religious and logical a mind to be content without a revealed religion. He therefore set out to learn what the true religion was, and to this end decided to investigate all religions until he would find out the true one. So he began with that of the Chinese, whose idea of the creation is this: In the beginning all was water. Then a god with a handful of earth boarded a boat and threw this earth into the water, where it grew into our present earth. That was enough of the Chinese religion for him! Worse absurdities than this made him reject Hinduism and Buddhism. The fact that Mohammedanism was partly based on the Old and New Testaments impelled him to reject it. And because Judaism was based in part on the Old Testament, he rejected it. Thus his rejection of the non-Christian religions left him for a while stranded high and dry on the shores of unbelief, though all the while he devoutly held to God as perfect in wisdom, justice, love and power and trusted Him as such.

 

(5) But his religious disposition could not be content with no religion; and what to do troubled him. Finally he said to himself, I can at least believe so much of the Bible as is contained in the Golden Rule Godward and manward: Thou shalt love the Lord thy

 

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God with all thy heart, with all thy mind, with all thy soul and with all thy strength; … and thy neighbor as thyself (Matt. 22: 37, 39). Furthermore, he concluded that Jesus' explanation of the law, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself, as meaning: All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them (Matt. 7: 12), was correct. Thus he said, "I believe that much of the New Testament." This prompted him to look up the context of Matt. 7: 12, which he found to be a part of the Sermon on the Mount. He studied this in the light of God's character and recognized it to be in harmony therewith. Therefore he accepted it. This moved him to desire to study more of Jesus' teachings, which, accordingly, led him to study these as they are found elsewhere in the four Gospels. Always he found them in harmony with God's character. This moved him not only to accept all of Jesus' teachings in the Gospels as he understood them, but also greatly to appreciate Jesus as a teacher Divinely inspired. Such appreciation of Jesus' teachings prompted him to want to know more of His life, which moved him to a study of the Gospels historically, resulting in his recognizing Jesus as a perfect human being and the Son of God. But up to then he rejected the New Testament, except the Gospels.

 

(6) One day he noted the passage (John 16: 12-14) wherein Jesus said that the Spirit would reveal to the Apostles such truths as Jesus would yet give them, and which they were as yet unable to bear. He desired to know what those teachings were. Hence he began to study the Acts, the Epistles and Revelation; and as he understood them he recognized their harmony with God's character. Thus gradually, and that upon a right foundation, he came to believe that the New Testament was the revelation of the God of wisdom, power, justice and love, in whom he had always believed. But the Old Testament he continued to reject. The following things gradually led him to believe in the Old Testament:

 

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He noticed that not only did Jesus and the Apostles quote from the Old Testament, but used such quotations to prove their doctrines. Hence he concluded that whatever they quoted from the Old Testament was true. On later thought he decided to study the connections from which these quotations were made; and these he found to be in harmony with the quotations themselves and God's character. Hence he accepted the teachings of these contexts. This led him to study the connections of these contexts, and thus more and more of the Old Testament became clear to him until his faith was confirmed in the prophetic writings and in the historical writings which were closely interwoven with the prophetic writings. Still he suspected the books of Moses, except those parts quoted by Jesus and the Apostles; because he mistakenly was led to think that Moses made himself a dictator to Israel and established a priesthood that tyrannized over the people. But deeper study convinced him of his mistakes on these points; and he came to see that the Mosaic legislation was the most benevolent, and freedom, equality and fraternity-inspiring legislation ever inaugurated. Accordingly, he accepted also the Pentateuch as Divinely inspired; and thus his faith accepted the whole Bible.

