Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing (epiphany) of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Titus 2:13




1 SAM. 16.




WITH this chapter we desire to begin a study of David as a type of our Pastor in the executive feature of his office as that Servant; and in it we desire to present David's first appearance, as given in 1 Sam. 16. As already pointed out, David in the Psalms types, sometimes our Lord, sometimes the Church and sometimes both our Lord and the Church; but in the histories, so far as we now see, while his experiences illustrate and often in a general way type things in the experiences of the Christ class, specifically he types our Pastor as the Lord's executive, a part of whose office as such was for him to fight the Lord's battles. Hence as executive he was ruler of the Lord's household and commander of His armies as a warrior. David's first appearance followed the Lord's full rejection of Saul. While in a general way Saul (desired) is typical of nominal Fleshly and Spiritual Israel, specifically he types the crown-lost leaders of the twelve denominations of Christendom. It will be sufficient for the purposes of this chapter to point out that these were rejected by the Lord as His leaders for the twelve denominations of Christendom for failure to overcome sin, though lopping off some of the branches of the tree of sin, and for attempting to offer forbidden things to the Lord, as typed by Saul's failing to kill Agag, king of the Amalekites (sins), and for sparing the choicest of their herds and flocks, alleging that he spared them for sacrifice. On the other hand, Samuel (name of God)



types in a general way the Little Flock, but specifically the Little Flock leaders—those who started Little Flock movements and who then retired from leadership before the sectarianizing works of the crown-lost leaders, though continuing active subordinately in such sectarian bodies. This was his course in all twelve Little Flock movements later perverted into denominations by the crown-lost leaders.


(2) Naturally, after the Lord's rejection of antitypical Saul for unfaithfulness in each of the twelve denominations, antitypical Samuel mourned for antitypical Saul. This was done after the pertinent act in each of the twelve denominations. Hence there were twelve of such rejections, some of them centuries apart, e.g., that of the crown-lost leaders of the Greek and Roman Catholic Churches occurred hundreds of years before that of other crown-lost leaders, e.g., of the Lutheran and other Protestant Churches, the last of such rejections setting in about 1846 with Seventh Day Adventist leaders, as the first set of Adventist leaders so treated. And after each of such rejections (v. 1) antitypical Samuel sorrowed for the rejected ones, i.e., the Little Flock leaders in the denominations were distressed at the condition of the crown-lost leaders in these evils after their rejection by the Lord; for the Little Flock leaders were free from envy, loved these crown-lost leaders, and naturally felt distressed at their ever deeper fall into sin, error and tactical blunders. The Lord seemingly did not intimate to our Samuel that he cease such distress until after the last of the twelve rejections, when it became due to seek another leader for God's people, for such sorrow was not only not wrong, but is in harmony with the Lord's spirit that feels distress at others' spiritual disasters. Only then does mourning over the fall of others become wrong when the fall is into the Second Death class (Lev. 10: 6, 7). The consciousness that Saul's rejection was final made such



distress of no further practical use. When the time came to seek another leader for God's people, it was time for antitypical Samuel to cease such distress, as it would interfere with the work at hand.


(3) Then God charged antitypical Samuel to fill his mind (horn, v. 1) with the pertinent truths, i.e., such as would fit the one to be anointed for the work that he was to do. Antitypical Samuel would find the chosen one (I have provided me, v. 1) among those of God's nominal and real people (Jesse, v. 1) who loved and studied the Bible (Bethlehem, house of bread, v. 1). We are, of course, not to understand that God spoke orally or inspirationally to antitypical Samuel, since He ceased such methods of communication with the completion of the Bible. Rather, whenever He is said to speak antitypically with people since the Bible's completion, we are to understand that it is by the principles of His Word, by His Spirit and by His providences. Such speaking with antitypical Samuel as is mentioned in v. 1 began in 1846 with William Miller, who, recognizing that the great leaders of the nominal church were rejected by the Lord, and recognizing that he was too old and worn much longer to be a leader, looked around for one Divinely chosen; for he knew that the true people of God must have a leader, and that the nominal-church leaders were no longer available. In these ways God made clear to his mind that another was to be sought therefore. But herein was the difficulty: If he and other members of antitypical Samuel should publicly seek such a leader (How can I go? v. 2) the crown-lost leaders would cause them to be excommunicated from the churches (he will kill me, v. 2). Against this contingency the Lord had a way of escape—giving antitypical Samuel a twofold work: (1) public, and (2) private. The public work was to consist of an evangelistic effort to convert sinners to righteousness (Take an heifer [not a bullock or goat, but an animal typing people having



tentatively reckoned human perfection, as the red heifer typed the Ancient Worthies, as indicating that the work was to lead to tentative justification], v. 2).