 

(7) He continued to study the Scriptures privately and in an independent Bible class at Allegheny, Pa.; and by 1872, four years after he started out in quest of the Divine revelation, he not only accepted the entire Bible as that revelation, but also the following points as its main teachings: the unity of God; the Divine sonship of Jesus; the Spirit as God's power and disposition; man's fall from perfection into sin; death as sin's penalty; the unconsciousness of the dead; the Ransom as guaranteeing an opportunity for the elect in this life and for the non-elect in the Millennium; the eternity of the physical universe; the destruction of the symbolic world at Christ's Second Advent; the

 

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Second Advent for the restitution of all things; eternal life in heaven for the elect, and on earth for the saved non-elect; and eternal annihilation for the incorrigible. Without stating the matter as such, in writing Chapters I, II and III of Studies, Vol. I, he traced the steps where by he came out of infidelity into faith in the Bible as God's revelation. His four years of quest for the Divine revelation and its main contents are the antitypical ten days of vs. 12, 14, 15. As Daniel's face (v. 15) was fairer and fuller at the end of the ten days of pulse eating; so Bro. Russell's symbolic face (knowledge of the Truth, 2 Cor. 4: 6) was more beautiful and fuller in holiness than the symbolic faces of those trained in symbolic Babylon's teachings. The steward's (Melzar means steward) permitting Daniel to continue on pulse as a diet (v. 16) types how Bro. Russell's teachers in Babylon conceded to him the privilege of continuing to study the Bible in the light of God's character. Daniel's becoming proficient in knowledge and in dreams and visions (v. 17), types Bro. Russell's development in the Truth in the deep and surface things of the Bible, as sketched above.

 

(8) It was in 1875 that the antitype of Nebuchadnezzar's examining Daniel (vs. 18-20) began. From 1872 to 1875 Bro. Russell continued to increase in grace, knowledge and fruitfulness in service. It was in Oct., 1874, that he came to see that Jesus in His resurrection became a Spirit being, and that therefore He would not in His Second Advent come in flesh, but as a glorious Divine Spirit, and necessarily then would be invisible to human natural sight. He embodied these thoughts as well as those on the object of our Lord's return in a tract entitled, The Object and Manner of Our Lord's Return. The misteachings of the Adventists on the object and manner of our Lord's return had raised more or less doubts and questions in many minds, and this aroused Bro. Russell to write and spread that tract, which was circulated to the extent of

 

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50,000 copies. Such doubts and questions calling for an answer antitype Nebuchadnezzar's asking (v. 18) for the graduates to be brought before him for examination. The young men coming in before him represent the various religious teachers coming forward before the nominal people of God to give their views on pertinent religious matters. Daniel's answers (vs. 19, 20) were antitypically given in Bro. Russell general teachings and particularly in the above-mentioned tract, and these were found ("none like Daniel," v. 19) better than those of the Christian workers trained in Babylon's teachings. Daniel's standing before the king (v. 19), i.e., being made an official in Babylon, types Bro. Russell's subsequent position as a religious teacher before the nominal people of God, whose teachings, on all subjects inquired for by the nominal people of God, were found better (ten times—fully, completely, v. 20) than those of the learned and the prophets of Babylon.

 

(9) The second chapter of Daniel treats of Nebuchadnezzar's dream of the metallic image of a man with a golden head, silver shoulders and arms, brazen belly, iron thighs and legs, and feet and toes of a mixture of iron and clay, and of the stone which destroyed the image and then grew into a mountain, filling the entire earth. It is not our purpose in our study of Daniel—type and antitype—to point out the prophetic features of Daniel, since that is sufficiently done in Studies, Vols. I, II and III. Here we limit our attention to the typical features of this book. Nor will we rehearse the typical features. Rather, we will merely indicate them by the citing of the verses in which they occur, asking our readers to have the book of Daniel open at the pertinent part for the sake of reference. In interpreting Daniel's interpretation of the dream, our Pastor gave its prophetic teachings. At the same time, the entire story of Dan. 2 types something very interesting. Typically, this chapter sets forth the meaning of history under the rule of the nations during the

 