(4) From 1829 to 1844 Bro. Miller and other members of antitypical Samuel preached the chronology as indicating the Lord's return. Then came their disappointment in 1844, and naturally thereafter they could not preach time features to the public. The only thing under the circumstances open to them, if they were to appear among the nominal people of God, was to preach a message that the latter could endorse. And an appeal to repentance and faith was such a message. Not only the nominal, but also the real people of God could share in such a work at any time before 1874 (call Jesse to the sacrifice, v. 3). In connection with such a work God would bring antitypical Samuel into contact with antitypical David for the purpose of anointing him. The anointing itself would be done in connection with a private work (I will show thee what thou shalt do, v. 3). Accordingly, Bro. Miller and others started out in 1846 and onward in a double work: a public one, having as its design the turning of sinners to justification, and a private one, having as its purpose the seeking and anointing of a leader for God's people (Samuel did that which the Lord spake, v. 4), doing both among the nominal and real people of God, as Bible lovers and students (came to Bethlehem, v. 4). Thus the last years of Bro. Miller's life were devoted to the double work above mentioned. But the leaders among the nominal and real people of God, remembering the failure of Bro. Miller's 1844 expectations, feared him as perhaps seeking to do propaganda work of a kind similar to that which failed in 1844 (the elders trembled at his coming, v. 4); for the 1844 disappointment made time prophecy very unpopular; and its advocates seem deceivers; and naturally the leaders of the nominal and real people of God, many



of whom had supported Bro. Miller's pre-1844 work, feared such a work and such workers.


(5) Therefore with misgivings they inquired whether he was intent on doing a prosperous thing (Comest thou peaceably? v. 4). Their question was appropriate, because they knew that a renewal of a propaganda effort like the one that had failed would work injury to Bible lovers and students. Therefore Bro. Miller, etc., assured such that they were intent on prospering Truth and righteousness among God's nominal and real people by seeking to turn sinners to righteousness (I am come to sacrifice unto the Lord, v. 5). Thereupon they invited the leaders of the Bible loving and studying nominal and real people of God to join in with them in such evangelistic work by separating themselves (sanctify yourselves, v. 5) and dedicating themselves thereto (and come with me to the sacrifice, v. 5). These members of antitypical Samuel likewise secured the separation and dedication of the Bible loving and studying nominal and real people of God to this work (he sanctified Jesse … to the sacrifice, v. 5). And a work of this kind enlisted the support of such. This work was continued until well toward 1871. It, of course, required years to try out and reject the seven sons of antitypical Jesse and the time from 1846 to 1871 was none too long for such a work, for in each case it averaged less than four years, which was rather quick work. While Jesse represents the whole of God's Bible loving and studying nominal and real people of God, his sons represent the various classes among such. Thus he represents them as a whole and his sons represent them as distributed into their component classes or parts. This will appear from the facts of the case, as they will be unfolded.


(6) Thus the seven (v. 10) classes among God's Bible loving and studying nominal and real people participated in the evangelistic work initiated by antitypical Samuel. And they participated in a certain



natural order of precedence, as typed by the order based on age in the type. Antitypical Eliab naturally showed himself as the most prominent of all in such work. This will appear when we recognize that Eliab (v. 6) here types the same class of tentatively justified ones as the Gershonite Levites type, i.e., the tentatively justified ones who seek to bring sinners to justification (antitypical Libnite Gershonites), and who seek to bring the tentatively justified ones to consecration (antitypical Shimite Gershonites). While in a general way these consist of all tentatively justified ones who engage in such work, specifically they consist mainly of the clergy, the local elders, Sunday School superintendents and teachers and other especially zealous lay workers, as shown in Vol. VIII, Chap. II. The more prominent part that these would naturally take in evangelistic work would naturally bring them, first of all, to the attention of antitypical Samuel (when they were come, he looked on Eliab [my God is father], v. 6). Their zeal, as well as the things brought out about them in v. 7, which will be discussed when we study v. 7, made antitypical Samuel conclude that these were the Lord's choice for leadership among God's people (the Lord's anointed is before Him, v. 6). But the Lord by the principles of His Word, by His Spirit and by His providences, doubtless connected with the course of antitypical Eliab in the evangelistic work, which proved his pride, arrogance and other faults (1 Sam. 17: 28), told antitypical Samuel that antitypical Eliab was not his choice (I have refused him, v. 7), despite the latter's knowledge (countenance) and talents (height of his stature). The Lord's judgments are not, like human judgments, based solely or mainly on outward appearance, such as great knowledge and talent, but mainly on heart characteristics. In so informing antitypical Samuel the Lord gave him both good instruction and a gentle rebuke. While the Lord does not despise knowledge and talent,



as some mistakenly think, but, if sanctified, uses them advantageously for His cause, yet He certainly does not put the main emphasis on them, which main emphasis He lays upon the characteristics of the heart, wherein antitypical Eliab came short, despite his knowledge and talents, which, if not accompanied by charity, merely puff up (1 Cor. 8: 1)


(7) The class that showed itself as next most prominent in helping antitypical Samuel in the pertinent evangelistic work consisted of tentatively justified editors and publishers who freely lent aid in advertising and commending antitypical Samuel's evangelistic work and in seeking to secure the public's attendances thereat. These are here typed by Abinadab (my father is noble [or wilful], v. 8), as they are otherwise typed by the Merarite Levites, the editors among them being typed by the Mahlite Merarites and the publishers among them being typed by the Mushite Merarites, as shown in Vol. VIII, Chap. II. Among such editors and publishers were some able mentally and financially and zealous in work; and as antitypical Jesse called these to help in the antitypical sacrifice, and as they responded, they must for awhile have made a favorable impression on antitypical Samuel; but this impression was after awhile dissipated by the pertinent principles of the Lord's Word, by the Lord's Spirit and by the Lord's providences, as by these antitypical Abinadab's unfitness for the office was by the Lord made known to antitypical Samuel, who, accordingly, desisted from further attempts with this class of helpers.


(8) Next God's Bible loving and studying nominal and real people brought forward antitypical Shammah (wonder, v. 5) as helpers in antitypical Samuel's evangelistic work. Shammah represents those tentatively justified believers who have done the scholarly Gospel-Age Levite work. Thus he corresponds to the Kohathite Levites, whose Gospel-Age antitypes, as shown in Vol. VIII, Chap. II, have done linguistic work on Greek



and Hebrew Bible recensions (antitypical Gershonite Amramite Kohathites), dictionaries, grammars, translations and concordances (antitypical Eliezerite Amramite Kohathites); interpretational work on Bible introductions (antitypical Zichrite Izeharite Kohathites), commentaries (antitypical Nephegite Izeharite Kohathites) and harmonetics (antitypical Korahite Izeharite Kohathites); historical work on Bible and Church history and biography (antitypical Jeriahite Hebronite Kohathites), on Bible chronology (antitypical Amariahite Hebronite Kohathites), on Bible archeology (antitypical Jahazielite Hebronite Kohathites), on Bible geography (antitypical Jekameamite Hebronite Kohathites); and systematic work on Bible apologetics (antitypical Zithrite Uzzielite Kohathites), on Bible doctrine (antitypical Elzaphanite Uzzielite Kohathites) and on Bible ethics (antitypical Mishaelite Uzzielite Kohathites). These were the scholars among the Gospel-Age Levites. Naturally they would be the last of the tentatively justified to take part in evangelistic work, as such work is quite far removed from their sphere of service, which, by its scholarly atmosphere, depth and details, is of all Gospel-Age Levite work, the least available for evangelistic work. Their aloofness, depth and subject matter soon demonstrated their inavailability for the leadership needed and sought. Hence by these indications the Lord showed antitypical Samuel that He had rejected antitypical Shammah; and with His rejection the rejection of the tentatively justified in their three groups was complete. Hence the leader sought for must be found among the consecrated. And the next four sons of Jesse (v. 10) represent classes among the consecrated.