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Times of the Gentiles and the prophesied role of God's Kingdom as the destroyer and successor of these. In this chapter, as in the preceding one, Nebuchadnezzar types the Gospel-Age nominal people of God, who, as such, have been in existence since the Jewish Harvest. His having the dream represents the nominal people of God having a proper view of the meaning of history as exemplified in the four universal Gentile powers and in their ten successor powers, and of the role of the prophesied Kingdom of God as their destroyer and successor; for the Apostles properly taught the early Christians that, as represented by the deterioration of the metals from gold to silver, from silver to brass, from brass to iron and from iron to a mixture of iron and clay, under Gentile rule the race and its governments would become more and more fallen— depraved—and that when depravity would reach its height the kingdoms of this world would be destroyed by God's Kingdom, which would stand forever. This, in brief, is the philosophy of human history under Gentile rule and the prophetic role of the Kingdom of God. And this view, taught by the Apostles, remained with the real and nominal people of God for several centuries.

 

(10) The papacy's teaching another theory of God's Kingdom in its time and other relations to the kingdoms of this world darkened the subject; for it taught that it was God's Kingdom commissioned to convert the world and rule over it for 1,000 years before Christ's return, whereas it was the clay mingled with the iron in the feet and toes. This view gradually caused the one given to the nominal people of God by the Apostles to be forgotten by them (the thing is gone from me, v. 5). For many centuries the true view was forgotten; and it was only beginning with the Illumination, 1748, that nominal Christians began to demand an explanation of the meaning of history from the clergy (Chaldeans), the professors (magi), the historians (astrologers) and the prophets (sorcerers)

 

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of Christendom (v. 2). Their inability to tell what was the early view of Christians thereon, as well as its meaning, was typed by the inability of Nebuchadnezzar's wise men to tell the dream and its interpretation (vs. 4-11). The decree to slay the wise men of Babylon types the determination of the thinking members of the nominal church to set aside as their teachers, a symbolic killing, the wise men of Christendom. Arioch (vs. 14, 15) represents those who led the people in setting aside such teachers, i.e., the free thinkers, higher critics, etc., who, beginning about 1785, worked to undermine popular confidence in Christendom's wise men as teachers. Undoubtedly, the prestige of such wise men was greatly decreased with ever-increasing numbers of nominal people of God from that time onward. Arioch's seeking Daniel (v. 13) represents that such free thinkers, higher critics, etc., sought to undermine Bro. Russell as a teacher in Christendom. Daniel's tact in dealing with Arioch (vs. 14, 15) types Bro. Russell's tact in dealing with free thinkers, etc. Arioch's telling Daniel the situation (v. 15) types the free thinkers, etc., telling the situation of the antitypical wise men to Bro. Russell.

 

(11) Daniel's going to the king and obtaining time to consider and answer the matter (v. 16) represents Bro. Russell's standing before the nominal people of God as a teacher of religion and promising, if allowed due time, to solve the matter at hand. Daniel's laying the matter before his three friends and asking their united prayers over the matter (vs. 17, 18) represents Bro. Russell's habit of asking suggestions from the brethren when in difficulty and asking their prayers for Divine enlightenment, e.g., when he was perplexed over the meaning of the voice of the three signs (Z '07, 276, last par.). Members of the Bethel family will recall such things as occurring. This course he followed in the present instance. God's revealing this matter to Daniel (v. 19) types God's making known

 