(9) Who are represented by the first three of these four sons, i.e., the fourth, fifth and sixth of Jesse's sons? Our answer is: the crown-losers among the consecrated from about 1858 to about 1868, viewed anticipatorily as the Epiphany Levites. That God does



call those things that are not as though they were, in view of what they shall be, is Scripturally taught (Rom. 4: 17). This is also manifest in the service of the consecration of the priesthood, in that Aaron was clothed in glory and beauty before his consecration (Lev. 8: 6-9, 12-15), which, as our Pastor shows (T 38, par. 1), types that before the consecration of the World's High Priest God views Him, in view of what He will be in the Millennium, as being such before His consecration. This is also directly shown typically as to the crown-losers in Num. 16, where Korah (a Kohathite) and his 250 fellow-contradicting Levites type the crown-losers in the Truth (Korah) and in the nominal church (the 250 Levites) in the 1908-1911 sifting contradicting Jesus (Moses) and the Priesthood (Aaron) during that sifting, whereas the real Levites of that time were the tentatively justified, while the Great Company Levites are Epiphaniac; hence those 1908-1911 sifters, before they became Second Deathers (killed by fire from before the Lord—Num. 16: 35), must have been viewed anticipatorily as Epiphany Levites. Accordingly, we understand Jesse's fourth son to represent such crown-losers from about 1858 to about 1862 as were anticipatory Epiphany Gershonites and who as such cooperated with antitypical Samuel in his pertinent evangelistic work. These were rejected, partly because of being unfit and partly because of being many, while the Lord was seeking an individual as the coming leader.


(10) The fifth son of Jesse would, accordingly, type those crown-losers who, as consecrated editors and publishers, from about 1862 to about 1865 cooperated with antitypical Samuel in his pertinent evangelistic work, and who were anticipatorily viewed as Epiphany Merarites, while they were being tried out from about 1862 to about 1865. These were rejected for the same reason as the anticipatory Epiphany Gershonites. The sixth son of Jesse would, accordingly,



represent those crown-losers who, being linguistical, interpretational, historical and systematical scholars, from about 1865 to about 1868 cooperated with antitypical Samuel in his pertinent evangelistic work, and who were anticipatorily viewed as Epiphany Kohathites. These were likewise rejected because of failure to qualify for the place, as well as because of the fact that the office for whom an incumbent was sought was to be filled by an individual. The process of elimination that the antitypical candidates underwent had so far rejected six distinct classes from the choice. There was only one more class left among God's Bible loving and studying nominal and real people, and that was the Little Flock, which in the type under study is represented by Jesse's seventh son, and which, from about 1868 to about 1871 cooperated with antitypical Samuel in evangelistic work. Its rejection also proves that it was not sufficiently qualified to fill the office in question, as its rejection was also due to the fact that office could have only an individual as its holder. Hence any class was from the outstart sure to meet rejection, regardless of the fact that one of such classes was the Little Flock; for as loyal as the Little Flock is and has been, its members as a whole were not qualified for the position. Only one individual among them had the necessary qualifications for that place; and hence from the outstart God had him, and him alone, in mind for that place (I have provided me a king among his sons, v. 1), though all along antitypical Samuel was ignorant of this fact, hence his thinking in each case of the seven classes that the Lord's anointed was before Him. The Little Flock underwent the pertinent scrutiny from about 1868 to about 1871. The periods for the trial of the seven classes given above are only approximate and are based on the sequence of the seven sons in the type and on a seventh average of the antitypical time—1846-1871—allotted as a guess for each.



(11) All along from 1846 to 1871 antitypical Samuel was seeking a leader for the Lord's people; and he was sure that since the crown-lost leaders had been rejected from that place, the Lord must have someone else in mind to fill it. Hence by his heart's attitude and mental conviction, not by words, he still sought among the people of God for such a leader after the seven classes were rejected (Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here all thy children? v. 11). And such a leader had been undergoing preparation, partly by prenatal influence (in 1851 and 1852) that gave him the needed capacities of head and heart (for his parents consecrated him to the Lord before his birth and endowed him well), partly by a careful childhood training that made him in later years declare that he could not remember a time in which he was not in a consecrated attitude—always sought to do God's will—partly by a set purpose never to believe anything that contradicted God's character (in and to what experiences for two years, 1868 -1870, with sectarian churchianity, infidelity, heathen and other non-Christian religions, etc., this principle led him, we described in Chap. VII), and partly by his recovery from almost despair of arriving at religious Truth, about 1870, through the ministry of Jonas Wendell, an Adventist preacher (Z '16, 170, pars. 9, 10), who convinced him that the Bible was God's revelation and that it taught neither human immortality nor eternal torment, and consequently no predestination of the bulk of the human family to eternal torture, as his former church's creed taught, because of which, convinced that the Bible taught those doctrines, he had rejected the Bible as a Divine revelation. Thus under the influence of Jonas Wendell's ministry he came to a mental attitude in which he was willing to investigate the Bible's claims to being a Divine revelation and accepted it as such. The members of antitypical Samuel who received the reply, There remaineth yet



the youngest (v. 11), were Bros. George Stetson and George Storrs (Reprints, 46, pars. 4, 10-13; 71, pars. 3-5, 14, 15; 623; 624), who had the privilege to anoint Bro. Russell as antitypical David between the years 1871 and 1874 (Z '16, 170, par. 13). These references might profitably be read.


(12) Jesse's reply antitypically implies that at that time Bro. Russell was acting as a spiritual shepherd of some of the Lord's sheep (he keepeth the sheep, v. 11). Hence this reply must have been made after Jonas Wendell had recovered him from his almost despair of finding a Divine revelation, for which he had been investigating for two weary years the dreary deserts of heathenism and Mohammedanism, which he found to be destitute of any oasis where a thirsty soul could quench its raging religious thirst. Given to see that the Bible was Divinely inspired, and that it taught not human immortality, eternal torment and the predestination of the bulk of the race thereto, but that, according to the Bible, death is the wages of sin, and that the race is doomed thereto, not by predestination, but by God's sentence on rebellious sinners, a heart so full of zeal, love for God, Truth and his fellows could not do otherwise than tell out the little of Truth that he had; and thus, beginning in 1870, he gathered about himself a Bible class whose members he sought to help in the ways of God, so far as he knew them. Thus he kept the sheep (v. 11). Some members of antitypical Jesse told Bros. Stetson and Storrs of him (sent and brought him, v. 12); and Bro. Storrs sent him his magazine, which was called, The Bible Examiner. Bro. Storrs had for years been preaching and writing in advocacy of the following teachings: Adam brought sin and death, not eternal torment, on the human family; Jesus Christ by God's grace gave Himself a ransom for all; all must therefore have an opportunity to gain blessing from the ransom; the elect, whose selection is not



arbitrary, but conditional on faith working by love unto overcoming, are given that opportunity in this life, during which they are prepared for joint-heirship with Christ in His Millennial reign; the non-elect will get that opportunity in the Millennium; and the finally incorrigible will be destroyed, not tortured, eternally.


(13) The effect upon Bro. Russell, as a reader and student of The Bible Examiner, filled as it was with such items, was most beneficial, but before describing this we must pause and examine the typical, description of Bro. Russell at this time, as given in v. 12. While the description of him in this verse is not literal, but symbolical, it will not be out of place here to say a few things of his physical condition. Pastor Russell never was a physically strong and healthful person Indeed, at his birth it was for a long time doubtful whether he would live at all; yet in the main he was endowed with some fine physical characteristics. He stood five feet and eleven inches high when without shoes, and very erect. Moreover, his body was symmetrically built. His top head was unusually high, indicating an unusual religious endowment, as was also his forehead, revelatory of large intellectuality, while from ear to ear his head was quite wide, showing extraordinary executiveness. His eyebrows were very prominent, showing his fine perceptive powers; his nose was long, high, straight and pointed, manifesting sagacity. The unusually wide space between his eyes and above his nose indicated comprehension of form and details. His mouth was large and firm, with rather thin lips, showing communicativeness, chastity and firmness. His grayish eyes were large and wonderfully luminous; his cheeks were full and often rosy. The back of his head, where the social faculties and certain selfish faculties are located, was, as it were, cut off from top to bottom. This is one of the reasons why he wore his hair long, and why he turned it up at the bottom on the back of his head. His hands were average