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to Bro. Russell the view of the early Christians on the meaning of history as exemplified in the Gentile rule and the prophesied role of God's Kingdom. Daniel's thanksgiving (vs. 19-23) types Bro. Russell's thanksgiving at this mercy of God. Daniel's desiring Arioch not to destroy Babylon's wise men (v. 24) represents Bro. Russell's refutation of the course of the free thinkers, etc., which was a hindrance to their object. Arioch's bringing Daniel to the king as one who would tell and interpret the dream (v. 25) types the free thinkers', etc., more or less praising Bro. Russell, whose kindly manner and logical teachings favorably impressed them. Nebuchadnezzar's asking Daniel if he could give and interpret the dream (v. 26) types the nominal people of God inquiring, i.e., searching Bro. Russell's teachings for an answer to the matter on hand. Daniel's reminding Nebuchadnezzar that Babylon's wise men could not answer his questions (v. 27) types Bro. Russell's statements that Christendom's clergy, professors, learned ones, prophets and philosophers have been unable to answer the matter. Daniel's attributing the implied wisdom, not to himself, but to God (v. 28), types-Bro. Russell's denying that he had his wisdom of himself, but that it was of God, who as due revealed the knowledge to him. Daniel's telling and interpreting the dream (vs. 28-45) types Bro. Russell's showing the view of the early Christians on the increasing depravity accompanying the rule of the Gentiles and on the role of God's Kingdom as the destroyer and successor of these. This view our Pastor gave in his writings, sermons and lectures. The king's honoring and promoting Daniel (vs. 46-48) type how increasingly the people of Christendom honored Bro. Russell and regarded him as above all other religious teachers of Christendom. Daniel's desiring promotion for his three friends (v. 49) types Bro. Russell's using his position to advance the Lord's people as teachers in Christendom. Daniel's sitting in the king's gate

 

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(v. 49) types the great and favorable publicity that Bro. Russell got especially from 1913 onward.

 

(12) In the events of Dan. 3, Daniel took no part. It has often occasioned wonder as to where Daniel was while Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego were undergoing the trial of the golden image and the fiery furnace. While the record is silent on this point, one thing is certain about it, i.e., that Daniel was absent from the plain of Dura; for he certainly would have stood beside his three friends, had he been present. When we look at the antitype it becomes manifest that Daniel, who throughout his book types our Pastor, could not have been there; for had he been present it would have spoiled the antitype; for Bro. Russell died before either of the two fulfillments set in where he lived. Thus in the light of the antitype Daniel's absence during the events described in chapter 3 is entirely clear. Nevertheless, Daniel wrote this, as well as the rest of the book that bears his name. And what does his writing this chapter type? Bro. Russell's giving the two antitypes of this chapter, e.g., one in Z '99, 168-172, and the other in Z '15, 259-261. Thus in giving these two antitypes of this chapter our Pastor antityped Daniel in writing it.

 

(13) We now come to Dan. 4. In this chapter Nebuchadnezzar gives an account of a prophetic dream that he had, its interpretation by Daniel and its fulfillment. Daniel interpreted the dream only from the standpoint of its application to King Nebuchadnezzar. In Studies, Vol. II, in the chapter on the Times of the Gentiles, gives us the antitype of the dream; but while giving us the antitype of the dream, he did not give us the antitype of Daniel as interpreting the dream. It is unnecessary for us here to give the antitype of the dream itself, either as to the tree and the wild man or as to Nebuchadnezzar, since it is sufficiently given in Studies, Vol. II in the chapter on the Times of the Gentiles. We will now give the antitypes of

 

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the chapter not given by our Pastor. As he shows, Nebuchadnezzar in this chapter represents the human family. In his first honorable position he represents the race before the fall. His sinning in pride represents the race's fall into sin. The sentence against him, that against the race. His being driven out from his associates, man's being cut off from fellowship with God and the good angels. His experiences before the seven times, man's experience of evil before the Times of the Gentiles set in. His experience during the seven times, the race's greater evils under the curse during the Times of the Gentiles. His coming back to his senses, man's restoration during the times of restitution. His coming back to his kingdom with added honors, the increased glories for the obedient of mankind in the Ages following the Millennium. His ascribing glory, honor and praise to God, restored man's praise of God forever. These are the generalities of the antitype. The specialities of those things not interpreted by our Pastor will now engage our attention.

 

(14) Nebuchadnezzar's dream (v. 5) represents the view that mankind in general has had: a past golden age, a present experience of evil and a coming golden age. This view has had representatives in all nations. Among heathen Plato and Virgil have set it forth rather remarkably. Nebuchadnezzar's asking for its interpretation from the magi, the astrologers, the Chaldeans and the soothsayers (vs. 6, 7), types mankind's inquiring, particularly in Christendom, of the learned, the historians, the clergy and the prophets, for an explanation of the vague views of a past and future golden age and a present experience with evil. The failure of Nebuchadnezzar's magi, astrologers, Chaldeans and soothsayers, to interpret his dream (v. 7), types the failure of the learned, the historians, the clergy and the prophets, particularly in Christendom, to interpret the antitype. Daniel's coming at the last (v. 8) types that at the end of the Age (Luke 12: 42;

 

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Matt. 24: 45) would arise his antitype, Bro. Russell. Nebuchadnezzar's telling him the dream (vs. 8-18) types men telling our Pastor their indefinite views on a past and future golden age and a present experience with evil, and asking his thought thereon. Daniel's being troubled over the matter one hour (v. 19) types Bro. Russell's temporary perplexity until about 1880 over certain features of the antitype, particularly on the purpose of the experience with evil and its relation to the one following it with good. Daniel's assuring the king that the dream and its interpretation were such as his haters and enemies desired (v. 19) types Bro. Russell's teaching that only haters of the human family, i.e., the devil and his followers among spirits and men, could have any pleasure in man's experience with evil. Daniel's interpretation of the dream types our Pastor's giving the following lines of thought: man's creation in the image and likeness of God and happy life in Eden; man's trial and fall through sin into death amid an ever degrading experience with evil, first in a milder form, then during the Times of the Gentiles in a severer form; his progressively elevating experience with righteousness; his final trial and the everlasting bliss of the obedient in honoring and serving God. Without any doubt our dear Pastor did give such an explanation of the antitypical dream, and in his writings, sermons and lectures, apart from explaining Dan. 4, he gave such thoughts on the Divine Plan with respect to the human family.

 

(15) Dan. 5 treats of Belshazzar's feast, the handwriting on the wall and its reading and interpretation. In one of the pictures used in the German Photo-Drama the antitype of the interpretation is given. Therein our Pastor is represented as giving the right interpretation, while the clergy, etc., are pictured forth as in confusion worse confounded thereover. In the following we will not give the story as contained in Dan. 5, but only the interpretation of the type. In

 

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this chapter Belshazzar types the nominal people of God in state, church and capital, especially their leaders as a class. His 1,000 lords (v. 1) represent these leaders distributively as being many, i.e., in their totality. His wives represent the main organizations of the nominal people of God, and his concubines their lesser organizations. The feast (v. 1) types the Parousia privileges and advantages that the nominal people of God appropriated to themselves, particularly such as they appropriated to themselves in the church unions of the Parousia. The golden and silver vessels (vs. 2, 3) type the Divine truths that had been taken captive in the Dark Ages with God's real people into symbolic Babylon. The sending of these vessels types the requirements that the teachings of God's Word be made subservient to Babylon's unclean uses. Putting Babylon's wine into these vessels types the corruption of the Divine truth with Babylon's errors. The banqueters' drinking there from types the antitypical Babylonians' partaking of a mixture of Truth and error in their Parousia feast. The fingers of a man's hand (v. 5) that wrote on the wall represent the exhibition of Divine power (hand) on symbolic Babylon's walls (her political, financial, ecclesiastical, social and labor powers). The king's seeing the part of the hand that wrote (v. 5) types the nominal people of God recognizing in part that it was a manifestation of Divine power that they witnessed. And such power was manifest in the signs of the times occurring in Babylon's political, financial, ecclesiastical, labor and social powers.