sized and soft, as soft as a woman's who does not work with her hands. His fingers were long and set off his gestures well, while he was addressing his audiences. His complexion was quite fair. He had one of the finest and most distinguished faces that ever graced a member of our fallen race. To look upon that face was a benediction. Strangers passing him on the street often would turn to get another look. He wore no mustache, but his beard, especially in his later years, when it was snow-white, gave him a benign and patriarchal mien. Thus, physically, his appearance was very attractive. His knowledge of medicine and of his body contributed in a good measure to his making so frail a body the instrument through which he was able to do so prodigious an amount of work as he did.


(14) Phrenologically also he was an extraordinary man. A phrenologist who did not know him, nor ever before had seen him, was once shown his picture. Studying that picture awhile, he remarked, "That is an unusually gifted man. He is either the president of a theological seminary or a merchant prince, I am not sure which." This phrenologist in his way pointed out the general gifts of the man—a deep student of the Word and an able executive. In fact he struck the two main characteristics of Pastor Russell's ministry— the interpreter of the Word who was in charge of the storehouse, and the Lord's steward administering the affairs of the Lord's house (Matt. 24: 45-47; Luke 12: 42-44). It would be of interest to our readers to know of his experience with Prof. Fowler, perhaps the ablest of all phrenologists. Pastor Russell's father, when the former was about 16 years of age, was very desirous to have Prof. Fowler examine Bro. Russell's head. The latter with characteristic humility declined to agree thereto, fearing that Prof. Fowler would seek to flatter him; and only then would he agree to it, if Prof. Fowler would promise to tell him what his lacks were and how to supply them, so as to insure success



in his undertakings. Prof. Fowler gave him a careful examination and, true to his promise, told him of his lacks. Among other things, he told him he must cultivate self-confidence and continuity, remarking thereon to the following effect: Young man, you can do anything that you will wish to do, only you think you can accomplish almost nothing and therefore will give up trying. You must do two things to make a success of yourself: Believe that you can do anything that you desire to do, and never give up that thing until you have brought it to a successful conclusion. The two pertinent lacks were due to the way his back head was, as it were, cut off. In the Lord's Spirit he changed Prof. Fowler's advice to the following: You can do anything that God desires you to do, and be sure never to give up that thing until it is completed. Toward the end of his life, e.g., where he had been so deficient in the organ of continuity, a bump had developed a full half-inch above the surrounding faculties, an evidence in his skull of his diligence in cultivating continuity—which is the main element in Bible patience. The Lord had probably forced part of Bro. Russell's brain away from his back head in order to give him larger religious and intellectual organs and a larger amount of brains in his combative and executive faculties, thus better fitting him for his work.


(15) Now to the antitype of David's description as given in v. 12. He was ruddy, or brown, as some translations give it. Taking first the latter meaning, it would refer to David's being tanned by the sun. Hence the antitype would suggest that Bro. Russell was tried, tested, with special reference to the trials and temptations that he underwent between 1868 and 1871 when searching for a Divine revelation. For this thought the sun in its fierce heat, as symbolizing temptation, trial, is pertinent (Matt. 13: 5, 6, 20, 21; Luke 8: 13). Taking, secondly, the thought ruddy, it would represent Bro. Russell's being made symbolically rosy-cheeked



by the New Testament as a symbolical sun (Rev. 12: 1), i.e., his views of things reflecting predominately New Testament, as distinct from predominately Old Testament things; for, as we pointed out in the preceding chapter, at the time when Bro. Russell's anointing was about to begin he was a full New Testament believer. Both thoughts are in harmony with the facts and the symbols; and hence we suggest both as the antitype of David's being ruddy or brown. Next we are told (v. 12) that David was of a beautiful countenance. In Bible symbols the face is used to represent knowledge (1 Cor. 13: 12; 2 Cor. 3: 18; Rev. 1: 16; 20: 11; Dan. 1: 15). Hence David's beautiful countenance types the symmetrical knowledge that by the time of his anointing Bro. Russell had gained. Above we have described some features of that knowledge. David was goodly to look to. This types the fine character that Bro. Russell had developed by the time that he was 19 years of age, i.e., when his anointing began.