 

(16) The great perturbation of the king at the sight (v. 6) types Christendom's fears at the events which proved to be the signs of the times—"men's hearts failing them for fear and for looking after those things which are coming upon the earth" (Luke 21: 26). The king's demand that the wise men of Babylon be brought before him (v. 7) types the demand of the nominal people of God that the wise men of Christendom

 

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be summoned to the fore on the subject at hand. His offer to give the purple robe, the golden chain and the third position in the kingdom to the one who would read and interpret the handwriting, represents Christendom's reward of making the true reader and interpreter the royally accepted (purple robe), Divinely authorized (golden chain on the neck) chief teacher in the religious (the third) department of symbolic Babylon. The failure of the astrologers, Chaldeans and soothsayers to read or interpret the handwriting types the failure of Christendom's learned men, clergy and prophets, to read and interpret the signs of the times. Belshazzar's increased fears and that of his lords (v. 9) types the increased perplexity of the nominal people of God, particularly of its leaders, at the events which proved to be signs of the times, when their trusted teachers were unable to decipher these; for the higher critics and evolutionists, the creedists and philosophers, the students of church, state, capital, labor and society and reformers, were all alike at sea in their attempts to read and explain the events as signs of the times, so contradictory of their theories. Their boasted learning, theories, cures and programs foundered on the rock of Truth embodied in these events as signs of the times.

 

(17) The queen (v. 10) types friendly readers of Pastor Russell's writings, who, while not consecrating and coming into the Truth, nevertheless regarded him as a wonderfully enlightened man of God (v. 11), whose true and reasonable solutions of the most difficult religious problems, particularly those antityped by the interpretations given by Daniel to Nebuchadnezzar's two dreams (vs. 11, 12), satisfied them that Pastor Russell could read and interpret the antitypical handwriting on the wall. These were attracted (v. 10) to the symbolic feast by the report of Christendom's, particularly her leaders', expressed perplexity over the involved events. Their suggestion that Pastor Russell

 

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be sent for to solve the difficulty antitypes the queen's suggestion that Daniel be sent for to decipher the handwriting on the wall (v. 12). The sending for Daniel, implied in vs. 12, 13, types the summoning of Bro. Russell in his writings, sermons and lectures, to solve the difficulty. Daniel's being brought in before the king (v. 13) types Bro. Russell's being brought in before the nominal people of God, particularly their leaders, in the sense that his writings, sermons and lectures were introduced before these. The king's telling Daniel what he had heard of him (vs. 13-16) represents the thoughts of the nominal people of God with respect to him, as they took our Pastor's literature and words in hand to get his views on the pertinent events. In type and antitype inquiries were made (v. 13), compliments were passed on the one asked to explain (v. 14), the inability of the wise men to solve the difficulty was acknowledged (v. 15), the ability of the one asked was acknowledged (v. 16) and the above-mentioned reward was offered (v. 16). Daniel's first statement (v. 17), that the king keep his gifts or bestow his rewards on another types Bro. Russell's disinterestedness; for he gladly gave his service in the cause of Truth freely, declining to accept remuneration therefore. Daniel's willingness to read and interpret the handwriting (v. 17) types Bro. Russell's willingness to read and explain the peculiar events as signs of the times to the nominal people of God.

 

(18) But Daniel preceded his reading and interpretation of the writing by a penitential sermon to the king (vs. 1823), which types our Pastor's reading a Daniel's allusions to Nebuchadnezzar's exaltation, sin, degradation, repentance and restoration (vs. 18-21), types our Pastor's various presentations on man's original perfection, his sin, his experience with evil with its consequent degradation, and man's future repentance and restoration as a warning to the Parousia

 

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generation against its sinful course—a generation which knew all these things (v. 22), but which, despite such knowledge, exalted (v. 23), instead of humbling, itself, even to the degree of defiling God's Truth, each individually in general, and in particular through the leaders and their organizations (v. 23), and honored their creeds as god, but failed to glorify the true God. Certainly our Pastor's pertinent writings, sermons and lectures are replete with such teachings. As Daniel showed (v. 24) that God's sign was given in view of such sins on the part of Belshazzar, his lords, wives and concubines, so Bro. Russell showed that, among other reasons, it was in view of Christendom's sins that the pertinent events as signs of the times were sent by God. In both the type and the antitype it was most fitting that the pertinent sinfulness should have been pointed out before the typical and antitypical handwriting was read and interpreted. Then in each case came the reading and interpretation of the mystic handwriting on the wall.