(16) God's charge (v. 12) to antitypical Samuel, acting in the persons of Bro. George Stetson and Bro. George Storrs, to anoint Bro. Russell (v. 12) was given them providentially, particularly to Bro. Storrs when he was asked and moved to send to Bro. Russell his magazine, The Bible Examiner. Having heard of Bro. Russell's experiences and needs, Bro. Storrs wrote in his magazine such articles as would especially supply those needs (took the horn … anointed him, v. 13). Thus Bro. Russell's anointing was performed by antitypical Samuel, acting in Bros. Stetson and Storrs, not so much orally, as by the printed page and by letter. It was done in the midst of Bro. Russell's brethren (v. 13), in the sense that the magazine and letters were read by other members of Bro. Russell's Bible class as well as by himself, and all the members took part in the discussion on the pertinent subjects; for, as shown above, the members of this Bible class were variously members of the seven above-described



classes of God's people. This Bible class studied the subjects mentioned above as discussed in The Bible Examiner; and, as Bro. Russell testifies (Z '16, 170, par. 11171, par. 1), all of them grew in the knowledge of God's Word. But little did the members of this Bible class, including Bro. Russell, realize, what the Lord was causing to be done to Bro. Russell. Of course, all of them saw him growing in the knowledge that Bros. Stetson and Storrs were pouring out upon him; but they, as little as himself, realized that he was thus being qualified for the office of being the ruler over the Lord's household as Jesus' special representative; for that is what this anointing meant. We are to remember that David does not represent our Pastor in both of the functions of his office as that Servant; but only in one of them—as the Lord's executive in ruling as administrator and warrior-chief. Other types represent him as that Servant in his capacity of having charge of the storehouse to give the meat in due season, e.g., Jeremiah, Daniel, the twelve Apostles, etc.


(17) And, verily, the Spirit of the Lord came upon him from that day forward (v. 13). This showed itself in his administering the stewardship of the Harvest, as well as directing the controversies of that time. His faithfulness and prudence as manifestations of the Lord's Spirit are seen in the arrangements that he made for the various branches of the work at the Bible House in Allegheny and later at Bethel in Brooklyn, at the branch offices in various countries, in the public and private features of the pilgrim work and in the colporteur, volunteer, magazine, newspaper, publishing, Photo-drama and Pastoral work, including all the pertinent business and financial features of the work. The sound judgment displayed in initiating, executing and guarding this work could have come from nothing else than the Lord's Spirit. Truly, from the anointing onward the Spirit of the Lord came upon him. And as for Bros. Stetson and Storrs, who



wrought with Bro. Russell better than they had realized, a few years after their anointing antitypical David they gave up in death their ministries, the latter keeping up his publishing work until extreme age (for he was 78 when he finished his part in the anointing) and outworn powers of body and mind forced him so to do, during which interval they dwelt in the high place (Ramah) of a well developed character (v. 13). They died in 1879, faithful overcomers— true members of antitypical Samuel. Bro. Russell gave touching notices of their last days in The Tower Reprint references given above; and additionally he quoted an article from Bro. Storrs' pen, also referred to above. We have confidence that these dear brothers, whom the Lord favored with the privilege of anointing antitypical David, are now with the Lord in glory.


(18) Coincidently with the anointing of Bro. Russell and the Spirit's abiding upon him, the Spirit (v. 14) departed from antitypical Saul. And as the Spirit of the Lord ever led Bro. Russell forward in every good word and work, so an evil spirit came upon antitypical Saul, ever plunging him into deeper errors, blunders and misdeeds. The evil spirit that came over Saul is said to have been an evil spirit from the Lord. Of course, a spirit being is not here meant, either in the type or the antitype. Rather an evil disposition, which in the first instance was in both cases a disposition of sadness, melancholy, arising from a sense of God's having withdrawn His special help. Nor are we to understand that God directly wrought such a disposition in either Saul. Rather, as indicated in a general way in case of reprobates, in 2 Thes. 2: 9-11, the Lord withdrew His former hindrances to Satan's machinations, and thus let the latter have free access to both Sauls, with the result that Satan cast melancholy over both of them. That this spirit was one of melancholy—depression—appears from the contrast to it wrought by David's playing, purposely arranged for



overcoming that unhappy state of mind (so Saul was refreshed, v. 23). Saul is antityped in 1 Sam. 16 by an individual member of antitypical Saul. This individual, we believe, the facts of the case prove to be Dr. Joseph Seiss, the pastor of the (Lutheran) Church of the Holy Communion, at Philadelphia, Pa. He was certainly a very able man, a gifted preacher and a finished writer of many books. Our readers have doubtless admired an excerpt quoted in Studies, Vol. III, 374, 375, from his book entitled, A Miracle in Stone.


(19) Though a member, minister and leader of the Lutheran Church, which in its Augsburg Confession and in its authorative writers rejects the Millennium, he accepted the fact that the Bible teaches the pre-Millennial advent and Millennial reign of our Lord. In fact, it was Dr. Seiss' book on The Last Times, which advocated the pre-Millennial advent and Millennial reign of Christ, that convinced the writer of the truth of these two doctrines and thus began to shake the writer's faith in the Lutheran creed. Thus we confess a sense of indebtedness to him. But there were so many questions that Dr. Seiss' views left dark, e.g., the relation of these two doctrines to the Judgment Day as the Lutheran Church and he held it, as coming at the destruction of the universe, hence after the Millennium, according to his view, that our uncertainty on the subject left us too much in the dark to take any aggressive steps on the subjects. These obscurities were removed when we received the anointing antitypical of that of Medad (Num. 11: 26-29), and thus we were prepared to renounce the Lutheran creed, which we promptly did thereafter. While Dr. Seiss was a master of English composition and a very eloquent speaker and writer, he steadily went into greater and greater darkness. Among nominal church pre-Millennialists he is regarded as their greatest authority, but, among other works of his, in his three-volumed



work on Revelation he has involved them into the greatest pertinent absurdities. It is he who is responsible for giving the entire book a setting that places its entire fulfillment up to chapter 20 in the end of this Age; he has severed the 70th week from the 69 weeks (Dan. 9: 24-26) and put it in the end of this Age; he has set forth the man of sin as an individual who is to appear during his 70th week and in its first half conquer the world, build a literal temple in Jerusalem, install himself therein as a god, make the whole world worship him and then go to destruction at the end of his 70th week. He has done this with a surpassing eloquence that knocks the feet out from under the unwary and unstable. He is a most striking example of foolish virgins going into utter darkness.


(20) In Dr. Seiss the fulfillment of the Saul type given in vs. 14-23 took place. His unclear views on the pre-Millennial advent and Millennial reign of our Lord in relation to the Judgment Day and the (supposed.) destruction of the universe greatly troubled him. He could find no solution to his difficulties thereon and from this concluded that the Lord had forsaken him—a true conclusion so far as mouthpieceship and leadership for God's people is concerned. This greatly dejected him, a fact that his cohelpers noted (Behold now … troubleth thee, v. 15). Knowing the near cause to be that he could not solve his Scriptural difficulties, they suggested that a person be sought who could solve these, when his inability in this matter troubled him (v. 16). Such a person must be skilful in harmonizing the Scriptures (a cunning player on an harp, v. 16) and be able by his harmonizing the pertinent Scriptures to drive away Dr. Seiss' dejection by removing its (near) cause—his inability to get Scriptural harmony into the involved subjects (and thou shalt be well, v. 16). This proposition pleased Dr. Seiss (Provide me now a man, v. 17). These events occurred between 1875 and 1877, hence after Bro. Russell