 

(19) First Daniel read the writing (v. 25), which the Babylonian wise men could not even read. This represents that first our Pastor showed that the perplexing events, which as such Christendom's wise men could not clearly see, were signs of the times and must be seen as such. Then as Daniel explained the meaning of the words (vs. 26-28), so Bro. Russell explained the meaning of the signs. What is the antitype of Daniel's explaining that MENE (v. 26) means "God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it" (v. 26)? It is this: Our Pastor, in his writings, lectures and sermons, pointed out that God had limited the kingdoms of the world to a definite number of years—the seven times of the Gentiles, 2520 years—and that these times would end in 1914, which finished the period of the lease of power to Gentile kingdoms. Very significant in this connection is the fact that the numeric value of those words on the wall is exactly 2520—

 

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Mene = 1000; Mene = 1000; Tekel = 20; Peres =500, the gerah being the unit here meant (Num. 3: 47). This—that the Gentile times were numbered—2520 years—and were coming to an end in 1914, is the first thing that the events as signs of the times indicated, for among other things they indicated that the kingdoms were tottering unto a fall; hence that their time of reigning was at an end. What is the antitype of the explanation of TEKEL?—"Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting" (v. 27)? Our Pastor's pointing out in his writings, e.g., in the Views From The Watch Tower and in Studies, Vol. IV, in his lectures and in his sermons, that Christendom political, financial, ecclesiastical, labor and social, was on trial before the bar of Divine Justice, charged in numerous specifications with failure to fulfill its real and alleged mission. All will recall with what thoroughness of proof from Scripture, reason and fact these details were given, especially in Studies, Vol. IV. These specifications with their proofs in the events were the weighing in the balances. This weighing demonstrated, in spite of the contentions of Christendom's advocates, that it was found lacking as a result of the trial. Justice in the one side of the scales tipped the side of the scale in which Christendom lay up against the beam, almost perpendicularly above the justice side of the scale. Truly, as a result of this weighing Christendom was found wanting. This was the second great thing that the events as signs of the times indicated.

 

(20) What is the antitype of the explanation of PERES of which UPHARSIN is a form (v. 25)—"Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians" (v. 28)? Our Pastor pointed out that the signs of the times indicated that Christendom was divided into two hostile camps: a conservative camp, consisting of church, state and capital, and a radical camp, consisting of farmers, trade unionists, socialists, communists and anarchists. Furthermore, he pointed

 

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out that the ever-increasing friction between these two camps would burst out into a fire of destruction in Armageddon, which would destroy the conservative camp, obliterating the present forms of state, church and capital. Moreover, he pointed out that these signs indicated the imminence of God's Kingdom in its two phases (Medes and Persians), as the kingdom that would succeed the kingdoms of this world. Thus did he point out the three great things indicated in the signs of the times: (1) the end of the Gentile times; (2) Babylon's judgment going against her and (3) the overthrow of Satan's empire, to be succeeded by God's two-phased Kingdom. Without any doubt this is the interpretation of the signs of the times that our Pastor gave, which none of Babylon's wise men could give. They could not even read the events, i.e., recognize them to be significant. And the events demonstrate especially since 1914 onward that his reading and interpreting were correct. Daniel clothed in the purple robe represents that Bro. Russell was royally received as the true reader and interpreter of the signs of the times. Daniel's having the chain of gold put about his neck types that Bro. Russell was accepted as the Divinely authorized reader and interpreter of the signs of the times. And Daniel's being accepted as the third (the religious) ruler in Babylon types that Bro. Russell was increasingly regarded as the greatest religious teacher in Christendom, the ecclesiastical division being during the Parousia considered in influence the third division of Christendom. Belshazzar's death (v. 30) types the nominal kingdom passing away in the trouble. Darius taking the kingdom represents our Lord taking the Kingdom.

 

(21) We now come to the sixth chapter of Daniel, which treats of Daniel in the lions' den. As with the matters of the preceding chapter so with those of this chapter, our Pastor in a half-page People's Pulpit picture used to advertise public meetings, which picture